||This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (November 2012)|
|Nickname(s): The City of Wrestlers
The City of Foods
|• Total||3,198 km2 (1,235 sq mi)|
|Population (24 June 2011)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+5)|
|• Summer (DST)||PDT (UTC+6)|
Gujranwala (Punjabi, گُوجرانٚوالا) is an industrial city in the north-east of the Punjab province of Pakistan. It is the seventh largest city in Pakistan  and is one of the fastest growing cities in the world. Gujranwala is located at 32.16° North, 74.18° East and is 226 metres (744 ft) above sea level. It shares borders with Ghakhar Mandi, Alipur Chatha, Kamonke, and some small towns and villages. Punjabi is the local language, but English and Urdu are also common, particularly in schools and offices.
Due to extensive road and rail links, the city has flourished within the manufacturing and agricultural markets. The city is on the Grand Trunk Road, which allows logistic connections to the provincial capitals such as Peshawar and Lahore, and also to Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan. The city lies between Lahore, Gujrat and Wazirabad.
Gujranwala is known for its extensive production of sugarcane, melons and grains for international export. Gujranwala exports one of the world's finest quality varieties of rice. The city has set up several commercial and industrial centres allowing the manufacture of ceramics, fanse, electrical switch gears, engineering tools, agricultural/earth moving machinery, steel, cutlery, crockery, iron safes, metal tool, utensils, textiles, woollen sweaters, sanitary fittings and tannery production. The city has produced some of the finest wrestlers and bodybuilders of the subcontinent, which has resulted in the nickname 'City of wrestlers' or Phelwana da shehar in Punjabi.
According to the Imperial Gazetteer of British India, the town was originally founded by Gojar / Gurjars and renamed Khanpur by the Sansi Jatts of Amritsar who settled there, but its old name has survived. Many historians also state that the place was named after Gurjars, while they formerly ruled the Gurjara Pratihara Empire for centuries.
In 630, Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Hsuan Tsang visited a major town known as Tse-kia (or Taki), which was in the vicinity of modern Gujranwala. A mound near the modern village of Asarur has been identified as the site of the ancient city. Gujranwala slowly developed as a medieval town and many Muslim Sufi missionaries converted the local Gurjars population to Islam. Until the arrival of the Muslims little is known of Gujranwala, except that Taki had fallen into oblivion and Lahore had become the chief city. Under Muslim rule the district flourished for a time; but a mysterious depopulation took place and the whole region seems to have been almost entirely abandoned. The district gazetteer dates the name of Gujranwala to approximately the middle of the 16th century.
After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh invaded and occupied Gujranwala. The Sikhs dominated the Punjab after the death of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir in 1707. The town became important during the rules of the father and grandfather of Ranjit Singh, who were born in the city. Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who himself was born here, became the most powerful of all the Sikh rulers. Hari Singh Nalwa, the military commander of the Sikh army, was credited with having built the 'new' city of Gujranwala.
The area was conquered and annexed by the British Empire in 1848. A railway line was built alongside the Grand Trunk Road in 1881 to connect Gujranwala with other cities of Punjab and made commercial trade between cities more convenient. The municipality of Gujranwala was created in 1867. The North-Western Railway connected Gujranwala with other cities of British India to the far ends of the Empire such as Calcutta as well as Karachi. The population according to the 1901 census of India was 29,224. In 1903 and 1904, the income and expenditure were Rs. 83,100 and Rs. 67,900 respectively. The chief source of income was octroi Rs. 59,700.
The predominantly Muslim population supported the Muslim League and the Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Gujranwala district. Gujranwala developed rapidly and is now a leading industrial and commercial city of Pakistan. Gujranwala, as a district, was run by a Deputy Commissioner until it became a Division. In 1951 the city was converted into the capital of the district which gave rise to new industries in the city. Many prominent civil servants worked as its Deputy Commissioners; renowned among them is Mansur Zaimur Rehman (M. Z. Rehman), who worked as the Deputy Commander from 1959 to 1962. He initiated many development projects including the cantonment. He is known for his hard work, integrity and honesty. In 1991, the city hosted its first Test match at the Jinnah Stadium as well as several One Day International matches. Since then the city has continued to thrive with improved economic growth and stabilization. Satellite Town is one of the most famous and most beautiful places in Gujranwala.
According to City Mayors Statistics The world's fastest growing cities and urban areas, Gujranwala will rank 27th in the world with the average annual growth 2006 to 2020 3.49% and rank 1st in Pakistan ahead of Faisalabad with the average annual growth of 3.32% with rank 33rd in the world.
- For more information, see Punjabi dialects.
As per the 1998 census of Pakistan, Punjabi language is spoken by 95%. City being fourth biggest and in centre of Punjab province has great variety of Punjabi dialects spoken by different district's people living in the city.
- Majhi or Standard (Majority)
Other Languages include:
- Urdu being the national language is spoken and understood.
- English is also understood and spoken by the sizeable educated people.
Geography and climate
Gujranwala is located at 32.16° North, 74.18° East and is 226 metres (744 ft) above sea level. It shares borders with Ghakhar Mandi and various small towns and villages. To its south lies the provincial capital of Lahore, which is roughly 80 km away. Sialkot and Gujrat lie to its north. Gujrat connects Gujranwala with Bhimber and Mirpure Azad Jammun and Kashmir while Silakot connects it with Jammun. In the southwest lies Faisalabad, roughly 160 km from the city and Shiekhupura.
Gujranwala has a hot semi-arid climate (BSh) according to Köppen-Geiger system. It changes quite drastically through the year. The summer periods last from June through to September where the temperature reaches 36–42 degrees Celsius. The coldest months are usually November to February. The temperature can drop to seven degrees Celsius on average. The highest precipitation months are usually July and August when the monsoon season hits the Punjab province. During the other months the average rainfall is roughly 25 mm. The driest months are usually November through to April, when little rainfall is seen.
|Climate data for Gujranwala|
|Average high °C (°F)||19.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||12.2
|Average low °C (°F)||5.3
|Precipitation mm (inches)||31
|Source: Climate-Data.org, altitude: 225m|
According to the new local government system, Gujranwala district (which previously comprised five main tehsils — Gujranwala City, Gujranwala Sadar, Kamonki, Nowshehra Virkan and Wazirabad) has now become Gujranwala City district, which comprises the following towns:
- Ghakhar Mandi
- Khiali Shahpur
- Nowshera Virkan
- Qila Didar Singh
It is administered by City District Government Gujranwala (CDGG)..
Gujranwala is a rapidly developing commercial and industrial nerve center in Pakistan. It is playing a major role to support the Pakistan economy. It is a large industrial city with numerous textile mills, cutlery industry and large agricultural processing plants. Major exports include rice, sanitary fittings, textiles, plastic furniture, pots, room coolers and heaters, gas stove, agricultural tools and equipment, electrical equipment, carpets, glass goods, surgical equipment, leather products, metal utensils, automotive machinery parts, and machinery for military uses, transformers, electric fans, hosiery, washing machines, rice husking plants, agricultural implements, motorcycles, food products, domestic & industrial motors are being manufactured which have been displayed in Made-in-Gujranwala exhibitions every year. Its industries have developed and introduced various products at the national & international level. More than 500,000 workers have been deployed in the industrial units in Gujranwala while its share in national production was 9 per cent and in revenue 8 per cent.
The rural areas around Gujranwala produce a large variety of agricultural goods, the main crops grown are wheat, rice, potato, barley and millet.
The Gujranwala Chamber of Commerce and Industry (GCCI) is established and Khawaja Amer Hassan is current President of GCCI. Because of its ideal location on economic lifeline of G.T. Road in Punjab, Gujranwala city has long been a centre of trade and industry. The city was famous for its metal utensils manufacturing industry even under British rule before independence. Rapid growth was however, seen after independence in 1947. The number of industrial units enhanced from 40 in 1947 to more than 20,600 industrial units of Gujranwala were playing an important role in the national economy.
Gujranwala, Gujrat and Sialkot are the "golden triangle" of the division, playing important role in national economy, which has been acknowledged by foreign trade delegations during their visits in city. About 60% of Pakistan's small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are located in the region of this Export Triangle of Pakistan.
Away from the international border, the city attracted artisans and investors from all sides and today it has three industrial estates.The Duddar Export Processing Zone is located on the main Gujranwala-Lahore Grand Trunk Road. The Punjab Small Industries Corporation (PSIC) and Export Processing Zone Authority (EPZA) jointly developed this Export Processing Zone worth Rs 99.40 million (US$1.71 million) Both planned and unplanned settlements are emerging.
.It ranks as the third largest industrial centre in the country, after Karachi and Faisalabad, in view of the availability of raw material and skilled labour. The Gujranwala Chamber of Commerce and Industry(GCCI) is the representative body of traders,and has around 3,800 registered members, while there are also several unregistered businesses that operate informally.
The nature of industry here is varied and vast with major part of light engineering industry besides textile, leather, electrical engineering, auto industry.ceramics, cutlery,manufacturing plants and large agricultural processing plants and many others.The major development is that the manufacturers of quality products have devolved on exports, Its annual export is 700 million $.Apart from export, the industry has lowered the import bill to around 1.2 billion dollars by producing items locally that were previously imported from other countries.
As of June 2012[update] Pakistan's electricity problems were so severe that violent riots took place all across Punjab. According to protesters load shedding in Gujranwala was depriving the city from electricity 22 hours a day, causing businesses to go bust and making living extremely hard.
Gujranwala is a historical and cultural centre in the northeast region of the Punjab province, offering a number of sights and activities. The city hosts bodybuilding tournaments, Kabaddi matches, and weightlifting competitions. Food is another thing Gujranwala is known for. The city has developed a very distinct kind of barbecue foods.
