Ranjit Singh

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Maharaja Ranjit Singh
ਰਣਜੀਤ ਸਿੰਘ
Maharaja of Punjab
Sher-e-Punjab (Lion of Punjab)
Maharaja of Lahore
Sarkar Khalsaji (Head of State)
Lord of Five Rivers
Ranjit Singh, ca 1835 - 1840.jpg
Maharaja Ranjit Singh
Reign 12 April 1801 – 27 June 1839
Investiture 12 April 1801
Successor Kharak Singh
Father Maha Singh
Mother Raj Kaur
Born 13 November 1780[1]
Gujranwala, Sukerchakia Misl (present-day Pakistan)
Died 27 June 1839
Lahore, Punjab, Sikh Empire (present-day Pakistan)
Burial Cremated remains stored in the Samadhi of Ranjit Singh in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Religion Sikhism

Maharaja Ranjit Singh (13 November 1780 – 27 June 1839)[2][3] was the founder of the Sikh Empire, which came to power in the Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century. The empire, based in the Punjab region, existed from 1799 to 1849. It was forged, on the foundations of the Dal Khalsa, under the leadership of Ranjit Singh from a collection of autonomous Sikh Misls.[4][5] Ranjit Singh was succeeded by his son, Kharak Singh.

Biography[edit]

Early life[edit]

Ranjit Singh was born to Maha Singh and Raj Kaur on 13 November 1780, in Gujranwala, Punjab.[6][7] At first he was named Buddh Singh, but Maha Singh received the news of his son's birth on his return from a victorious battle against the Chattar chief, Pir Muhammad, and renamed his son Ranjit (Victor in War).[3] Historians have mixed views as to his family origins; while some assert he was born into a Jat Sikh family,[8] others claim that he was born into a Sansi Sikh family[7][9]

As a child he suffered from smallpox which resulted in the loss of one eye. At the time, much of Punjab was ruled by the Sikhs under a Confederate Sarbat Khalsa system, who had divided the territory among factions known as misls. Ranjit Singh's father Maha Singh was the Commander of the Sukerchakia Misl and controlled a territory in the west Punjab based around his headquarters at Gujranwala. After his father's death, Ranjit Singh was raised under the protection of his mother Raj Kaur, and his mother-in-law Sada Kaur.[10]

In 1799, Ranjit Singh captured Lahore from the Bhangi Misl and later made it his capital.[5] This was the first important step in his rise to power. In the following years he brought the whole of the central Punjab from the Sutlej to the Jhelum under his sway. After several campaigns, he conquered the other misls and created the Sikh Empire.

Sons[edit]

Maharaja Ranjit Singh's family genealogy

Ranjit Singh had eight sons: Kharak Singh; Ishar Singh, who died at the age of two; the twins Tara Singh and Sher Singh; Multana Singh; Kashmira Singh; Pashaura Singh; and Duleep Singh.[11] Ranjit Singh acknowledged only Kharak Singh and Duleep Singh as his biological sons[12][13] However, the other sons of his wives are by convention his sons.

In an attempt to reconcile warring factions, Mahitab Kaur, the daughter of Gurbakhsh Siṅgh Kanhaiyā and Sadā Kaur, was betrothed to Ranjit Singh, and the marriage took place with considerable acclaim in 1796 . However, Mahitab Kaur could not forget that her father had been killed by Ranjit Singh's father and the couple separated. The break became complete when Ranjit Singh married Raj Kaur of Nakai Misl in 1798.[14] Mahitab Kaur gave birth to three sons: Ishar Singh in 1802, and Tara Singh and Sher Singh on 4 December 1807.

Raj Kaur (renamed Datar Kaur), the daughter of Sardar Ran Singh Nakai, the third ruler of Nakai Misl, was Ranjit Singh's second wife and the mother of his heir, Kharak Singh. She changed her name from Raj Kaur to avoid confusion with Ranjit Singh's mother. Throughout her life she remained the favourite of Ranjit Singh who called her Mai Nakain.[15]

Ratan Kaur and Daya Kaur were wives of Sahib Singh Bhangi of Gujrat. After Sahib Singh's death, Ranjit Singh took them under his protection in 1811 by marrying them by the rite of chādar andāzī, in which a cloth sheet was unfurled over each of their heads. Ratan Kaur gave birth to Multana Singh in 1819, and Daya Kaur gave birth to Kashmira Singh in 1819 and to Pashaura Singh in 1821.[16]

Jind Kaur was the last wife of Ranjit Singh. Her father, Manna Singh Aulakh, extolled her virtues to Ranjit Singh, who was concerned about the frail health of his only heir, Kharak Singh. Manna Singh assured Ranjit Singh that his daughter would make the Maharaja feel young again, and the Maharaja married her in 1835 by 'sending his arrow and sword to her village'. On 6 September 1838 she gave birth to Duleep Singh, who became the last Maharaja of the Sikh Empire.[17]

Invasions and conquests[edit]

Hari Singh Nalwa was the Commander-in-chief of the Khalsa, the army of the Sikh Empire
Runjit Singh and his Suwarree

Ranjit Singh's earliest invasions as a young misldar (baron) were effected by defeating his coreligionists, the heads of other Sikh Sardaris (popularly known as the Misls). By the end of his reign, however, he had conquered vast tracts of territory strategically juxtaposed between the limits of British India to the East and the Durrani Empire to the West.

On 7 July 1799, Ranjit Singh became master of Lahore. He then rapidly annexed the rest of the Punjab, the land of the five rivers. Having accomplished this, he extended his empire further north and west to include the Kashmir mountains and other Himalayan kingdoms, the Sind Sagar Doab, the Pothohar Plateau and trans-Indus regions right up to the foothills of the Sulaiman Mountains.

Entrance to Kangra Fort through Ranjit Singh Gate

In 1802 Ranjit Singh took Amritsar from the Bhangi Sardari and followed this in 1807, after a month of fierce fighting, with the conquest of Kasur from the Afghan chief Qutb ud-Din.[3] With the capture of Multan in 1818 the whole Bari Doab came under his sway and in 1819 Ranjit Singh successfully annexed Kashmir. This was followed by subduing the Kashmir mountains, west of the river Jhelum (today, Hazara in Pakistan and Pakistan administered Kashmir).[3]

The most significant encounters between the Sarkar Khalsaji and the Afghans were fought in 1813, 1823, 1834 and in 1837. In 1813, Ranjit Singh's general Dewan Mokham Chand led the Sikh forces against the Afghan forces of Shah Mahmud who were led by Dost Mohammad Khan. Following this encounter, the Afghans lost their stronghold at Attock. Subsequently, the Pothohar plateau, the Sindh Sagar Doab and Kashmir came under Sikh rule. In 1823, Ranjit Singh defeated a large army of Yusufzai tribesmen north of the Kabul River in what is now Pakistan, while the presence of his Sikh General, Hari Singh Nalwa prevented the entire Afghan army from crossing this river and going to the aid of the Yusafzais at Nowshera. This defeat led to the gradual loss of Afghan power in present-day Pakistan. In 1834, when the forces of the Sarkar Khalsaji marched into Peshawar, the ruling Barakzais retreated without offering a fight.[18] In April 1837, the real power of Maharaja Ranjit Singh came to the fore when his commander-in-chief, Hari Singh Nalwa, kept the entire army of Amir Dost Mohammad Khan at bay, with a handful of forces till reinforcements arrived from Lahore over a month after they were requisitioned.[citation needed] The Battle of Jamrud in 1837 became the last confrontation between the Sikhs and the Afghans. Hari Singh Nalwa was killed while the Afghans retreated to Kabul to deal with the Persian invasion on its western border in Herat and internal fighting between various princes. Khalsa Sarkar Wazir Jawahar Singh nominated Sardar Gurmukh Singh Lamba as political-cum-military adviser to safeguard the gains of Khalsa Sarkar.

Role in Sikh history[edit]

Process of unification[edit]

In 1799, a process of unification was started by Ranjit Singh to establish a empire.[5] The occupation of Lahore from Bhangi Misl in the summer of 1799 marked a watershed in his career.[19] With the conquest of Lahore Ranjit Singh was fairly launched on a career of systematic aggrandisement which made him master of a vast empire in less than quarter of a century.[5]

Ranjit Singh was invested on 12 April 1801 as the Maharaja of Punjab. He was 20 years old at the time. Sahib Singh Bedi, a descendant of Guru Nanak, conducted the investiture.[20] He reduced many neighbouring states to tributary status and gradually established his control over all the Sikh Misl's west of the Satluj.

He spent the following years fighting the Durrani rulers of Afghanistan. After driving them out of Punjab, Ranjit Singh and his Sikh army then invaded ethnic Pashtun territories in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. He captured Multan which encompassed the southern parts of Punjab, Peshawar (1818), Jammu (1812–13) and Kashmir (1819).[21]

When the foreign minister of Ranjit Singh's court, Fakir Azizuddin, met the British Governor-General of India, Lord Auckland, in Simla, Auckland asked Fakir Azizuddin which of the Maharaja's eyes was missing, Azizuddin replied: "The Maharaja is like the sun and sun has only one eye. The splendor and luminosity of his single eye is so much that I have never dared to look at his other eye." The Governor General was so pleased with this reply that he gave his gold watch to Azizuddin.[citation needed]

Geography of the Sikh Empire[edit]

Ranjit Singh's Empire

The Sikh Empire was also known as Punjab, the Sikh Raj, and Sarkar Khalsaji,[citation needed] was a region straddling the border into modern-day People's Republic of China and Islamic Republic of Afghanistan then popularly referred to as the Kingdom of Cabul.[22] The name of the region "Punjab" or "Panjab", comprises two words "Punj/Panj" and "Ab", translating to "five" and "water" in Persian. When put together this gives a name meaning "the land of the five rivers", coined due to the five rivers that run through the Punjab. Those "Five Rivers" are Beas, Ravi, Sutlej, Chenab and Jhelum, all tributaries of the river Indus, home to the Indus Valley Civilization that perished 3000 years ago. Punjab has a long history and rich cultural heritage. The people of the Punjab are called Punjabis and they speak a language called Punjabi. The following modern day political divisions made up the historical Sikh Empire:

Secular Sikh rule[edit]

Maharaja Ranjit Singh's throne, c. 1820–1830, Hafiz Muhammad Multani, now at V & A Museum

The Sikh Empire was idiosyncratic in that it allowed men from religions other than their own to rise to commanding positions of authority.[29] The Christians formed a part of the militia of the Sikhs.[citation needed] In 1831, Ranjit Singh deputed his mission to Simla to confer with the British Governor General, Lord William Bentinck. Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa, Fakir Aziz-ud-din and Diwan Moti Ram ― a Sikh, a Muslim and a Hindu representative ― were nominated at its head.

Externally, everyone in the Sikh empire looked alike; they sported a beard and covered their head, predominantly with a turban. This left visitors to the Punjab region quite confused. Most foreigners arrived there after a passage through Hindustan, where religious and caste distinctions were very carefully observed. It was difficult for them to believe that though everyone in the Sarkar Khalsaji looked similar, they were not all Sikhs. The Sikhs were generally not known to force either those in their employ or the inhabitants of the country they ruled to convert to Sikhism. In fact, men of piety from all religions were equally respected by the Sikhs and their ruler. Hindu sadhus, yogis, saints and bairagis; Muslim faqirs and pirs; and Christian priests were all the recipients of Sikh largess. There was only one exception – the Sikhs viewed the Muslim clergy with suspicion. Mullahs were not looked upon kindly.

The Sikhs made attempt not to offend the prejudices of Muslims, noted Baron von Hügel, the famous German traveller,[30] yet the Sikhs were referred to as being harsh. In this regard, Masson's explanation is perhaps the most pertinent:

"Though compared to the Afghans, the Sikhs were mild and exerted a protecting influence, yet no advantages could compensate to their Mohammedan subjects, the idea of subjection to infidels, and the prohibition to slay kine, and to repeat the azan, or "summons to prayer".[31]

Hinduism emphasises the sanctity of cows,.[32] The ban on cow slaughter was universally imposed in the Sarkar Khalsaji.[33]

The Sikhs never razed places of worship to the ground belonging to the enemy. The Sikhs were utilitarian in their approach. Marble plaques removed from Jahangir's tomb at Shahdera were used to embellish the Baradari inside the Fort of Lahore, while the mosques were left intact. Forts were destroyed, however these too were often rebuilt ― the best example being the Bala Hissar in Peshawar, which was destroyed by the Sikhs in 1823[citation needed] and rebuilt by them in 1834.[34]

Ranjit Singh's Empire was secular, none of the subjects were discriminated against on account of their religions.[35] He did not force Sikhism on non-Sikhs and respected all religions.[36]

Darbar of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

Army of the Sikh Empire under Ranjit Singh[edit]

Jean-François Allard became a General in the army of Ranjit Singh.
Alexander Gardner was a soldier in Ranjit Singh's army

Army of Sikh Empire, a formidable military machine that helped the Ranjit Singh carve out an extensive kingdom and maintain it amid hostile and ambitious neighbours. All of Ranjit Singh's conquests were achieved by Punjabi armies composed of mostly Sikhs, Muslims, and Hindus. His commanders were also drawn from different religious communities, as were his cabinet ministers.[36]

Reforms[edit]

Main article: Fauj-i-Khas

Ranjit Singh decided to intensify the training and organise his army. The reorganisation carried out at Amritsar gave a clearer picture of the forces available and fixed the responsibility for putting them into field. Once the responsibility has been fixed Ranjit Singh set most exacting standards of efficiency in march, manoeuvre, and marksmanship.[36] He was keen on adopting European methods, but never completely wanted to discard the system which he had inherited from his forefathers. The military system of Ranjit Singh as it finally evolved, was a blend of best of both, the old and the new ideas The Fauj-i-Khas was commanded by his distinguished generals like sardar Hari Singh Nalwa Sardar Gurmukh Singh Lamba and Sardar Sham Singh Attariwala and two non-Sikhs the Mulraj Derah and Dogra Derah. Att.[37]

Ranjit Singh's generals[edit]

The main generals included:

Among his European Mercenary Generals were:

Americans of note:

Gurdwaras built by Maharaja Ranjit Singh[edit]

At the Harmandir Sahib, much of the present decorative gilding and marblework date back from the early 19th century. The gold and intricate marble work were conducted under the patronage of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Maharaja of the Punjab. The Sher-e-Punjab (Lion of the Punjab) was a generous patron of the shrine and is remembered with much affection by the Sikhs. Maharaja Ranjit Singh deeply loved and admired the teachings of the Tenth Guru of Sikhism Guru Gobind Singh, thus built two of the most sacred temples in Sikhism. These are Takht Sri Patna Sahib, the birthplace of Guru Gobind Singh, and Takht Sri Hazur Sahib, the place where Guru Gobind Singh died, in Nanded, Maharashtra in 1708.

The Harmandir Sahib (also known as the Golden Temple) was completely renovated by Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

Aftermath[edit]

A posthumous painting of Maharaja Ranjit Singh meeting with the Mughal Emperor Akbar II
Maharaja Ranjit Singh
ca. 1835–40

The Sikh army was defeated in the First Anglo-Sikh War and, under the terms of the Treaty of Lahore of March 1846 and the Treaty of Bhyroval, all major decisions were made by a Resident British Officer appointed by the British East India Company and the Sikh army was reduced.

In 1849, at the end of the Second Anglo-Sikh War, the Punjab was annexed by the British from Duleep Singh. The British took Duleep Singh to England in 1854, where he was put under the protection of the Crown.

A lithograph by Emily Eden showing one of the favourite horses of Maharaja Ranjit Singh with the head officer of his stables and his collection of jewels, including the Koh-i-Noor which was given to him by Shuja Shah Durrani of Afghanistan.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh is remembered for uniting the Punjab as a strong nation and his possession of the Koh-i-Noor diamond, which was given to him by Shuja Shah Durrani of Afghanistan. Ranjit Singh willed the Koh-i-Noor to Jagannath Temple in Puri, Odisha while on his deathbed in 1839.[38] His most lasting legacy was the golden beautification of the Harmandir Sahib, most revered Gurudwara of the Sikhs, with marble and gold, from which the popular name of the "Golden Temple" is derived.

He was also known as "Sher-e-Punjab" which means the "Lion of Punjab" and is considered one of the three lions of modern India, the most famous and revered heroes in Indian subcontinent's history. The other lions are Rana Pratap Singh of Mewar and Chhatrapati Shivaji, the great Maratha ruler. The title of "Sher-e-Punjab" is still widely used as a term of respect for a powerful man.

Captain William Murray's memoirs on Maharaja Ranjit Singh's character:

"Ranjit Singh has been likened to Mehmet Ali and to Napoleon. There are some points in which he resembles both; but estimating his character with reference to his circumstances and positions, he is perhaps a more remarkable man than either. There was no ferocity in his disposition and he never punished a criminal with death even under circumstances of aggravated offence. Humanity indeed, or rather tenderness for life, was a trait in the character of Ranjit Singh. There is no instance of his having wantonly infused his hand in blood."[39]

Legacy[edit]

Memorials and museums[edit]

Statue in the Parliament of India

On 20 August 2003, an 22-foot tall bronze statue of Singh was installed in the Parliament of India.[40][41]

Maharaja Ranjit Singh Museum

A garden was laid out in 1818 in the north of the Amritsar city at the behalf of Shalimar Bagh of Lahore, known as Ram Bagh at the name of Guru Ram Dass. Maharaja devoted his time in this palace in summer days during the visit of Amritsar. It has been converted into the shape of Museum during the 400th years celebrations of Amritsar City. The Museum displays objects connecting to Maharaja Ranjit Singh such as arms and armour, outstanding paintings and centuries old coins and manuscripts.[42]

Preceded by
Charat Singh
Leader of the Sukerchakia Misl
1792–1839
Succeeded by
None
Preceded by
None
Maharaja of the Sikh Empire
1801–1839
Succeeded by
Kharak Singh

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ S.R. Bakshi, Rashmi Pathak (2007). "1-Political Condition". In S.R. Bakshi, Rashmi Pathak. Studies in Contemporary Indian History – Punjab Through the Ages Volume 2. Sarup & Sons, New Delhi. p. 2. ISBN 81-7625-738-9. Retrieved 24 ഡിസംബർ 2010.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  2. ^ Gardner, Alexander. MEMOIRS OF ALEXANDER GARDNER – Colonel of Artillery in the Service of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. William Blackwood & Sons. pp. 211,chapter=XII. 
  3. ^ a b c d Kushwant Singh. "RANJIT SINGH (1780-1839)". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 4 November 2013. 
  4. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, (Edition: Volume V22, Date: 1910-1911), Page 892.
  5. ^ a b c d Grewal, J. S. (1990). "Chapter 6: The Sikh empire (1799–1849)". The Sikh empire (1799–1849). The New Cambridge History of India. The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press. 
  6. ^ Sandhawalia, Preminder Singh (1999). Noblemen and Kinsmen: history of a Sikh family. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. ISBN 81-215-0914-9. 
  7. ^ a b Lafont, Jean-Marie (2002) Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Lord of the Five Rivers. Oxford: Oxford University Press
  8. ^ Ralhan, O. P. (1997). The Great Gurus of the Sikhs, Volume 1. Anmol Publications Pvt Limited. p. 1678. 
  9. ^ See:
    • "Two, Ranjit Singh who seemingly got "total ascendancy" in Punjab was not a Jat but a Sansi...", Sangat Singh, McLeod and Fenech as Scholars on Sikhism and Martyrdom; presented in International Sikh conferences 2000, www.globalsikhstudies.net
    • Singh, Sher (1965) The Sansis of Punjab: a Gypsy and denotified tribe of Rajput origin; Maharaja Ranjit Singh: the most glorious Sansi, p. 13. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal
    • Singh, Sangat (1995) The Sikhs in History; 2nd ed. New York: S. Singh ISBN 0-9647555-0-5; p. 92
    • Singh, Fauja (1981) Some Aspects of State and Society Under Ranjit Singh. New Delhi: Master Publishers; p. 5
    • Sandhawalia, Preminder Singh (1999) Noblemen and Kinsmen: history of a Sikh family. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal ISBN 81-215-0914-9
  10. ^ Gardner, Alexander Haughton Campbell (1898). Soldier and Traveller: Memoirs of Alexander Gardner. Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood and Sons. p. 298. 
  11. ^ "Articles on named sons of Ranjit Singh". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism, Editor-in-Chief: Harbans Singh. Punjabi University Patiala. 
  12. ^ Fane, Henry Edward (1842). Five Years in India, Volume 1, Chapter VII, page 120. Henry Colburn. Retrieved March 2014. 
  13. ^ E. Dalhousie Login (1916). "Lady Login's Recollections, Chapter VII, p85". Smith, Elder & Co, London. 
  14. ^ Sardar Singh Bhatia. "Mahitab Kaur (d, 1813)". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. 
  15. ^ Sardar Singh Bhatia. "Raj Kaur (d, 1838)". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. 
  16. ^ Sardar Singh Bhatia. "Daya Kaur, Rani (d. 1843) and Ratan Kaur, Rani". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. 
  17. ^ Hasrat, B. J. "Jind Kaur, Maharani (1817–1863)". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. 
  18. ^ Autar Singh Sandhu. General Hari Singh Nalwa 1791—1837, page 51. Academy of the Punjab in North America. Retrieved 15 January 2014. 
  19. ^ Panwar, editor in chief, Ranjit Singh ; editor, Kripa Shankar ; assistant editor, Sandeep Joshi, Umanath Singh ; art director, Pradeep (2008). Sikh achievers. New Delhi: Hemkunt Publishers. ISBN 978-81-7010-365-3. 
  20. ^ Singh, Khushwant. Ranjit Singh- Maharaja of the Punjab. New Delhi. ISBN 978-0-143-06543-2. 
  21. ^ Singh, Kirpal. "Maharaja Ranjit Singh's Subjugation of North Western Frontier". The Tribune. Retrieved 5 October 2012. 
  22. ^ Elphinstone, M. (1815) 1972, An account of the Kingdom of Caubul, rpt, 3rd edition,Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2 vols.
  23. ^ Marshall 2005, p. 116
  24. ^ Ben Cahoon. "Pakistan Princely States". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 9 August 2009. 
  25. ^ The Khyber Pass: A History of Empire and Invasion, (Docherty,p.187)
  26. ^ The Khyber Pass: A History of Empire and Invasion, (Docherty,p.185-187)
  27. ^ Bennett-Jones, Owen; Singh, Sarina, Pakistan & the Karakoram Highway Page 199
  28. ^ Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the last to lay arms, (Duggal,p.133)
  29. ^ Kartar Singh Duggal (1 January 2001). Maharaja Ranjit Singh: The Last to Lay Arms. Abhinav Publications. pp. 125–126. ISBN 978-81-7017-410-3.
  30. ^ Hügel, Baron (1845) 2000. Travels in Kashmir and the Panjab, containing a Particular Account of the Government and Character of the Sikhs, tr. Major T.B. Jervis. rpt, Delhi: Low Price Publications, p. 151
  31. ^ Masson, Charles. 1842. Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan and the Panjab, 3 v. London: Richard Bentley (1) 37
  32. ^ Lodrick, D.O. 1981. Sacred Cows, Sacred Places. Berkeley: University of California Press, p. 145
  33. ^ Vigne, G.T., 1840. A Personal Narrative of a Visit to Ghuzni, Kabul, and Afghanistan, and a Residence at the Court of Dost Mohammed..., London: Whittaker and Co. p. 246
  34. ^ Sohan Lal Suri, 19th century. Umdat-ut-tawarikh Daftar III Parts (1–5), tr. V.S. Suri, (1961), Amritsar: Guru Nanak Dev University (2002), (III-2) f. 217
  35. ^ K.S. Duggal, Ranjit Singh: A Secular Sikh Sovereign, Abhinav Publications (1989) ISBN 81-7017-244-6
  36. ^ a b c Singh, Khushwant (2008). Ranjit Singh: Maharaja of the Punjab. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-143-06543-2. 
  37. ^ Gupta, Shiv Kumar. "Modernisation of the army". The Tribune. Retrieved 9 April 2013. 
  38. ^ The Real Ranjit Singh; by Fakir Syed Waheeduddin, published by Punjabi University, ISBN 81-7380-778-7, 1 Jan 2001, 2nd ed.
  39. ^ Prinsep, James (1846) History of the Punjab, Vol. II, London: W. H. Allen; p. 174 (Reprint, Patiala 1970)
  40. ^ Singh, Ranjit (20 August 2003). "Parliament to get six more portraits, two statues". Times of India. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  41. ^ "Ranjit Singh's statue unveiled in Parliament House". The Tribune. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  42. ^ "Maharaja Ranjit Singh Museum,Amritsar". Punjab Museums. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Heath, Ian (2005), The Sikh Army 1799–1849, Oxford: Osprey Publishing (UK), ISBN 1-84176-777-8 
  • Lafont, Jean-Marie Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Lord of the Five Rivers. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002 ISBN 0-19-566111-7
  • Marshall, Julie G. (2005), Britain and Tibet 1765–1947: a select annotated bibliography of British relations with Tibet and the Himalayan states including Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan (Revised and Updated to 2003 ed.), London: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-33647-5 
  • Sandhawalia, Preminder Singh Noblemen and Kinsmen: history of a Sikh family. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1999 ISBN 81-215-0914-9
  • Waheeduddin, Fakir Syed The Real Ranjit Singh; 2nd ed. Patiala: Punjabi University, 1981 ISBN 81-7380-778-7 (First ed. published 1965 Pakistan).

Further reading[edit]

  • Umdat Ut Tawarikh by Sohan Lal Suri, Published by Guru Nanak Dev University Amritsar .
  • The Real Ranjit Singh by Fakir Syed Waheeduddin, published by Punjabi University, ISBN 81-7380-778-7, 1 Jan 2001, 2nd ed. First ed. published 1965 Pakistan.
  • Maharaja Ranjit Singh: First Death Centenary Memorial, by St. Nihal Singh. Published by Languages Dept., Punjab, 1970.
  • Maharaja Ranjit Singh and his times, by J. S. Grewal, Indu Banga. Published by Dept. of History, Guru Nanak Dev University, 1980.
  • Maharaja Ranjit Singh, by Harbans Singh. Published by Sterling, 1980.
  • Maharaja Ranjit Singh, by K. K. Khullar. Published by Hem Publishers, 1980.
  • The reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh: structure of power, economy and society, by J. S. Grewal. Published by Punjab Historical Studies Dept., Punjabi University, 1981.
  • Maharaja Ranjit Singh, as patron of the arts, by Ranjit Singh. Published by Marg Publications, 1981.
  • Maharaja Ranjit Singh: Politics, Society, and Economy, by Fauja Singh, A. C. Arora. Published by Publication Bureau, Punjabi University, 1984.
  • Maharaja Ranjit Singh and his Times, by Bhagat Singh. Published by Sehgal Publishers Service, 1990. ISBN 81-85477-01-9.
  • History of the Punjab: Maharaja Ranjit Singh, by Shri Ram Bakshi. Published by Anmol Publications, 1991.
  • The Historical Study of Maharaja Ranjit Singh's Times, by Kirpal Singh. Published by National Book Shop, 1994. ISBN 81-7116-163-4.
  • An Eyewitness account of the fall of Sikh empire: memories of Alexander Gardner, by Alexander Haughton Campbell Gardner, Baldev Singh Baddan, Hugh Wodehouse Pearse. Published by National Book Shop, 1999. ISBN 81-7116-231-2.
  • Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Last to Lay Arms: The Last to Lay Arms, by Kartar Singh Duggal. Published by Abhinav Publications, 2001. ISBN 81-7017-410-4.
  • Fauj-i-khas Maharaja Ranjit Singh and His French Officers, by Jean Marie Lafont. Published by Guru Nanak Dev University, 2002. ISBN 81-7770-048-0.
  • Maharaja Ranjit Singh, by Mohinder Singh, Rishi Singh, Sondeep Shankar, National Institute of Panjab Studies (India). Published by UBS Publishers' Distributors with National Institute of Panjab Studies, 2002. ISBN 81-7476-372-4,.
  • Maharaja Ranjit Singh: Lord of the Five Rivers, by Jean Marie Lafont. Published by Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-19-566111-7.
  • The Last Sunset: The Rise and Fall of the Lahore Durbar, by Amarinder Singh. Published by Roli Books, 2010.
  • Glory of Sikhism, by R. M. Chopra, Sanbun Publishers, 2001. Chapter on "Sher-e-Punjab Maharaja Ranjit Singh".

External links[edit]

Biographies