City of Wrestlers
|Nickname(s): The City of Wrestlers
The City of Foods
|• Total||3,198 km2 (1,235 sq mi)|
|Population (August,14 2014)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+5)|
|• Summer (DST)||PDT (UTC+6)|
Gujranwala (Urdu: گوجرانوالا) also known as the "City of Wrestlers" (Palwana da shehr in Punjabi) is an industrial city in Gujranwala District, Punjab province of Pakistan. It is the seventh-most-populous Pakistani metropolitan areas, and is one of the fastest-growing cities in Pakistan. Gujranwala is 226 metres (744 ft) above sea level. It shares borders with Ghakhar Mandi, Alipur Chatha, Kamonke and several small towns and villages. Punjabi is the local language spoken by most people (commonly referred to as "Gujjus") but English and Urdu are also commonly spoken.
Due to extensive road and rail links, the city's manufacturing and agricultural sectors have flourished. Gujranwala is on the Grand Trunk Road, connecting it with provincial capitals such as Peshawar and Lahore and Islamabad, Pakistan's capital. The city is located between Lahore, Gujrat and Sialkot.
Gujranwala is known for its production of sugarcane, melons and grains for export; it exports one of the world's finest varieties of rice. The city has commercial and industrial centers for manufacturing ceramics, fans, electrical-switch gears, engineering tools, earth-moving machinery, steel, cutlery, crockery, iron safes, metal tools, utensils, textiles, woolen sweaters, sanitary fittings and leather. It has produced some of the best-known wrestlers and bodybuilders on the subcontinent, resulting in its nickname "city of wrestlers" (Palwana da shehr in local Punjabi).( پہلوانوں کا شہر )
According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India, Gujranwala was founded by Gurjars and renamed Khanpur by the Sansi Jatts of Amritsar who settled there; however, its old name has survived. Many historians also note that the place was named for the Gurjars who ruled the Gurjara-Pratihara.
In 630, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Hsuan Tsang visited a town known as Tse-kia (or Taki), near present-day Gujranwala; a mound near the contemporary village of Asarur has been identified as the site of the ancient city. From the beginning of the 7th century Rajput kingdoms dominated Eastern portions of Pakistan and northern India. In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of some western Punjab region. Eastern Regions of Punjab from Multan to the Rawalpindi in north (Including region of present-day Gujranwala) remained under Rajput rule until 1193. The Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire later ruled the region The Punjab became predominantly Muslim, due to missionary Sufits whose dargahs dot the landscape. Gujranwala evolved as a medieval town, and Sufi missionaries converted the local Gurjar population to Islam. Until the arrival of the Muslims little is known about Gujranwala, except that Taki had fallen into oblivion and Lahore was the chief city. Under Muslim rule the district flourished and then declined. The district gazetteer dates the name "Gujranwala" to about the mid-16th century.
After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh Empire ruled Gujranwala. The Muslims faced restrictions during the Sikh rule. The Sikhs dominated the Punjab after the death of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir in 1707. Gujranwala became important during the rule of the father and grandfather of Ranjit Singh, who were born in the city. Ranjit Singh, also born there, became the powerful of the Sikh rulers. Hari Singh Nalwa, military commander of the Sikh army, was credited with building the "new" Gujranwala.
The area was captured by the British Empire in 1848. In 1881, a railway line was built along the Grand Trunk Road to connect Gujranwala with other cities in the Punjab, facilitating trade. The municipality of Gujranwala was created in 1867, and the North-Western Railway connected Gujranwala with other cities in British India, such as Calcutta and Karachi. Gujranwala's population, according to the 1901 Indian census, was 29,224. In 1903 and 1904, income and expenditure were Rs. 83,100 and Rs. 67,900 respectively. The chief source of income was the octroi (Rs. 59,700).
The predominantly-Muslim population supported the Muslim League and the Pakistan Movement.After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Gujranwala district. Muslims refugees from East Punjab, Haryana, Jammu started arriving and crossed the border into Pakistan; many were given land in district to settle. Gujranwala developed rapidly, and is a leading Pakistani industrial and commercial city. Gujranwala District was governed by a deputy commissioner until it became part of the Gujranwala Division. In 1951 the city became the capital of the district, which encouraged industrial growth. Among its deputy commissioners was Mansur Zaimur Rehman, who served from 1959 to 1962 and began a number of development projects (including the cantonment). In 1991, the city hosted its first test match (at Jinnah Stadium) and several One Day International matches. According to City Mayors Statistics: The world's fastest-growing cities and urban areas Gujranwala will rank 27th in the world in average annual growth from 2006 to 2020 (3.49 percent) and first in Pakistan, ahead of Faisalabad (average annual growth 3.32 percent, 33rd in the world).
According to the 1998 Pakistani census, Punjabi is spoken by 95 percent of Gujranwala's residents. Due to the city's size and location, a number of Punjabi dialects (including Majhi) are used. Other languages include Urdu (the national language).
Geography and climate
Gujranwala is 226 metres (744 ft) above sea level, sharing borders with Ghakhar Mandi and several towns and villages. About 80 kilometres (50 mi) south is the provincial capital, Lahore. Sialkot and Gujrat lie to its north. Gujrat connects Gujranwala with Bhimber, Mirpure Azad Jammun and Kashmir, and Silakot connects it with Jammun. About 160 kilometres (99 mi) southwest is Faisalabad. To its west are Hafizabad and Pindi Bhattian, which connect Gujranwala to Jhang, Chiniot and Sargodha. Gujranwala is connected to Mandi Bahauddin via Gujrat and via Ali pure Chathah.
Gujranwala has a hot semi-arid climate (BSh), according to the Köppen-Geiger system, and changes throughout the year. During summer (June to September), the temperature reaches 36–42 °C (97–108 °F). The coldest months are usually November to February, when the temperature can drop to an average of 7 °C (45 °F). The highest-precipitation months are usually July and August, when the monsoon reaches the Punjab. During the other months, the average rainfall is about 25 millimetres (0.98 in). The driest months are usually November to April, with little rainfall.
|Climate data for Gujranwala|
|Average high °C (°F)||19.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||12.2
|Average low °C (°F)||5.3
|Precipitation mm (inches)||31
|Source: Climate-Data.org, altitude: 225m|
Gujranwala District (previously composed of five tehsils: Gujranwala City, Gujranwala Sadar, Kamonki, Nowshehra Virkan and Wazirabad) has become the Gujranwala City District, made up of the following towns:
It is administered by the City District Government Gujranwala (CDGG).
Gujranwala is a commercial and industrial center, playing a major role in the Pakistan economy. It has a number of textile mills, a cutlery industry and large agricultural-processing plants. Major exports include rice, sanitary fittings, textiles, plastic furniture, pots, room coolers and heaters, gas stoves, agricultural tools and equipment, electrical equipment, carpets, glass goods, surgical equipment, leather products, metal utensils, auto parts, military machinery, transformers, hosiery, washing machines, rice huskers, agricultural implements, motorcycles, food products and industrial motors. More than 500,000 workers work in industry in the city; its share of national production is nine percent and revenue eight percent.[when?] Rural areas around the city produce a variety of agricultural goods; the main crops are wheat, rice, potato, barley and millet.
Because of its location on the Grand Trunk Road in Punjab, Gujranwala has long been a centre of trade and industry; the city was known for its metal-utensil industry under British rule, and rapid growth began after independence in 1947. The number of industrial units increased from 40 in 1947 to more than 20,600. Gujranwala, Gujrat and Sialkot are the "golden triangle" of the division, and about 60 percent of Pakistan's small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are located in this Export Triangle.
Away from international borders, the city attracted artisans and investors and has three industrial estates. The Export Processing Zone is on the main Gujranwala-Lahore Grand Trunk Road. The Punjab Small Industries Corporation (PSIC) and Export Processing Zone Authority (EPZA) developed this Export Processing Zone, valued at Rs 99.40 million (US$1.71 million). It is the third-largest industrial centre in the country (after Karachi and Faisalabad) in the availability of raw materials and skilled labour.
The Gujranwala Chamber of Commerce and Industry was set up by Haji Murad Ali with the support of friends and industrialists. Today, industry is varied, including light engineering, textiles, leather, electrical engineering, auto parts, ceramics, cutlery and agricultural processing. Annual exports total $700 million. In addition to exports, industry has lowered imports to about $1.2 billion by producing goods locally.
