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In the Philippines, Filipinos followed and still follow varying types of name systems, whether it was family name first, given name last, a mixture of a native convention and neighbor's convention (Example: Natives in Wawa (now Guagua, Pampanga) tended to mix their native surnames with Chinese surnames), "Christian name" from "surname", a convention similar to the British one: given name-middle name-family name, or the Spanish system, however, given that the Spanish system of naming was introduced before the British system, most Filipinos still follow the Spanish system to some degree.
For the most part, most Filipinos do not have middle names in the Anglo-American sense but adopted the dual first name-last name Spanish system. An example would be John Paul Reyes y Mercado becoming John Paul Mercado Reyes, shortened as John Paul M. Reyes. The y is dropped, and the mother's last name is then used as a middle name, probably to preserve the mother's maiden name. The middle name in its natural sense would have been the second name if the person had one. John Paul would simply become John Paul Reyes or John Reyes if he did not have a second name to begin with.
The construct of having several names in the middle name convention is common to all systems, but to have multiple "first" names and only one middle and last name is a result of the blending of American and Spanish naming customs. So in this case the Philippine naming custom is coincidentally identical to the Portuguese name customs.
Almost all Filipinos have Spanish or Spanish-sounding surnames imposed on them for taxing reasons (See: Alphabetical Catalogue of Surnames), and a number of them have indigenous Filipino surnames. Most members of the newer generation of Filipinos have English Christian first names, but some still have Spanish or indigenous Filipino names. Filipinos rarely use Spanish diacritic accents. Diacritic marks are almost always left out, save for the tilde on the ñ, because of the use of American standard machines. Typewriters sometimes include the ñ, but they do not include accented vowels. Computer keyboards currently and have always used the U.S. standard layout, which includes neither ñ nor combining diacritics. Spanish names, however, are vocally stressed as they would be by Spanish speakers.
Most of the newer generation have English Christian names because of the American influence. Almost all Filipinos speak English as it is required to do business, and the vast majority of advertising is in English. Derivatives are also common but have no formal indigenous sources. For example, a man named Rafael (Spanish name) would be given a Filipino nickname of Paeng, coming from a local rendering of the last two syllables of Rafael.
Governor General Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa issued a decree on 21 November 1849 which is known as the Clavería Decree which states that Filipinos should adopt Spanish surnames to make census counting easier. Some Filipinos retained their native precolonial names, especially those who were exempted from the Clavería decree such as the descendants of rulers of the Maharlika or noble class. These surnames include Lacadola, Urduja and Tupas who each descended from different Datus. They were allowed to keep the name to claim tax exemptions.
Many modern-day Chinese Filipinos have traditional last names with one syllable like Lim, Tan, and Sy. However, early Chinese Filipino families took on the complete name of their patriarch, thus their names had three syllables. These were adopted into the mainstream Filipino surnames and don't exist anywhere else in the world. Their names were transcribed using the Spanish orthography in effect during the 19th century.
Of particular interest is the convention of Chinese surnames ending in -co or -ko. That suffix is an honorific in the Chinese language retained in the surname. However, "co" by itself is also a valid surname. In general, if it is at the end it is an honorific. An example of this is Cojuangco. Their patriarch was Co Chi Kuan, who was addressed respectfully as Co Kuan Co (one given name dropped). Co Kuan Co eventually became Cojuangco to better adapt to the social norms dictated in the Spanish era.
The use of Arabic names is prominent among the Filipino Muslims. There are Islamic influence from Arabs, Persians, Malays, Indonesians, and Indian Muslims. Some names that are common in Spain from Arab influence, including Fatima, Omar, and Soraya, have both Spanish and directly Arabic sources in the Philippines.
Filipinos tend to be the only people with middle names and surnames derived from Chinese, Spanish, or Philippine roots combined with Spanish or English given names (can be more than one). Some typical combinations are: "María Bernadette de los Reyes Cuyegkeng," "Iván Theophilo R. Ho," "George Bernard T. Cho III," "Hillary P. Dimagiba," "Jimson Ricardo Chadwick Uy Cuenco Jr." "Irish Diamond Fuentes Amoroso," and so on (these examples are fictional). A few names also derive from Tagalog and other Philippine languages but these are not common: "Bayani" (hero), "Luningning" (brightness/sheen), "Dakila" (great), "Kalayaan" (freedom), "Isagani" (unknown meaning).