Gujranwala has a lot of tourist attractions and places of interest. There are many modern shopping malls where the visitors can enjoy shopping in controlled environment and can buy local and international brands. There is an Officers' Club which has a swimming pool and squash complex, with the scenic natural beauty of Gujranwala Golf and Country Club. There are modern, innovative landmarks like Jinnah Stadium, Pace Shopping Centre and Nishan-e-Manzil. Jinnah Park, Model Town Park, Gulshan Park, Liaqat Park and other recreational places ensure that the city offers something for everyone.
Gujranwala has an enormous well-known Educational institutes that includes University of the Punjab, Gujranwala one of the top campuses, SWEDISH College of Engineering & Technology, Rachna University of Engineering and Technology, Allama Iqbal Open University, Al Madina Islamic University, Virtual University of Pakistan, GIFT University, with 32 government and private colleges spread across different areas of the city comprising Gujranwala Medical College, Punjab Group of Colleges, one law college; Muhammad Ali Jinnah Law College, one nuclear institute; Gujranwala Institute of Nuclear Medicine and 13 distinguished institutes.
Gujranwala has a number of hospitals, including CMH Gujranwala Cantt, Allama Iqbal Hospital, Siddique Sadiq Memorial Trust Hospital, Chaudhry Hospital, Al-Shifa hospital, Al-Rai hospital, Salamat Hospital, Al-Munawar Hospital for Paralysis, Gujranwala, Kamran Surgical & Gyne Hospital, Gondal Medical Complex Hospital, Chattah hospital, Wapda Town Hospital and DHQ hospital.
Gujranwala is an extremely accessible city, benefiting from excellent road and rail links built during the reign of the British that have allowed the city to grow and prosper. By road, the city is less than one hours away from Lahore and three hours drive from Rawalpindi/Islamabad. The city has a dry port for the export of local products to the rest of the world. The Grand Trunk Road and the motorways have helped the logistical movement of cargo as well as communiting from one city to the next. Important highways off shooting Gujranwala are, Gujranwala-Hafizabad-Pindi Bhattian-Chiniot-Jhang road, Gujranwala-Sialkot road, Gujranwala-Shiekhupura road, Gujranwala-Pasrur road and Gujranwala-Alipure Chatha road.
There are also rail links with major cities in Pakistan including Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, Peshawar, Faisalabad as well as smaller cities within the country. The Gujranwala Railway Station was built by the British before the Independence of Pakistan and was one of the largest railway stations of the Asia. It is situated on the Grand Trunk Road which passes through the centre of the city.
Sammi Daewoo, a Korean company, has also started its transport services from Gujranwala to many major cities of the Pakistan since 2006 and provides luxury transportation for people of Gujranwala. The terminal is situated on G.T. road near Aziz Cross (Rawalpindi bypass Chowk). Star Travels is an important private road transport terminal situated on Sheikhupura road. General Bus Stand is the largest road transport terminal of the city located on G.T. road. Gujranwala City Tours is the urban transport set up of the city.
The city is served by two international airports at Lahore and Sialkot which offer flights domestically as well as internationally. Allama Iqbal International Airport (100 km from the city) and Sialkot International Airport (40 km from the city) are the prime airports that provide flights to Gujranwala. There is an air base run by Pakistan Army known as Military field Airbase Rahwali, located on Shara-e-Quaid in Cantt area.
Pakistan Flying Disc Federation is also situated at Gujranwala.
Food and beverage
Gujranwala is famous for its cuisine. A number of restaurants in Gujranwala offer a variety of food. Chinese, continental, fast food and popular local dishes are offered at different eating places. People from other cities and far off places visit Gujranwala to enjoy popular traditional food like "chanp", "Chirray","Batair"', "kabab", and "tikka". The favourite and common food, known in Urdu as "Mun bhata khana" is rice and lentils, commonly called "Dal chaawal". As well as foreign brands are also in increase demand.
- Ahmed Nager Chatha
- Garden Town
- Ghakhar Mandi
- Gujranwala District
- Gujranwala Division
- Gujranwala Electric Power Company
- Model Town
- Punjab Pakistan
- Rana Colony
- Rasool Nagar
- Ratta Road
- Nick name of Gujranwala
- "Principal Cities of Pakistan". citypopulation.de. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
- Pakistan: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population. World Gazetteer. Retrieved 11 December 2010.
- World Gazetteer. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- Location of Gujranwala – Falling Rain Genomics
- Gujrānwāla Town – Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 12, p. 363.
- Ramesh Chandra Majumdar; Bhāratīya Itihāsa Samiti (1954). The History and Culture of the Indian People: The classical age. G. Allen & Unwin. p. 64. "."
- Nalwa, V. (2009) Hari Singh Nalwa-Champion of the Khalsaji, New Delhi: Manohar, p. 240.
- "Climate: Gujranwala – Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
- Jinnah Stadium, Gujranwala – Monthly Averages
- "Another day of outrage at outages across Punjab". Dawn (Karachi, Pakistan). 18 June 2012. Archived from the original on 18 June 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
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