The main source of energy is a hydroelectric project on the Chenab River. The city also has a dry port which has contributed to its export growth. As of June 2012[update] Pakistan's electricity problems were so severe that riots occurred across the Punjab. According to protesters, load shedding in Gujranwala reduced electricity 22 hours a day, causing businesses to fail and affecting private citizens.
Gujranwala's bazaars, mandis and markets are centre of trade. Important, old bazars are
- Syed Nagri Bazar
- Rail Bazar
- Daal Bazar
- Degan Wala Bazar
- Ghanta Ghar Bazar
- Bartan Bazar
- Kasayra Bazar
- Urdu Bazar
- Gala Qasaban
- Thanay Wala Bazar
New markets and shopping malls of Gujranwala are hub of Pakistan fashion industry's leading brands and many international brands as well. They include
- Main Market Satellite Town
- Main Market Model Town
- Super X Market Peoples Colony
- Bank Mord Super Market Cantt.
- Pace Shopping Mall
- Aleena Shopping Mall
- Citi Mart, A shopping mall (Opening soon in Citi Housing)
- King's Mall (opening soon)
- Fazal Centre Cantt.
- Taj Shopping Centre
- Green Centre
- Green Tower
- Town Mart (Wapda Town)
Culture & Entertainment
Gujranwala is a historic and cultural centre in the northeast Punjab, offering a number of sights and activities. The city hosts bodybuilding tournaments, Kabaddi matches and weightlifting competitions, and is famous for its barbecue cuisine. Attractions include shopping malls, an Officers' Club with swimming pool and squash complex, the Gujranwala Golf and Country Club and Jinnah Stadium. Parks include Jinnah Park, Model Town Park, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Park and Liaqat Park, Nishan-e-Manzil, Sheranwala Bagh, Muhammadi Park, Family Funland, Safar Park (Citi Housing). Gujranwala is a hub of Pakistan's cinema Industry. It is home to cluster of cinemas many of which are examples of modernization. Important cinemas include:
- Prince Cinepax (G.T Road)
- Cinepax (Opening soon at King's Mall ByePass Road)
- Zinco Cinemax 3D
- Cine Gold (Opening soon in Citi Housing)
There are two important FM radio channels working in the city namely, Awaz FM 106 and Voice of Times FM 103.6. Two leading national dailies are published from the city namely, Daily Express and Daily Duniya.
Major educational institutes in Gujranwala include University of the Punjab, Gujranwala, the Swedish College of Engineering and Technology,Christian Technical Training Centre - CTTC (114 years old institute) in the heart of the city, Rachna University College of Engineering and Technology, Allama Iqbal Open University, Al Madina Islamic University, Virtual University of Pakistan and GIFT University. Thirty-two government and private colleges include the Gujranwala Medical College, Punjab Group of Colleges, Muhammad Ali Jinnah Law College, Greenz College,Times College for Girls Satellite Town Gujranwala. CMS College, Gujranwala, The Gujranwala Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University of Sargodha, Sub-Campus, University of the Central Punjab and UCL(United Center of Languages). Prestigious institutions such as Beaconhouse School System, Lahore Grammar School and City School have also opened branches in Gujranwala. In satellite town Gujranwala there are two old institutions well known for education, these are Government Degree College for Boys and Government Degree College for Girls Satellite Town Gujranwala.The College of Law (TCL).Other major schools include Quaid e Azam Public College (DPS),Jadeed Dastagir Ideal High School and Federal Science College.
Gujranwala has a number of hospitals, including Divisional Headquarters University Teaching Hospital, Combined Military Hospital (CMH), GINUM Cancer Hospital, Gujranwala Gut and Liver Center, City Orthopaedic and Trauma Hospital, Haji Murad Trust Eye Hospital, Allama Iqbal Hospital, Siddique Sadiq Memorial Trust Hospital, Chaudhry Hospital, Al-Shifa Hospital, Al-Rai Hospital, Salamat Hospital, Ashraf Hospital, Al-Munawar Hospital for Paralysis, Gujranwala, Kamran Surgical and Gyne Hospital, Gondal Medical Complex Hospital, Chattah Hospital, Wapda Town Hospital, Begum Rukhsana Trust Hospital (Citi Housing), Cantt. General Hospital, Civil Veterinary Hospital.
Gujranwala benefits from road and rail links built during the Raj, which have allowed the city to grow. By road, the city is less than an hour from Lahore and three hours from Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The city has a dry port for exports on the Grand Trunk Road. Other important intercity highways emerging from the city are Gujranwala-Hafizabad Highway, the Gujranwala-Sialkot Hoghway, the Gujranwala-Shiekhupura Highway, the Gujranwala-Pasrur Highway and the Gujranwala-Alipure Chatha Highway.
There are also rail links to major Pakistani cities (Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, Peshawar and Faisalabad) and smaller cities. The Gujranwala railway station was built by the British before Pakistani independence of Pakistan, and is located on the Grand Trunk Road (which passes through the city centre). Another railways station is situated in Cantt.
Korean company Sammi Daewoo began bus service from Gujranwala to major Pakistani cities in 2006.The General Bus Stand is the largest road-transport terminal in the city. Gujranwala City Tours handles intra-city transport. Gujranwala is served by two international airports (in Lahore—100 km away—and Sialkot—40 km away), which also offer domestic flights. There is an Army Aviation airbase in Cantt. area known as "Military Field Air Base, Rahwali".
Gujranwala is considered as the centre of traditional sport of Pehlwani/Wrestling. Sheranwala Bagh in the heart of the city is the centre of wrestling. There is an international cricket stadium in the city by the name of "Jinnah Stadium". Others are Mini Stadium, Gujranwala Gymnasium and Children Sports Complex. The Pakistan Flying Disc Federation has its headquarters in Gujranwala.
Cuisine and hotels
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (November 2014)|
Gujranwala is noted for its cuisine, and a number of restaurants offer a variety of dishes including Chinese, continental, fast food and local dishes. Traditional foods include chanp, chirray, batair, kababs and tikka. Rice and lentils is known in Urdu as mun bhata khana or, commonly, dal chaawal. Important food centers are :Sialkot Gate, Androon Shehar, Chand Da Qila. There are two food streets in the city namely "Coca Cola Food Street", Liberty Market Civil Lines and "City Food Street", Bakhtey wala.
Gujranwala cantonment is one of the biggest and most important cantonments of Pakistan and nowadays is a home to 30th Corps' Headquarters of Pakistan Military. The cantonment is considered to be one of the best in the country in terms of its aesthetic beauty. Cantonment Board administers the cantonment. There are many shopping areas like Bank Mord Super Market, Main Market DC Colony, Saarang Shopping Centre, CSD, Fazal Centre and Rahwali Chowk which are hubs of national and international fashion industries.
Gujranwala cantonment is expanding and many housing societies are falling into it. DC Colony, Defence Officers Housing Societ, Akari Homes etc. are part of the cantonment. Defence Housing Authority (DHA) is also establishing itself in Gujranwala Cantt.
National Logistic Cell (NLC) has its important offices in Gujranwala Cantonment.
There are many educational institutes working here and many recreational spots like Nishan-e-Manzil are located in the cantonment.
There are two important hospitals,i.e., CMH and Cantt. General Hospital.
Gujranwala cantt's area situated on GT Road and near by areas are known as Rahwali which is famous for its ice cream "Qulfi"
- Nick name of Gujranwala
- "Principal Cities of Pakistan". citypopulation.de. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
- Pakistan: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population. World Gazetteer. Retrieved 11 December 2010.
- World Gazetteer. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- Location of Gujranwala – Falling Rain Genomics
- Gujrānwāla Town – Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 12, p. 363.
- Ramesh Chandra Majumdar; Bhāratīya Itihāsa Samiti (1954). The History and Culture of the Indian People: The classical age. G. Allen & Unwin. p. 64.
- Nalwa, V. (2009) Hari Singh Nalwa-Champion of the Khalsaji, New Delhi: Manohar, p. 240.
- "Climate: Gujranwala – Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
- Jinnah Stadium, Gujranwala – Monthly Averages
- "Another day of outrage at outages across Punjab". Dawn (Karachi, Pakistan. Gujranwala Electric Power Company (GEPCO) headquartered in Gujranwala is responsible for the supply and management of electricity of Gujranwala Division (except Tehsil Sarai Alamgir of Gujrat dist. which falls into IESCO)). 18 June 2012. Archived from the original on 18 June 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- pfdf.host.org[dead link]
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- Gujranwala Chamber of Commerce & Industry
- Article on Gujranwala from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica