|This article needs additional citations for verification. (May 2015)|
|• Total||3,198 km2 (1,235 sq mi)|
|Population (August 14, 2014)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+5)|
|• Summer (DST)||PDT (UTC+6)|
Gujranwala (Urdu: گوجرانوالا) also known as the "City of Wrestlers" (Palwana da shehr in Punjabi) is an industrial city in Gujranwala District, Punjab province of Pakistan. It is the seventh-most-populous Pakistani metropolitan areas, and is one of the fastest-growing cities in Pakistan. Gujranwala is 226 metres (744 ft) above sea level. It shares borders with Ghakhar Mandi, Alipur Chatha, Kamonke and several small towns and villages. Punjabi is the local language spoken by most people but English and Urdu are also commonly spoken.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (May 2015)|
According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India, Gujranwala was founded by the Gurjars and renamed Khanpur by the Sansi Jatts of Amritsar who settled there; however, its old name has survived. Many historians also note that the place was named for the Gurjars who ruled the Gurjara-Pratihara.
In 630, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Hsuan Tsang visited a town known as Tse-kia (or Taki), near present-day Gujranwala; a mound near the contemporary village of Asarur has been identified as the site of the ancient city. From the beginning of the 7th century Rajput kingdoms dominated Eastern portions of Pakistan and northern India. In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of some western Punjab region. Eastern Regions of Punjab from Multan to the Rawalpindi in north (Including region of present-day Gujranwala) remained under Rajput rule until 1193. The Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire later ruled the region The Punjab became predominantly Muslim, due to missionary Sufits whose dargahs dot the landscape. Gujranwala evolved as a medieval town, and Sufi missionaries converted the local Gurjar population to Islam. Until the arrival of the Muslims little is known about Gujranwala, except that Taki had fallen into oblivion and Lahore was the chief city. Under Muslim rule the district flourished and then declined. The district gazetteer dates the name "Gujranwala" to about the mid-16th century.
After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh Empire ruled Gujranwala. The Muslims faced restrictions during the Sikh rule. The Sikhs dominated the Punjab after the death of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir in 1707. Gujranwala became important during the rule of the father and grandfather of Ranjit Singh, who were born in the city. Ranjit Singh, also born there, became the powerful of the Sikh rulers. Hari Singh Nalwa, military commander of the Sikh army, was credited with building the "new" Gujranwala.
The area was captured by the British Empire in 1848. In 1881, a railway line was built along the Grand Trunk Road to connect Gujranwala with other cities in the Punjab, facilitating trade. The municipality of Gujranwala was created in 1867, and the North-Western Railway connected Gujranwala with other cities in British India, such as Calcutta and Karachi. Gujranwala's population, according to the 1901 Indian census, was 29,224. In 1903 and 1904, income and expenditure were Rs. 83,100 and Rs. 67,900 respectively. The chief source of income was the octroi (Rs. 59,700).
The predominantly-Muslim population supported the Muslim League and the Pakistan Movement.After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Gujranwala district. Muslims refugees from East Punjab, Haryana, Jammu started arriving and crossed the border into Pakistan; many were given land in district to settle. Gujranwala developed rapidly, and is a leading Pakistani industrial and commercial city. Gujranwala District was governed by a deputy commissioner until it became part of the Gujranwala Division. In 1951 the city became the capital of the district, which encouraged industrial growth. Among its deputy commissioners was Mansur Zaimur Rehman, who served from 1959 to 1962 and began a number of development projects (including the cantonment). In 1991, the city hosted its first test match (at Jinnah Stadium) and several One Day International matches. According to City Mayors Statistics: The world's fastest-growing cities and urban areas Gujranwala will rank 27th in the world in average annual growth from 2006 to 2020 (3.49 percent) and first in Pakistan, ahead of Faisalabad (average annual growth 3.32 percent, 33rd in the world).
Geography and climate
Gujranwala is 226 metres (744 ft) above sea level, sharing borders with Ghakhar Mandi and several towns and villages. About 80 kilometres (50 mi) south is the provincial capital, Lahore. Sialkot and Gujrat lie to its north. Gujrat connects Gujranwala with Bhimber, Mirpure Azad Jammun and Kashmir, and Silakot connects it with Jammun. About 160 kilometres (99 mi) southwest is Faisalabad. To its west are Hafizabad and Pindi Bhattian, which connect Gujranwala to Jhang, Chiniot and Sargodha. Gujranwala is connected to Mandi Bahauddin via Gujrat and via Ali pure Chathah.
Gujranwala has a hot semi-arid climate (BSh), according to the Köppen-Geiger system, and changes throughout the year. During summer (June to September), the temperature reaches 36–42 °C (97–108 °F). The coldest months are usually November to February, when the temperature can drop to an average of 7 °C (45 °F). The highest-precipitation months are usually July and August, when the monsoon reaches the Punjab. During the other months, the average rainfall is about 25 millimetres (0.98 in). The driest months are usually November to April, with little rainfall.
|Climate data for Gujranwala|
|Average high °C (°F)||19.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||12.2
|Average low °C (°F)||5.3
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||31
|Source: Climate-Data.org, altitude: 225m|
Gujranwala District (previously composed of five tehsils: Gujranwala City, Gujranwala Sadar, Kamonki, Nowshehra Virkan and Wazirabad) has become the Gujranwala City District, made up of the following towns:
The main source of energy is a hydroelectric project on the Chenab River. The city also has a dry port which has contributed to its export growth. As of June 2012[update] Pakistan's electricity problems were so severe that riots occurred across the Punjab. According to protesters, load shedding in Gujranwala reduced electricity 22 hours a day, causing businesses to fail and affecting private citizens.
- Gujranwala Division
- Gujranwala Electric Power Company
- List of educational institutions in Gujranwala
- List of people from Gujranwala
- Pakistan: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population. World Gazetteer. Retrieved 11 December 2010.
- "Principal Cities of Pakistan". citypopulation.de. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
- World Gazetteer. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- Location of Gujranwala – Falling Rain Genomics
- Gujrānwāla Town – Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 12, p. 363.
- Ramesh Chandra Majumdar; Bhāratīya Itihāsa Samiti (1954). The History and Culture of the Indian People: The classical age. G. Allen & Unwin. p. 64.
- Nalwa, V. (2009) Hari Singh Nalwa-Champion of the Khalsaji, New Delhi: Manohar, p. 240.
- "Climate: Gujranwala – Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
- Jinnah Stadium, Gujranwala – Monthly Averages
- "Another day of outrage at outages across Punjab". Dawn (Karachi, Pakistan. Gujranwala Electric Power Company (GEPCO) headquartered in Gujranwala is responsible for the supply and management of electricity of Gujranwala Division (except Tehsil Sarai Alamgir of Gujrat dist. which falls into IESCO)). 18 June 2012. Archived from the original on 18 June 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
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- Gujranwala Chamber of Commerce & Industry
- Article on Gujranwala from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica