|Nickname(s): The City of Wrestlers
The City of Foods
|• Total||3,198 km2 (1,235 sq mi)|
|Population (24 June 2011)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+5)|
|• Summer (DST)||PDT (UTC+6)|
Gujranwala (Punjabi, Urdu: گوجرانوالا) is an industrial city in Gujranwala District, Punjab province of Pakistan. It is the seventh-most-populous Pakistani metropolitan areas, and is one of the fastest-growing cities in the world. Gujranwala is 226 metres (744 ft) above sea level. It shares borders with Ghakhar Mandi, Alipur Chatha, Kamonke and several small towns and villages. Punjabi is the local language but English and Urdu are also commonly spoken, particularly in schools and offices.
Due to extensive road and rail links, the city's manufacturing and agricultural sectors have flourished. Gujranwala is on the Grand Trunk Road, connecting it with provincial capitals such as Peshawar and Lahore and Islamabad, Pakistan's capital. The city is located between Lahore, Gujrat and Sialkot.
Gujranwala is known for its production of sugarcane, melons and grains for export; it exports one of the world's finest varieties of rice. The city has commercial and industrial centres for manufacturing ceramics, fans, electrical-switch gears, engineering tools, earth-moving machinery, steel, cutlery, crockery, iron safes, metal tools, utensils, textiles, woolen sweaters, sanitary fittings and leather. It has produced some of the best-known wrestlers and bodybuilders on the subcontinent, resulting in its nickname "city of wrestlers" (Phelwana da shehar in Punjabi).
According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India, Gujranwala was founded by Gurjars and renamed Khanpur by the Sansi Jatts of Amritsar who settled there; however, its old name has survived. Many historians also note that the place was named for the Gurjars who ruled the Gurjara-Pratihara.
In 630, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Hsuan Tsang visited a town known as Tse-kia (or Taki), near present-day Gujranwala; a mound near the contemporary village of Asarur has been identified as the site of the ancient city. In 997 Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi succeeded his father, Sultan Sebuktegin, as ruler of the Ghaznavid dynasty. He conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, followed by the conquest of the Punjab region. The Delhi Sultanate and, later, the Mughal Empire ruled the region. The Punjab became predominantly Muslim, due to missionary Sufits whose dargahs dot the landscape. Gujranwala evolved as a medieval town, and Sufi missionaries converted the local Gurjar population to Islam. Until the arrival of the Muslims little is known about Gujranwala, except that Taki had fallen into oblivion and Lahore was the chief city. Under Muslim rule the district flourished and then declined. The district gazetteer dates the name "Gujranwala" to about the mid-16th century.
After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikhs occupied Gujranwala and the Muslims were allowed to practice Islam freely under Sikh rule. The Sikhs dominated the Punjab after the death of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir in 1707. Gujranwala became important during the rule of the father and grandfather of Ranjit Singh, who were born in the city. Ranjit Singh, also born there, became the most powerful of the Sikh rulers. Hari Singh Nalwa, military commander of the Sikh army, was credited with building the "new" Gujranwala.
The area was conquered by the British Empire in 1848. In 1881, a railway line was built along the Grand Trunk Road to connect Gujranwala with other cities in the Punjab, facilitating trade. The municipality of Gujranwala was created in 1867, and the North-Western Railway connected Gujranwala with other cities in British India, such as Calcutta and Karachi. Gujranwala's population, according to the 1901 Indian census, was 29,224. In 1903 and 1904, income and expenditure were Rs. 83,100 and Rs. 67,900 respectively. The chief source of income was the octroi (Rs. 59,700).
The predominantly-Muslim population supported the Muslim League and the Pakistan Movement. After Pakistan attained independence in 1947, Hindus and Sikhs moved to India and Indian Muslims settled in the district. Gujranwala developed rapidly, and is a leading Pakistani industrial and commercial city. Gujranwala District was governed by a deputy commissioner until it became part of the Gujranwala Division. In 1951 the city became the capital of the district, which encouraged industrial growth. Among its deputy commissioners was Mansur Zaimur Rehman, who served from 1959 to 1962 and began a number of development projects (including the cantonment). In 1991, the city hosted its first test match (at Jinnah Stadium) and several One Day International matches. According to City Mayors Statistics: The world's fastest-growing cities and urban areas Gujranwala will rank 27th in the world in average annual growth from 2006 to 2020 (3.49 percent) and first in Pakistan, ahead of Faisalabad (average annual growth 3.32 percent, 33rd in the world).