The Spanish surname category provides the most common surnames in the Philippines. These include Mendoza, García, (de la) Cruz, (de los) Reyes, (de los) Santos, González/Gonzales, Torres and López.
- 1 Autochthonous surnames
- 2 Franco-Iberian surnames
- 3 Filipino-Japanese surnames
- 4 Anglo-American English surnames
- 5 German surnames
- 6 Surnames of Filipino Muslims
- 7 Other Filipino Surnames of Foreign Origins
- 8 Altered Spanish and foreign surnames
- 9 Other altered and combined surnames
- 10 Maternal middle names and Paternal family surnames
- 11 Married and maiden names
- 12 Given names, Aliases, and Monikers
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
These are some non-Hispanic surnames unique to the native naming convention. Some surnames have a literal meaning in Philippine languages while others are derived from immigrants altering their names to conform to the colonial Spanish nomenclature.
Surnames of Hindu Indian-Malayan and Indonesian influence/culture
Note: This is not a complete list
- Ancatan (from Malay force; colloquial with surname "(la) Fuerza")
- Bahandi (from Visayan treasure)
- Bansagnon (from Visayan)
- Diwata/Diuata - "deity"
- Gallora - a Hispanized form of Garuda
- Galura (derived from Sanskrit Garuda)
- Lakan/Lacan (from a Tagalog nobility title)
- Laksina (from Sanskrit Dakshina; south,southern)
- Laxamana (derived from Lakshmana in the epic Ramayana, today it is a Malay military rank equivalent to Admiral)
- Magbanua (from Visayan to settle)
- Magat (from Malaysian title megat)
- Mutya/Mutia (from Tagalog pearl)
- Palad (from Tagalog fate)
- Salalila (fron Sanskrit Śarīra)
- Sampulna (from Sanskrit Sampurna)
- Tala (from Sanskrit tara ''star'')
Surnames of Chinese origin
The list are surnames of Chinese people living in the Philippines, primarily in the old Chinatown Binondo, Manila. See above note on -co and -ko honorific ending. Note: This is not a complete list.
- Note: This is not a complete list of surnames. Some are not listed here.
The vast majority of Filipinos have Spanish, Basque, French, Portuguese, Catalan and Galician surnames, but such surnames does not indicate Iberian ancestry. But some of the Filipinos are direct descendants or descendants of mestizos. These type of surnames are patristic, Christian, or words from Spanish or other Franco-Iberian languages . Examples of surnames are
Prefix "de-", "de la-" and "del-" are:
- de las Alas
- de Asis
- del Blanco
- del Carmen
- de Castro
- del Castillo
- de la Cerna
- de la Cruz
- de Dios
- de la Fuente
- de Gala
- de Galicia
- de Guía
- de Guzmán
- de León
- de Mesa
- del Mundo
- de la Paz
- de la Peña
- de los Reyes
- de Rosas
- del Rosario
- de la Rama
- de la Rosa
- de la Torre
- del Valle
- de la Vega
- de Villa
Spanish names and saints used as surnames
- Note: This is not a complete list of names. Some are listed above (under Spanish surnames).
Some Filipinos use Spanish names and names of saints as their surnames.
Regions of European countries as surnames
Filipinos also bears Hispanized translations of the names of regions, states and provinces of countries and small sovereign entities of Europe. Here are:
- Aragon - Autonomus Community of Aragon
- Baleares - Balearic Islands
- Baviera - Free State of Bavaria
- Belgica - Belgium
- del Castillo - from Castile, a historical region of Spain
- Cataluña - Catalonia
- Cerdeña - Sardinia
- Córcega - Corsica Island, France
- Galicia - Galicia
- Ginebra - Canton of Geneva
- Granada - Province of Granada, Spain
- Lacio - Lazio
- de León - Province of León
- Lorena - Lorraine
- Madrid - Madrid
- Navarro - Navarre
- de Murcia - Region of Murcia, Spain
- Piamonte - Piedmont
- Sajonia - Free State of Saxony
- Sarre - State of Saarland
- Torino - Turin
- Note: This is not a complete list of Basque Surnames. Some are listed above (under Spanish surnames).
Some Filipinos bears Basque-originated surnames, either they are Basque-Filipino mestizos, Basques living in the Philippines, or just using.
- Aransazó (from Arantzazu)
- Gozón (from Gotzon)
- Ibarra (from Eibarramendia)
- Íñiguez (from Iñigo, Enneko)
- Navarro (Sephardic Basque)
- Ochoa (colloquial with Lopez)
- Oreta (from Ureta)
- Verano 
- Vidanes (from Bidane)
- Note: This is not a complete list of Catalan Surnames. Some are listed above (under Spanish surnames).
Some Catalan surnames were recorded. Here are:
- Ferrando (from Ferrand)
- Note: This is not a complete list of French Surnames, though this may also fall under European Surnames or Spanish surnames above.
Here are the following:
- Cuchapin (a hispanization of Couchepin)
- D'ayot (also spelled as Dayot)
- Gallardo (a hispanization of Gaillard)
- Palomár (a hispanization of Palomer)
- Pariente (a hispanization of Parent)
- Pietán (a hispanization of Pétain)
- Note: This is not a complete list of Galician Surnames. Some are listed above (under Spanish surnames).
Filipinos also bears Galician surnames:
- Ares (Arias)
- Hernáez (Galician variation of Hernández)
- Paez - used by some Cebuanos (Peláez)
- Vázquez (Velázquez)
Portuguese or Portuguese-originated Surnames
The Portuguese were among one of the earliest explorers of the Philippines, even before Ferdinand Magellan (who himself was also a Portuguese, working for Spain), one of their earliest discoveries was the former Kingdom of Luzon (now the Province of Pampanga).
- Abreo (from Abreu)
- Acebedo or Acevedo (from Azevedo and acevinho, i.e. holly wood)
- Almeda (from Almeida)
- Andrada or Andrade
- Braganza (from Bragança)
- Cabral (Cabrales in Spanish)
- Castro (de Castro in Spanish)
- Cordero (a Spanish variation, from Cordeiro)
- Guvea (from Gouveia)
- Lisbon (from Lisboa)
- Noguiera (a Spanish variation, form Noguieira)
- Sazon (Jewish origin, Portuguese Saçom)
- Silva (Latin origin: Portugal, Brazil, Italy & Spain. Most common surname in Portugal. )
- Soza (from Souza)
- Tejero (a Spanish variation, from Texeira)
Some Filipinos bear Japanese surnames. They most likely indicate Japanese ancestry either from the many Japanese who settled during pre-colonial Philippines when it was separated among different nations(Kingdoms, Rajahnates, Sultanates, Tribes, etc.) or more recently from WWII. During Macapagal and Marcos administrations, only few Japanese Filipinos have entered military services and this was very limited. These people in military service during that time are descendants of World War II Japanese soldiers who were captured, pardoned and settled in the Philippines and married Filipino women. Today, some Japanese immigrants living in the Philippines are Nisei, Sansei, Yonsei, and/or Gosei; however, these generations are not categorized (unlike in U.S. and Brazil, and other countries where generations of Japanese immigrants are categorized).
Anglo-American English surnames
These are the surnames of Filipinos of British and/or American parentage, as these surnames are both shared by the Americans and the British. But much of the Filipinos bearing these surnames were more descended from their American fathers.
A number of Filipino-Germans bearing these surnames:
- von Giese
Surnames of Filipino Muslims
- Note: Not a complete list
These are the surnames borne by Filipino Muslims (Maranaos, Maguindanaos, Tausugs, Iranuns, and others):
Other Filipino Surnames of Foreign Origins
- Amaranto(Greek αμάραντος - "amaranth" or "unfading")
- Ambrosio (Italian "Of the Immortals"),
- Babia (Spanish/Mexican/Slovak Babje )
- Barceló (Portuguese "Barcelos")
- Bonnevie(French Bonne Vie or "good life")
- Castiglione (Italian - "Castille" / "castle")
- Chowdhary (Indian चौधरी, caudhari)
- Gabor (Hungarian. Hungarians usually have this as their given name.)
- Godinez (Hispanized, derived from Russian surname Godunov, Годунов)
- Jaworski (Polish)
- Kehanu (Hawaiian "breeze over the mountains", sometimes akin to "Quijáno")
- Mancebo (Portuguese/Spanish "youth" or "boy")
- Marfori (Italian Marforri)
- Malferari (Italian Malferarri)
- Monfort (American/British "Mountfort")
- Mortiz (Spanish or Latin, root word "muerte" or "mort", respectively which means "death")
- Noga (Slavic nations and Polynesian nations)
- Pabelic (Croatian Pavelić, Павелић)
- Pacheco (Portuguese)
- Parma (Italian, indirect family branch)
- Paza (Iberian, Ottoman Turkish "Paşa")
- Piccio (Italian)
- Portogalera (Portuguese/Spanish- [Puertogalera] - "galley harbor/port")
- Quibranza (Mexican)
- Raj (Indian राज्य - "Kingdom")
- Ranido (Spanish)
- Roxas/Rojas (Mexican Spanish - "red/s")
- Ruais (French)
- Saltat (Latin "dance")
- Somero or Someroux (French)
- Santander (Spanish)
- Singh (Indian सिंह - "lion")
- Subido (Spanish, which means "improved")
- Tasic (Serbian and Croatian Tasić, Tасић)
- Vacalares (Portuguese - root word "va" and "calar" which means "will silence/kill")
- Vedano(Italian/Portuguese - "see")
- Zhornack (Polish)
Altered Spanish and foreign surnames
These surnames were altered as time changed, Filpino Americans and other Filipinos having half of their foreign sanguinity in the Philippines altered their names to look and sound it Spanish-derived, to conform in Spanish naming convention, or for no reason.
- Alcabasa (Spanish "El cabeza")
- Malferari (Italian Malferarri)
- Marfori (Italian Marforri)
- Monfort (American/British "Mountfort")
- Nery (from Neri, Anglicized)
- Galorport (from Portogalera or English Galore Port)
- Gituaban (Spanish Getuavan)
- Pemonte (from Italian or Spanish Piemonte)
Other altered and combined surnames
- Englis (although its "English", they remove the 'H' from it for no reason. But the derivation was of Spanish "Inglés" so some said that they reshuffled the spelling)
- Golis (Spanish, Golez)
- Gomis (Spanish, Gomez)
- Ranis (origin unknown, probably Spanish Ranez)
- Sendaydiego (a combination of Japanese Sendai 仙台 and Spanish Diego)
- Valmorida (a combination from Japanese Morita 森田 and Spanish word "valle" - "valley")
- Wahiman (originally Ojiman/Ohiman. They altered the spelling to separate themselves from their relatives of same name because they are not well-accepted in their clan due to social status.)
Maternal middle names and Paternal family surnames
Christians (as well as certain Muslims, Chinese Filipinos, and others) in the Philippines formerly followed naming patterns practiced throughout the Spanish-speaking world (the practice of having the father's surname followed by the mother's surname, the two being connected by the particle "y", which means "and", such as Juan Agbayani y López). If the second surname starts with i, y, hi or hy, the particle becomes e, following Spanish rules of euphony, as in Eduardo Dato e Iradier.
However, this practice changed when the Philippines became a United States colony in the early half of the 20th century. The order was reversed to follow the conventional American form "Christian name-Middle name-Surname," which in this case is actually "Christian name-Mother's surname-Father's surname" (Juan López Agbayani or simply Juan L. Agbayani). The conjunction y was dropped, although it is still used in certain contexts today (most notably in criminal records).
Currently, the middle name is usually, though not always, the mother's maiden name (followed by the last name which is the father's surname). This is the opposite of what is done in Spanish-speaking countries and is similar to the way surnames are done in Portugal and Brazil. The blending of American and Spanish naming customs results in the way Filipinos write their names today.
Furthermore, application forms for various Philippine government documents define the first name as the "Christian name(s)," the middle name as the "mother's maiden surname" (this becomes the basis for the middle initial), and the surname as the "father's surname."
Bearing the mother's maiden surname as a the middle name or middle initial is more important to a majority of Filipinos than to use one of the given names as a middle name or middle initial. Filipino culture usually allocates equal value to the lineage from both mother and father except in some prominent families who practice a strictly patriarchal system (usually of Spanish or Chinese heritage).
Exceptions apply in the case of children with single parents. Children born out of wedlock are registered under the mother's maiden name (if still unmarried), applying her middle name (maternal surname) and current surname (paternal surname) for the child's middle name and last name, respectively. The unmarried father must resort to legal and administrative procedures if he desires to acknowledge the child as his own and for the child to be registered with his own surname (in which case the child will use the mother's surname as his/her middle name).
Married and maiden names
When a woman marries, she usually adopts the surname of her husband and uses her father's surname (her maiden surname) as her middle name and drops her mother's maiden name (her former middle name). Some women may decline to adopt their husband's surname and continue to use their maiden names for professional or personal reasons.
- When a woman whose full maiden name is Mara Hautea Schnittka (where her given name is "Mara", mother's maiden surname is "Hautea", and father's surname is "Schnittka"; this is normally shortened to "Mara H. Schnittka") marries a man by the name of Andrés Miguel Cojuangco, her full name becomes Mara Schnittka Cojuangco (shortened to "Mara S. Cojuangco").
- For the sake of brevity, she would be usually known at the very least as Mara Cojuangco; her maiden name is usually not mentioned or it may simply be abbreviated as an initial (Mara S. Cojuangco). In many cases, her maiden name may be mentioned.
- All children from this marriage will automatically have "Schnittka" as their middle name and "Cojuangco" as their last name, but they may have any number of first/given names as the parents wish (usually one to three).
- Their child, "Rafael Dominic", will have a full name of Rafael Dominic Schnittka Cojuangco shortened to Rafael Dominic S. Cojuangco when using initials. "Rafael Dominic S. Cojuangco" will be the preferred way of rendering the name. Depending on family or personal preference, the child may use either "Rafael" or "Dominic" as his primary given name.
- If for space constraints, the aforementioned Rafael Dominic S. Cojuangco cannot use this preferred way of writing his name, he would most likely choose to write his name as "Rafael S. Cojuangco" or "Rafael D. S. Cojuangco" (keeping the mother's maiden name) instead of just "Rafael D. Cojuangco " (the generally American custom).
Until the middle of the 20th century, it was common for married Filipino women to insert the particle "de" ("of") between her maiden surname and husband's surname (as in Mara Schnittka de Cojuangco or Mara S. de Cojuangco), another common Spanish naming custom. However, this practice is no longer common.
Married Filipino women who are professionals may choose to hyphenate their surnames (such as "Mara Schnittka-Cojuangco," instead of simply "Mara Cojuangco" or "Mara S. Cojuangco"), at least in professional use, and use it socially even if legal documents follow the above naming pattern. This practice allows others to identify them after their marriage and helps others keep track of their professional achievements; otherwise, her unmarried and married names would seem to refer to two different persons ("Mara Hautea Schnittka" as compared to "Mara Schnittka Cojuangco").
Given names, Aliases, and Monikers
Filipinos may have one or more official given names (as registered in their birth certificates and baptismal certificates) and various types of temporary or permanent nicknames. Filipinos have a penchant for giving themselves or each other various sorts of nicknames and monikers. Some nicknames are carried for life while others are used only with certain groups so a person can have multiple nicknames at different ages or among different groups of people.
Filipino women with two given names such as Maria Cristina or Maria Victoria may choose to abbreviate the very common Maria as Mª. (with a full stop), thus rendering these given names as Mª. Cristina or Mª. Victoria. Filipino males with two given names such as José Mariano or José Gerardo could follow the same practice of abbreviating Josés' as Jo. but this is not as consistent.
The variety of Filipino names, some of them with negative connotations in Anglicised form, often take foreigners by surprise (see Playful Filipino names hard to get used to by Kate McGeown, BBC News ). Most Filipinos don't notice any negative English connotations, however, unless somebody points it out.
Many Filipino celebrities and high-status personalities, such as actors and politicians, don't mind having such types of nicknames; in fact, their nicknames are often more well-known than their actual given names. Movie and TV celebrity German Moreno doesn't mind using the nickname Kuya Germs (kuya = elder brother). National Artist of the Philippines for Fashion Design, José Pitoy Moreno, would never be recognized anywhere under his official given name, but so far, he is the only prominent Pitoy in the world.
People with the same name as their father are registered as Junior (abbreviated to Jr.) or numbered with Roman numerals (III, IV, V, etc.); their father adds Senior (Sr.) after his surname (i.e., Renato Reyes Ramos Sr. is the father of the brothers Renato Javier Ramos Jr. and Renato Javier Ramos III). Inevitably, the younger person tends to be nicknamed Junior or Jun permanently. One person's nickname became Third because his full name was Roberto Unson Ramos III (this is a fictional name for example purposes). Thus a family will necessarily bestow a variety of unofficial nicknames to distinguished the various people having with nearly identical official given names (e.g., Roberto Ramos Sr., Roberto Ramos Jr., Roberto Ramos III, Roberto Ramos IV, etc.).
The names of children in some families may follow a certain pattern, such as beginning with a certain letter of the alphabet, e.g. Diego Arnel, Diamond Amelia, Danford Arman, Dolores Allison, such that all their initials will be the same, i.e., DAZL if the middle name is Zulueta and the surname is Lim. One group of siblings was named after countries (Arabia, Australia, Aruba, Albania) while another was named after car trademarks (Ford, Mercedes, Bentley, Maserati). Other names seemed to have been taken from popular brand names, food, fruits, and flowers: Ramcar, Cherry Pie, Apple, Peachy, Pepsi, Brandy. World Champion boxer Manny Pacquiao named his two daughters Queen Elizabeth and Princess while his wife is named Jinky. Philippine Senator Joker Arroyo (his real given name) has a brother named Jack.
Many nicknames are bestowed by parents or other elders on children while they are still toddlers. Examples are the numerous Boy, Toto/Totoy (young boy), Girlie, Nene (young girl), Baby and similar types of pet names given to people who received them as kids and carried them into adult life and seniority. They've carried the nickname all their lives and see no incongruity in being called Boy or Baby even when in their sixth decade. Some are diminutives of the actual name, such as Pepito for Pepe, Juanito for Juan (or the English form Johnny for John), and Nenita for Nena. Thus, a person used to being called Joselito (Little Joseph) as a child may retain the nickname as an adult even if he could already be called Jose or Joseph.
The aforementioned Rafael Dominic C. Agbayani may be given an unofficial nickname such as Paeng, Domeng, Raffy, Nick, or Ranic that he could later change or keep for life.
A common Filipino practice (rarely seen in other cultures) is to further shorten or combine multiple given names into one nickname. The young ladies named Maria Cristina and Maria Victoria may thus acquire the nicknames Maricris and Marivic. Thus the Filipino names Maricel, Maritoni, Marijo, Maritess, and Maricon come from Maria Celia (or Celeste), Marie Antoinette, María Josefa (or Josefina), María Teresa, and María Concepción (or Consolación). The popular male nicknames Joma, Jomar, and Jomari are derived from concatenating José Mariano. Jestoni was derived from Jesús Antonio.
These types of nicknames have become so common that they have also been registered as a child's official given name by the parents (e.g., Maricris Llamador Gunigundo or Maricris Ll. Gunigundo).
Sometimes this practice is used to create a totally new official given name that never existed before. Vice-President Jejomar Binay's given name is a combination of Jesus-Joseph-Mary. A former senator's first name was Heherson, derived from He-Her-Son (referring to Jesus). The unique female names Luzviminda and Minvilu come from concatenating the name of the three main island groups Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The child Sidperl got his name when his parents combined their given names Isidro and Perlita. Someone was also named Lucifer by the parents because their given names were Lucy and Fernando. Some first names like Lodegrano or Lorimer may have been invented on the spot by the parents or be derived some partially remembered foreign word.
The Filipino given name Dranreb was invented by reversing the spelling of the English name Bernard. Don't be surprised when a Filipino calling himself Nosrac actually turns out be officially named Carson. Former President Joseph Ejército Estrada Jr. started his career as a movie actor and received his nickname Erap as an adult; it comes from Pare spelled backwards (from Spanish compadre for fellow godparent) but now means mate or buddy in Filipino.
Long given names can be shortened in various ways. Emmanuel can become Eman, Manuel, Manolo, Manny, or Manoy. Consolación has been converted to Connie, Cons, Sol, or Chona.
Another pattern is to Anglicize a Spanish given name. Thus José Roberto becomes Joseph Robert (shortened to Joebert). Eduardo becomes Edward and then Eddie or Eddieboy (sometimes further shortened to Daboy). Consolación becomes Connie; Corazon becomes Cora or Cory; Teresita or Teresa becomes Tere, Tessa, or Tessie; and Gracia becomes Grace.
A different pattern is to replace or insert Filipino phonemes into a Spanish or English name: Mariano becomes Nano, Edwin becomes Aweng, Eduardo becomes Dwarding, Roberto becomes Berting, Ponciano becomes either Popoy, Onse, or Syano. Sometimes there is a tendency to convert a grand-sounding given name into something very ordinary, such as when John Paul becomes JayPee, Peter John becomes Peejong, Anthony becomes Tonyo, Ronald becomes Onad, María Elena becomes Ineng or Inyang, or Ambrosia becomes Brosya.
Certain names like these have uncertain origin, or perhaps a purely native origin: Bang, Beng, Bing, Ding, Ging, Ting, Ming, Ping, Pepeng, Leng, Weng, Eng, Yengyeng, Bong, Dong, Pong, Tintin, Tingting, Tonton, Bingbing, Bingbong, Bongbong, Dingdong, Popong, Kiko, Kokoy, Kikay, Kitkit, Dada, Jaja, Jamjam, Jonjon, Jigjig, Jojo, Cheche, Chong, Choy, Doy, Loy, Ninoy, Noynoy, Nonong, Toying, Toyang, Yoyoy, Vicvic, Taktak, Bokbok, Micmac and many more.
Some Filipinos use creative spelling to further distinguish themselves, such as by adding the letter h or changing b to v to convert the commonplace Boy to the distinctive Vhoy. Thus you'll see some creative spellings like Jhim, Bhess, or Jhun/Juhn. Filipinos with repetitive nicknames like Bingbing, Tintin, or Jamjam now also further shorten their nicknames by putting a numeral 2 after the first syllable, as if it had an exponent (Bingbing becomes Bing-squared): Bing2, Tin2, and Jam2.
Another Filipino practice is to use honorific titles in place of a person's actual name. Thus the titles for family elders are often used by the younger persons and then adopted by the wider community: Apo and Lolo (grandfather) and Lola (grandmother) are used for senior elders; Tatay/Itay/Ama (father) or Tito/Tio/Tiong (uncle) and Nanay/Inay/Ina (mother) or Tita/Tia/Tiang for middle-aged elders; Manong or Kuya (elder brother) and Manang or Ate (elder sister) for anyone slightly older than the person speaking.
People in the community are often addressed by their military or police rank, professional titles or job descriptions, either with or without their names. Attorney, Engineer, Dok/Doctor, Direk/Director, Manager, Bisor (supervisor), Boss, Tsip/Chief, are used in the same way as Mister, Miss, Ms., or Mrs. especially when the addressee's name is not yet known by the speaker. This is often done as a sign of respect and in order to avoid giving offense.
- Catálogo Alfabético de Apellidos, book of surnames distributed by decree to Filipinos
- "List of some surnames in the Philippines". Archived from the original on 2009-10-25.
- Co Yu Hwan emigrated to Tarlac, the Philippines in 1861 from Hongjian Village, Tongan Province, China) is found among online sources tracing ancestry of elite Cojuangco family to that name; Co Chi Kwan is listed in the introduction to this article, possibly the same person. Both may be connected with the Cuajunco/Cuajungco name, but this too is unattested.
- Verano family ancestry
- Philippine Given Names A list of typically Philippine given names and hit-parades of the most popular names
- Catalog of Filipino Names by Hector Santos Filipino names still used even after the Clavería edict
- Popular names given to Filipino babies Traditional names given by parents today
- Playful Filipino names hard to get used to, Kate McGeown, BBC News, 27 March 2011.