- For more information, see Punjabi dialects.
According to the 1998 Pakistani census, Punjabi is spoken by 95 percent of Gujranwala's residents. Due to the city's size and location, a number of Punjabi dialects (including Majhi) are used. Other languages include Urdu (the national language) and English.
Geography and climate
Gujranwala is 226 metres (744 ft) above sea level, sharing borders with Ghakhar Mandi and several towns and villages. About 80 kilometres (50 mi) south is the provincial capital, Lahore. Sialkot and Gujrat lie to its north. Gujrat connects Gujranwala with Bhimber, Mirpure Azad Jammun and Kashmir, and Silakot connects it with Jamming. About 160 kilometres (99 mi) southwest is Faisalabad.
Gujranwala has a hot semi-arid climate (BSh), according to the Köppen-Geiger system, and changes throughout the year. During summer (June to September), the temperature reaches 36–42 °C (97–108 °F). The coldest months are usually November to February, when the temperature can drop to an average of 7 °C (45 °F). The highest-precipitation months are usually July and August, when the monsoon reaches the Punjab. During the other months, the average rainfall is about 25 millimetres (0.98 in). The driest months are usually November to April, with little rainfall.
|Climate data for Gujranwala|
|Average high °C (°F)||19.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||12.2
|Average low °C (°F)||5.3
|Precipitation mm (inches)||31
|Source: Climate-Data.org, altitude: 225m|
Gujranwala District (previously composed of five tehsils: Gujranwala City, Gujranwala Sadar, Kamonki, Nowshehra Virkan and Wazirabad) has become the Gujranwala City District, made up of the following towns:
- Ghakhar Mandi
- Khiali Shahpur
- Nowshera Virkan
- Qila Didar Singh
It is administered by the City District Government Gujranwala (CDGG).
Gujranwala is a commercial and industrial center, playing a major role in the Pakistan economy. It has a number of textile mills, a cutlery industry and large agricultural-processing plants. Major exports include rice, sanitary fittings, textiles, plastic furniture, pots, room coolers and heaters, gas stoves, agricultural tools and equipment, electrical equipment, carpets, glass goods, surgical equipment, leather products, metal utensils, auto parts, military machinery, transformers, hosiery, washing machines, rice huskers, agricultural implements, motorcycles, food products and industrial motors. More than 500,000 workers work in industry in the city; its share of national production is nine percent and revenue eight percent.[when?] Rural areas around the city produce a variety of agricultural goods; the main crops are wheat, rice, potato, barley and millet.
Because of its location on the Grand Trunk Road in Punjab, Gujranwala has long been a centre of trade and industry; the city was known for its metal-utensil industry under British rule, and rapid growth began after independence in 1947. The number of industrial units increased from 40 in 1947 to more than 20,600. Gujranwala, Gujrat and Sialkot are the "golden triangle" of the division, and about 60 percent of Pakistan's small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are located in this Export Triangle.
Away from international borders, the city attracted artisans and investors and has three industrial estates. The Duddar Export Processing Zone is on the main Gujranwala-Lahore Grand Trunk Road. The Punjab Small Industries Corporation (PSIC) and Export Processing Zone Authority (EPZA) developed this Export Processing Zone, valued at Rs 99.40 million (US$1.71 million). It is the third-largest industrial centre in the country (after Karachi and Faisalabad) in the availability of raw materials and skilled labour.
Industry is varied, including light engineering, textiles, leather, electrical engineering, auto parts, ceramics, cutlery and agricultural processing. Annual exports total $700 million. In addition to exports, industry has lowered imports to about $1.2 billion by producing goods locally.
The main source of energy is a hydroelectric project on the Chenab River. The city also has a dry port which has contributed to its export growth. As of June 2012[update] Pakistan's electricity problems were so severe that riots occurred across the Punjab. According to protesters, load shedding in Gujranwala reduced electricity 22 hours a day, causing businesses to fail and affecting private citizens.
Gujranwala is a historic and cultural centre in the northeast Punjab, offering a number of sights and activities. The city hosts bodybuilding tournaments, Kabaddi matches and weightlifting competitions, and is known for its barbecue cuisine. Attractions include shopping malls, an Officers' Club with swimming pool and squash complex, the Gujranwala Golf and Country Club and Jinnah Stadium. Parks include Jinnah Park, Model Town Park, Gulshan Park and Liaqat Park.
Schools in Gujranwala include University of the Punjab, Gujranwala, the Swedish College of Engineering and Technology, Rachna University of Engineering and Technology, Allama Iqbal Open University, Al Madina Islamic University, Virtual University of Pakistan and GIFT University. Thirty-two government and private colleges include the Gujranwala Medical College, Punjab Group of Colleges, Muhammad Ali Jinnah Law College and the Gujranwala Institute of Nuclear Medicine.University of Sargodha, Sub-Campus, University of the Central Punjab.UCL(United Center of Languages)
Gujranwala has a number of hospitals, including CMH Gujranwala Cantt, Allama Iqbal Hospital, Siddique Sadiq Memorial Trust Hospital, Chaudhry Hospital, Al-Shifa Hospital, Al-Rai Hospital, Salamat Hospital, Al-Munawar Hospital for Paralysis, Gujranwala, Kamran Surgical and Gyne Hospital, Gondal Medical Complex Hospital, Chattah Hospital, Wapda Town Hospital and DHQ Hospital.
Gujranwala benefits from road and rail links built during the Raj, which have allowed the city to grow. By road, the city is less than an hour from Lahore and three hours from Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The city has a dry port for exports on the Grand Trunk Road and other motorways, including the Gujranwala-Hafizabad-Pindi Bhattian-Chiniot-Jhang road, the Gujranwala-Sialkot road, the Gujranwala-Shiekhupura road, the Gujranwala-Pasrur road and the Gujranwala-Alipure Chatha road.
There are also rail links to major Pakistani cities (Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, Peshawar and Faisalabad) and smaller cities. The Gujranwala railway station was built by the British before Pakistani independence of Pakistan, and is located on the Grand Trunk Road (which passes through the city centre).
Korean company Sammi Daewoo began bus service from Gujranwala to major Pakistani cities in 2006. Star Travels is a private road-transport terminal, and the General Bus Stand is the largest road-transport terminal in the city. Gujranwala City Tours handles intra-city transport. Gujranwala is served by two international airports (in Lahore—100 km away—and Sialkot—40 km away), which also offer domestic flights.
The Pakistan Flying Disc Federation has its headquarters in Gujranwala.
Gujranwala is noted for its cuisine, and a number of restaurants offer a variety of dishes including Chinese, continental, fast food and local dishes. Traditional foods include chanp, chirray, batair, kababs and tikka. Rice and lentils is known in Urdu as mun bhata khana or, commonly, dal chaawal.
- Ahmed Nager Chatha
- Garden Town
- Ghakhar Mandi
- Gujranwala District
- Gujranwala Division
- Gujranwala Electric Power Company
- Model Town
- Punjab Pakistan
- Rana Colony
- Rasool Nagar
- Nick name of Gujranwala
- "Principal Cities of Pakistan". citypopulation.de. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
- Pakistan: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population. World Gazetteer. Retrieved 11 December 2010.
- World Gazetteer. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- Location of Gujranwala – Falling Rain Genomics
- Gujrānwāla Town – Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 12, p. 363.
- Ramesh Chandra Majumdar; Bhāratīya Itihāsa Samiti (1954). The History and Culture of the Indian People: The classical age. G. Allen & Unwin. p. 64. "."
- Nalwa, V. (2009) Hari Singh Nalwa-Champion of the Khalsaji, New Delhi: Manohar, p. 240.
- "Climate: Gujranwala – Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
- Jinnah Stadium, Gujranwala – Monthly Averages
- "Another day of outrage at outages across Punjab". Dawn (Karachi, Pakistan). 18 June 2012. Archived from the original on 18 June 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- pfdf.host.org[dead link]
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- Gujranwala Chamber of Commerce & Industry
- Article on Gujranwala from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica