Religion in Iran
According to the Iranian government, around 90% of Iranians associate themselves with the Shi'a branch of Islam, the official state religion, and about 9% with the Sunni and Sufi branches of Islam. The remaining 0.9% associate themselves with non-Islamic religious minorities, including Bahá'ís, Mandeans, Hindus, Yarsanis, Zoroastrians, Jews, and Christians. The latter three minority religions are officially recognized and protected, and have reserved seats in the Iran parliament. Zoroastrianism was once the majority religion, though today Zoroastrians number only in the tens of thousands. Iran is home to the largest Jewish community in Muslim World. The Bahá'í Faith, Iran's largest non-Muslim religious minority, is not officially recognized, and has been persecuted during its existence in Iran.
- 1 Islam
- 2 Other religions
- 3 Religious freedom
- 4 See also
- 5 External links
- 6 References
Islam does not have a mechanism for the Separation of church and state and has been the official religion and part of the governments of Iran since the Islamic conquest of Iran circa 640 AD. It took another few hundred years for Shi'a Islam to gather and become a religious and political power in Iran. In the history of Shi'a Islam the first Shia state was Idrisid dynasty (780-974) in Maghreb, a region of north west Africa. Then the Alavids dynasty (864 - 928AD) became established in Mazandaran (Tabaristan), in northern Iran. The Alavids were of the Zaidiyyah Shi'a (sometimes called "Fiver".) These dynasties were local. But they were followed by two great and powerful dynasties: Fatimid Caliphate which formed in Ifriqiya in 909 AD and the Buyid dynasty emerged in Daylaman, in north central Iran, about 930 AD and then extended rule over central and western Iran and into Iraq until 1048 AD. The Buyid were also Zaidiyyah Shi'a. Later Sunni Islam came to rule from the Ghaznavids dynasty, 975 to 1187AD, through to the Mongol invasion and establishment of the Ilkhanate which kept Shi'a Islam out of power until the Mongol ruler Ghazan converted to Shi'a Islam in 1310 AD and made it the state religion.
Although Shi'as have lived in Iran since the earliest days of Islam, and there had been Shi'a dynasties in parts of Iran during the 10th and 11th centuries, according to Mortaza Motahhari the majority of Iranian scholars and masses remained Sunni till the time of the Safavids.
However, there are four high points in the history of Shi'a in Iran that expanded this linkage:
- First, the migration of a number of persons belonging to the tribe of the Ash'ari from Iraq to the city of Qum towards the end of the 7th century AD, which is the period of establishment of Imamī Shī‘ism in Iran.
- Second, the influence of the Shī‘ī tradition of Baghdad and Najaf on Iran during the 11th to 12th centuries AD.
- Third, the influence of the school of Hillah on Iran during the 14th century AD.
- Fourth, the influence of the Shī‘ism of Jabal Amel and Bahrain on Iran during the period of establishment of the Safavid rule.
In 1501, the Safavid dynasty established Twelver Shia Islam as the official state religion of Iran. In particular after Ismail I captured Tabriz in 1501 and established Safavids dynasty, he proclaimed Twelver Shiʿism as the state religion, ordering conversion of the Sunnis. As most of his subjects were Sunni he enforced official Shi'ism violently, putting to death those who opposed him. Thousands were killed in subsequent purges. In some cases entire towns were eliminated because they were not willing to convert from Sunni Islam to Shi'ite Islam. Ismail brought Arab Shi'a clerics from Bahrain, Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon in order to preach the Shi'a faith. Isma'il's attempt to spread Shi'ite propaganda among the Turkmen tribes of eastern Anatolia prompted a conflict with the Sunnite Ottoman Empire. Following Iran's defeat by the Ottomans at the Battle of Chaldiran, Safavid expansion fasted, and a process of consolidation began in which Isma'il sought to quell the more extreme expressions of faith among his followers. While Ismail I declared shiism as the official state religion, it was in fact his successor, Tahmasb, who consolidated the Safavid rule and spread Shiʿism in Iran. After a period of indulgence in wine and the pleasures of the harem, he turned pious and parsimonious, observing all the Shiʿite rites and enforcing them as far as possible on his entourage and subjects. Under Abbas I, Iran prospered. Succeeding Safavid rulers promoted Shi'a Islam among the elites, and it was only under Mullah Allamah al-Majlis - court cleric from 1680 until 1698- that Shi'a Islam truly took hold among the masses.
Then there were successive dynasties in Iran - the Afsharid dynasty (1736–1796 AD) (which mixed Shi'a and Sunni), Zand dynasty (1750–1794 AD) (which was Twelver Shi'a Islam), the Qajar dynasty (1794–1925 AD) (again Twelver). There was a brief Iranian Constitutional Revolution in 1905-11 in which the progressive religious and liberal forces rebelled against theocratic rulers in government  who were also associated with European colonialization and their interests in the new Anglo-Persian Oil Company.The secularist efforts ultimately succeeded in the Pahlavi dynasty (1925–1979 AD). The 1953 Iranian coup d'état was orchestrated by Western powers which created a backlash against Western powers in Iran, and was among the background and causes of the Iranian Revolution to the creation of the Islamic republic.
From the Islamization of Iran the cultural and religious expression of Iran participated in the Islamic Golden Age from the 9th through the 13th centuries AD, for 400 years. This period was across Shi'a and Sunni dynasties through to the Mongol governance. Iran participated with its own scientists and scholars. Additionally the most important scholars of almost all of the Islamic sects and schools of thought were Persian or lived in Iran including most notable and reliable Hadith collectors of Shia and Sunni like Shaikh Saduq, Shaikh Kulainy, Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj and Hakim al-Nishaburi, the greatest theologians of Shi'a and Sunni like Shaykh Tusi, Al-Ghazali, Fakhr al-Din al-Razi and Al-Zamakhshari, the greatest Islamic physicians, astronomers, logicians, mathematicians, metaphysicians, philosophers and scientists like Al-Farabi and Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī, the Shaykhs of Sufism like Rumi, Abdul-Qadir Gilani - all these were in Iran or from Iran. And there were poets like Hafiz who wrote extensively in religious themes. Ibn Sina, known as Avicenna in the west, was a polymath and the foremost Islamic physician and philosopher of his time. Hafiz was the most celebrated Persian lyric poet and is often described as a poet's poet. Mowlānā Rumi's importance transcends national and ethnic borders even today. Readers of the Persian language in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan see him as one of their most significant classical poets and an influence on many poets through history. In addition to individuals, whole institutions arose - Nizamiyyas were the medieval institutions of Islamic higher education established by Nizam al-Mulk in the 11th century. These were the first well-organized universities in the Muslim world. The most famous and celebrated of all the nizamiyyah schools was Al-Nizamiyya of Baghdad (established 1065), where Nizam al-Mulk appointed the distinguished pilosopher and theologian, al-Ghazali, as a professor. Other Nizamiyyah schools were located in Nishapur, Balkh, Herat and Isfahan.
While the dynasties avowed either Shi'a or Sunni, and institutions and individuals claimed either Sunni or Shi'a affiliations, Shi'a - Sunni relations were part of Islam in Iran and continue today when Ayatollah Khomeini also called for unity between Sunni and Shi'a Muslims.
Today Islam is the religion of 99.6% of Iranians of which approximately 89% are Shi'a - almost all of whom are Twelvers. The next largest Shi'a group are the Nizari Ismailism Shi'a, sometimes called Seveners, some of whom fled Iran to South Asia, especially Mumbai, in the 1840s after a failed coup against the Shah of the Qajar dynasty. Many still remain scattered throughout Iran,The Shi'a groups have distinctions between Fiver, Sevener and Twelver, derived from their belief in how many divinely ordained leaders there were who are descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah and his son-in-law ‘Alī. These Imams are considered the best source of knowledge about the Qur'an and Islam, the most trusted carriers and protectors of Muḥammad's Sunnah (habit or usual practice) and the most worthy of emulation. In addition to the lineage of Imams, Twelvers have their preferred hadith collections - The Four Books - which are narrations regarded by Muslims as important tools for understanding the Quran and in matters of jurisprudence. For Twelvers the lineage of Imams are known as the Twelve Imāms. Of these Imams, only one is buried in Iran - at the Imam Reza shrine, for Ali ar-Ridha who lived from 765 - 818 AD, before any Shi'a dynasties arose in Iran. The last Imam recognized by Twelvers, Muhammad al-Mahdi, was born in 868 AD as the Alavids spread their rule in Iran while in conflict with Al-Mu'tamid, the Abbasid Caliph at the time. Several Imams are buried in Iraq, as sites of pilgrimage, and the rest are in Saudi Arabia. In addition two of the Five Martyrs of Shia Islam have connections to Iran - Shahid Thani (1506–1558) lived in Iran later in life, and Qazi Nurullah Shustari (1549–1610) was born in Iran. The predominant school of theology, practice, and jurisprudence (Madh'hab) in Shi'a Islam is Jafari established by Ja'far as-Sadiq.
Sunni Muslims are the second largest religious group in Iran. Specifically, Sunni Islam came to rule in Iran after the period Sunni were distinguished from Shi'a through the Ghaznavids from 975 AD, followed by the Great Seljuq Empire and the Khwārazm-Shāh dynasty until the Mongol invasion of Iran. Islam returned to rule when Ghazan converted but he soon converted specifically to Shi'a.
About 9% of the Iranian population are Sunni Muslims - mostly Kurds in the northwest, Arabs and Balochs in the southwest and southeast, and a smaller number of Persians, Pashtuns and Turkmens in the northeast.
The Safaviya sufi order, originates during the circa Safavid dynasty circa 700AD. A later order in Persia is the Chishti. The Nimatullahi are the largest Shi'i Sufi order active throughout Iran and there is the Naqshbandi, a Sunni order active mostly in the Kurdish regions of Iran. The Oveyssi-Shahmaghsoudi order is the largest Iranian Sufi order which currently operates outside of Iran.
Famous Sufis include al-Farabi, al-Ghazali, Jalāl-ad-Dīn Rūmī and Hafiz. Rumi's two major works, Dīwān-e Šams and Maṭnawīye Ma'nawī, are considered by some to be the greatest works of Sufi mysticism and literature.
Since the 1979 Revolution, Sufi practices have been repressed by the Islamic Republic, forcing some Sufi leaders into exile. the largest four sufi orders are Naqashbandis,Chistis,Qadris & Suharwardis & their sub branches also known as ahlesunnat or sunni & in subcontinent also followed & called barelvis(Sunni) & all they are followers of imam Abu Hanafia.
There are several major religious minorities in Iran, Bahá'ís (est. 300,000-350,000) and Christians (est. 300,000, with one group composing over 200,000) being the largest. Smaller groups include Jews, Zoroastrians, Mandaeans, Yarsan (Ahl-e Haqq), as well as local religions practiced by tribal minorities.
Zoroastrians, Jews, and Christians are officially recognized and protected by the government. For example, shortly after his return from exile in 1979, at a time of great unrest, the revolution's leader, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini issued a fatwa ordering that Jews and other minorities be treated well.
The constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran recognizes Islam, Christianity, Judaism, and Zoroastrianism as official religions. Article 13 of the Iranian Constitution, recognizes them as People of the Book and they are granted the right to exercise religious freedom in Iran. Five of the 270 seats in parliament are reserved for these each of these three religions.
On the other hand, senior government posts are reserved for Muslims. All minority religious groups, including Sunni Muslims, are barred from being elected president. Jewish, Christian and Zoroastrian schools must be run by Muslim principals. Compensation for death paid to the family of a non-Muslim was (by law) less than if the victim was a Muslim. Conversion to Islam is encouraged by entitling converts to inherit the entire share of their parents' (or even uncle's) estate if their siblings (or cousins) remain non-Muslim. Iran's non-Muslim population has fallen dramatically. For example, the Jewish population in Iran dropped from 80,000 to 30,000 in the first two decades of the revolution.
Reserved Parliament seats
After the Persian Constitutional Revolution, the Constitution of 1906 provided for reserved Parliamentary seats granted to the recognized religious minorities, a provision maintained after the 1979 Iranian Revolution. There are 2 seats for Armenians and one for each other minority: Assyrians, Jews and Zoroastrians. Given that the Bahá'í Faith is not recognized, they do not have seats in the parliament. Sunni Muslims have no specific reserved seats, but can take part in the ordinary election process at all constitutional levels. Sunni members of parliament are mostly from areas with strong Sunni ethnic minorities like Baluchistan.
List of minority MPs in recent Majlis:
According to Moaddel and Azadarmaki (2003), fewer than 5% of Iranians do not believe in God. A 2009 Gallup poll showed that 83% of Iranians said religion is an important part of their daily life. Non-religious Iranians are officially unrecognized by the government.
The Bahá'í Faith, Iran's largest non-Muslim religious minority, is not officially recognized, and has been persecuted during its existence in Iran. Since the 1979 revolution the persecution of Bahá'ís has increased with oppression, the denial of civil rights and liberties, and the denial of access to higher education and employment. There were an estimated 350,000 Bahá'ís in Iran in 1986. The Bahá'ís are scattered in small communities throughout Iran with a heavy concentration in Tehran. Most Bahá'ís are urban, but there are some Bahá'í villages, especially in Fars and Mazandaran. The majority of Bahá'ís are Persians, but there is a significant minority of Azarbaijani Bahá'ís, and there are even a few among the Kurds. Bahá'ís are neither recognized nor protected by the Iranian constitution.
The Bahá'í Faith originated in Iran during the 1840s as a messianic movement out of Shia Islam. Opposition arose quickly, and Amir Kabir, as prime-minister, regarded the Bábis as a threat and ordered the execution of the founder of the movement, the Báb and killing of many Babis. As another example two prominent Bahá'ís were arrested and executed circa 1880 because the Imám-Jum'ih at the time owed them a large sum of money for business relations and instead of paying them he confiscated their property and brought public ridicule upon them as being Bahá'ís. Their execution was committed despite observers testifying to their innocence.
The Shia clergy, as well as many Iranians, have continued to regard Bahá'ís as heretics, and consequently Bahá'ís have encountered much prejudice and have sometimes been the objects of persecution. The situation of the Bahá'ís improved under the Pahlavi shahs when the government actively sought to secularize public life however there were still organizations actively persecuting the Bahá'ís in addition to there being curses children would learn decrying the Báb and Bahá'ís. The Hojjatieh was a semi-clandestine traditionalist Shia organization founded by Muslim clerics on the premise that the most immediate threat to Islam was the Bahá'í Faith. In March to June 1955, the Ramadan period that year, a widespread systematic program was undertaken cooperatively by the government and the clergy. During the period they destroyed the national Bahá'í Center in Tehran, confiscated properties and made it illegal for a time to be Bahá'í (punishable by 2 to 10 year prison term.) Founder of SAVAK, Teymur Bakhtiar, took a pick-ax to a Bahá'í building himself at the time.
The social situation of the Bahá'ís was drastically altered after the 1979 revolution. The Hojjatieh group flourished during the 1979 revolution but was forced to dissolve after Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini speech on 12 August 1983. However there are signs of it reforming circa 2002-4. Beyond the Hojjatieh group, the Islamic Republic does not recognize the Bahá'ís as a religious minority, and they have been officially persecuted, "some 200 of whom have been executed and the rest forced to convert or subjected to the most horrendous disabilities."  Starting in late 1979 the new government systematically targeted the leadership of the Bahá'í community by focusing on the Bahá'í National Spiritual Assembly (NSA) and Local Spiritual Assemblies (LSAs); prominent members of NSAs and LSAs were either killed or disappeared. Like most conservative Muslims, Khomeini believed them to be apostates, for example issuing a fatwa stating:
It is not acceptable that a tributary [non-Muslim who pays tribute] changes his religion to another religion not recognized by the followers of the previous religion. For example, from the Jews who become Bahai's nothing is accepted except Islam or execution.
This is all despite the fact that conversion from Judaism and Zoroastrianism in Iran is well documented since the 1850s - indeed such a change of status removing legal and social protections.
Allegations of Bahá'í involvement with other powers have long been repeated in many venues including denunciations from the president.
During the drafting of the new constitution the wording intentionally excluded the Bahá'ís from protection as a religious minority. More recently, documentation has been provided that shows governmental intent to destroy the Bahá'í community. The government has intensified propaganda and hate speech against Bahá'ís through the Iranian media; Bahá'ís are often attacked and dehumanized on political, religious, and social grounds to separate Bahá'ís from the rest of society. According to Eliz Sanasarian "Of all non-Muslim religious minorities the persecution of the Bahais has been the most widespread, systematic, and uninterrupted.… In contrast to other non-Muslim minorities, the Bahais have been spread throughout the country in villages, small towns, and various cities, fueling the paranoia of the prejudiced."
Since the 1979 revolution, the authorities have destroyed most or all of the Baha'i holy places in Iran, including the House of the Bab in Shiraz, a house in Tehran where Bahá'u'lláh was brought up, and other sites connected to aspects of Babi and Baha'i history. These demolitions have sometimes been followed by the construction of mosques in a deliberate act of triumphalism. Indeed several agencies and experts and journals have published concerns about viewing the developments as a case of genocide: Roméo Dallaire, Genocide Watch, Sentinel Project for Genocide Prevention, War Crimes, Genocide, & Crimes against Humanity and the Journal of Genocide Research.
Christianity in Iran has had a long history, dating back to the very early years of the faith. And the region is thought to have affected Christianity as well with perhaps the introduction of the concept of The Devil. A relatively large number of Christians practice their religion in at least 600 Iranian churches. There are some very old churches in Iran - perhaps the oldest and largest is Tatavous Vank ( St. Tatavous Cathedral), which is also called the Ghara Kelissa (the black monastery) south of Makou. By far the largest group of Christians in Iran are Armenians under the Armenian Apostolic Church composing over 110,000 of the estimated almost 128,000 Christians. There are hundreds of Christian churches in Iran. The Armenian church is organized under Archbishop Manukian since at least the 1980s. Unofficial estimates for the Assyrian Christian population range between 10,000 and 20,000. Christian groups outside the country estimate the size of the Protestant Christian community to be fewer than 10,000, although many may practice in secret. There are approximately 20,000 Christians Iranian citizens abroad who left after the 1979 revolution. Christianity has always been a minority religion, overshadowed by the majority state religions—Zoroastrianism in the past, and Shia Islam today. Christians of Iran have played a significant part in the history of Christian mission. While always a minority the Armenian Christians have had an autonomy of educational institutions such as the use of their language in schools. The Government regards the Mandaeans as Christians, and they are included among the three recognized religious minorities; however, Mandaeans do not consider themselves Christians.
The small evangelical Protestants Christian minority in Iran have been subject to Islamic "government suspicion and hostility" according to Human Rights Watch at least in part because of their "readiness to accept and even seek out Muslim converts" as well as their Western origins. According Human Rights Watch in the 1990s, two Muslim converts to Christianity who had become ministers were sentenced to death for apostasy and other charges. There still have not been any reported executions of apostates.
Zoroastrians in Iran have had a long history reaching back thousands of years, and is the oldest religious community of Iran to survive to the present-day. Prior to the Muslim Arab invasion of Persia (Iran), Zoroastrianism had been the primary religion of Iranian people. Zoroastrians mainly are ethnic Persians and are concentrated in the cities of Tehran, Kerman, and Yazd. The Islamic Republic government estimates the number of Zoroastrians is 20,000, Zoroastrian groups in Iran say their number is approximately 60,000. According to the Iranian census data from 2011 the number of Zoroastrians in Iran was 25,271.
Since the fall of the Sassanid Zoroastrian empire by the Arab conquest of Persia, in different periods of post-Islamic history of Iran, Zoroastrians have periodically faced extreme religious oppression including forced conversions, massacres, harassment, and other forms of discrimination.
Judaism is one of the oldest religions practiced in Iran and dates back to the late biblical times. The biblical books of Isaiah, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, Chronicles, and Esther contain references to the life and experiences of Jews in Persia.
Iran supports by far the largest Jewish population of any Muslim country. The current Jewish population of Iran is estimated by most sources to be 25,000, though estimates vary, as low as 11,000  and as high as 40,000. According to the Iranian census data from 2011 the number of Jews in Iran was 8,756, much lower than the figure previously estimated.
Emigration has lowered the population of 75,000 to 80,000 Jews living in Iran prior to the 1979 Islamic revolution. According to The world Jewish Library, most Jews in Iran live in Tehran, Isfahan (3,000), and Shiraz. BBC reported Yazd is home to ten Jewish families, six of them related by marriage, however some estimate the number is much higher. Historically, Jews maintained a presence in many more Iranian cities.
Today, the largest groups of Jews from Iran are found in the United States which is home to approximately 100,000 Iranian Jews, who have settled especially in the Los Angeles area and New York area. Israel is home to 75,000 Iranian Jews, including second-generation Israelis
Hinduism in Iran has a history stretching back to the Middle Ages. Prior to the Iranian Revolution of 1979, many Hindu-based missions such as the International Society for Krishna Consciousness and Transcendental meditation, had locations in Iran. A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada traveled to Tehran in March 1975 and August 1976. After 1979, these locations have been abandoned.
Iran is an Islamic republic. Its constitution mandates that the official religion is Islam (see: Islam in Iran), specifically the Twelver Ja'fari school of Islam, with other Islamic schools being accorded full respect. Followers of all Islamic schools are free to act in accordance with their own jurisprudence in performing their religious rites. The constitution recognizes Zoroastrian, Jewish, and Christian Iranians as religious minorities.
Complaints about religious freedom in Iran revolve around the persecution of the Bahá'í Faith, unequal rights of non-Muslim religions, and the forbidding of conversion from Islam to other religions. The Bahá'í Faith is not recognized and is claimed by some to be persecuted. There have been reports of imprisonment, harassment, intimidation, discrimination, and murder based on religious beliefs.
Hudud statutes grant different punishments to Muslims and non-Muslims for the same crime. In the case of adultery, for example, a Muslim man who is convicted of committing adultery with a Muslim woman receives 100 lashes; the sentence for a non-Muslim man convicted of adultery with a Muslim woman is death. In 2004, inequality of "blood money" (diyeh) was eliminated, and the amount paid by a perpetrator for the death or wounding a Christian, Jew, or Zoroastrian man, was made the same as that for a Muslim. However, the International Religious Freedom Report reports that Baha'is were not included in the provision and their blood is considered Mobah, (i.e. it can be spilled with impunity).
Conversion from Islam to another religion (apostasy), is prohibited and may be punishable by death. Article 23 of the constitution states, "the investigation of individuals' beliefs is forbidden, and no one may be molested or taken to task simply for holding a certain belief." But another article, 167, gives judges the discretion "to deliver his judgment on the basis of authoritative Islamic sources and authentic fatwa (rulings issued by qualified clerical jurists)." The founder of the Islamic Republic, Islamic cleric Ruhollah Khomeini, who was a grand Ayatollah, ruled "that the penalty for conversion from Islam, or apostasy, is death."
At least two Iranians - Hashem Aghajari and Hassan Yousefi Eshkevari - have been arrested and charged with apostasy (though not executed), not for converting to another faith but for statements and/or activities deemed by courts of the Islamic Republic to be in violation of Islam, and that appear to outsiders to be Islamic reformist political expression. Hashem Aghajari, was found guilty of apostasy for a speech urging Iranians to "not blindly follow" Islamic clerics; Hassan Youssefi Eshkevari was charged with apostasy for attending the 'Iran After the Elections' Conference in Berlin Germany which was disrupted by anti-regime demonstrators.
- Iran Electoral Archive - The Role of Religion
- Minorities in the Islamic Republic: Fear of Separatists Qantara.de
- Iran, CIA - World Factbook.
- U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (2008-04-15). "CIA - The World Factbook -- Iran". U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- U.S. State Department (2009-10-26). "Iran - International Religious Freedom Report 2009". The Office of Electronic Information, Bureau of Public Affairs. Retrieved 2009-12-01.
- IRAN: Life of Jews Living in Iran
- Morocco lead in the 1950s The Enchantment of Judaism: Israeli Anxieties and Puzzles by Aviad Kleinberg, Critical Inquiry 35 (Spring 2009)
- United Natiojfnnvndsjfig s9 e shf q4trt y398789545375745747574875747754857485743637373-2--02-8-48688384-5-3949954=5=6==9495886--4--3-48485858 General Assembly, Sixtieth session, Third Committee. A/C.3/60/L.45
- Akhavi, Shahrough (1980). Religion and Politics in Contemporary Iran: clergy-state relations in the Pahlavi period. Albany, New York: SUNY Press. ISBN 0-87395-408-4.
- Tavakoli-Targhi, Mohamed (2001). "Anti-Bahá'ísm and Islamism in Iran, 1941-1955". Iran-Nameh 19 (1): 79–124.
- Note: readers should know that specific regions would be ruled by various dynasties so many of the dynasties of Iran have overlapping dates as they co-existed in various neighboring regions as part of Iran.
- Article by Sayyid 'Ali ibn 'Ali Al-Zaidi, A short History of the Yemenite Shiites (2005) Referencing: Iranian Influence on Moslem Literature
- Dunn, Ross E. (2005). The adventures of Ibn Battuta, a Muslim traveler of the fourteenth century. University of California Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-520-24385-9.
- Islam and Iran: A Historical Study of Mutual Services
- Four Centuries of Influence of Iraqi Shiism on Pre-Safavid Iran
- Andrew J. Newman, Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire, I. B. Tauris (March 30, 2006)
- during Safavids era By Ehasan Yarshater, Ecyclopedia Iranica
- Molavi, Afshin, The Soul of Iran, Norton, 2005, p.168
- Iran Janet Afary, Ecyclopedia Britannica
- Molavi, Afshin, The Soul of Iran, Norton, 2005, p.170
- Bayat, Mangol (1991). Iran’s First Revolution: Shi’ism and the Constitutional Revolution of 1905–1909. Oxford University Press. p. 10. ISBN 0-19-506822-X.
- "Barack Obama's Cairo speech". London: Guardian.co.uk. 2009-06-04. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
- Matthew E. Falagas, Effie A. Zarkadoulia, George Samonis (2006). "Arab science in the golden age (750–1258 C.E.) and today",The FASEB Journal 20, p. 1581-1586.
- Kühnel E., in Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesell, Vol. CVI (1956)
- Istanbul to host Ibn Sina Int'l Symposium, Retrieved on: December 17, 2008.
- Rumi Yoga
- Life of Rumi
- International Crisis Group. The Shiite Question in Saudi Arabia, Middle East Report No. 45, 19 September 2005.
- Daftary, Farhad (1998). A Short History of the Ismailis. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 196–199. ISBN 0-7486-0687-4.
- The Origins of the Sunni/Shia split in Islam by Hussein Abdulwaheed Amin, Editor of IslamForToday.com
- US Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (2007). "International Religious Freedom Report 2007: Iran". US State Department. Retrieved 2008-05-19.
- CIA - The World Factbook - Iran
- Éric Geoffroy, Roger Gaetani, Introduction to Sufism: The Inner Path of Islam, World Wisdom, Inc, 2010. (p. 26)
- Matthijs van den Bos, Mystic regimes: Sufism and the state in Iran, from the late Qajar era to the Islamic Republic, Brill, 2002.
- Federation Internationale des Ligues des Droits de L'Homme (2003-08). "Discrimination against religious minorities in IRAN" (PDF). fidh.org. Archived from the original on 2008-04-22. Retrieved 2008-05-19.
- Affolter, Friedrich W. (Jan. 2005). "The Specter of Ideological Genocide: The Bahá'ís of Iran". War Crimes, Genocide, & Crimes against Humanity 1 (1): pp. 75–114. Retrieved 2009-12-01.
- Price, Massoume (December 2002). "History of Christians and Christianity in Iran". Christianity in Iran. FarsiNet Inc. Retrieved 2009-12-01.
- Halm, H. "AHL-E ḤAQQ". Iranica. Iranica.
- Wright, Last Revolution (2000), p.207
- Sanasarian, Eliz (2000). Religious Minorities in Iran. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 73–84. ISBN 0-521-77073-4.
- Wright, The Last Great Revolution, (2000), p.210
- Wright, The Last Great Revolution, (2000), p.216
- Wright, The Last Great Revolution, (2000), p.207
- Iran Human Rights Documentation Center (2007). "A Faith Denied: The Persecution of the Baha'is of Iran". Iran Human Rights Documentation Center. Retrieved 2007-03-03.
- He is also since September 2008 chairman of the Asian Bureau of World Assyrian Union, cf. Iran: Majlis speaker felicitates Assyrian MP on new post, mathaba.net, September 10, 2008
- Hosen, Nadirsyah (4–27–2007). "Human Rights Provisions in the Second Amendment to the Indonesian Constitution from Sharí‘ah Perspective". The Muslim World 97 (2): 200–224. doi:10.1111/j.1478-1913.2007.00171.x. Retrieved 3–28–2012.
- Kazaemzadeh, Firuz (6–22–2000). "The Baha'is in Iran: Twenty Years of Repression.(non-Muslim religious minority)". Social Research (New School for Social Research) 2000 (June). Retrieved 3–28–2012.
- Cameron, Geoffrey; Tahirih Danesh (11–24–2008). A revolution without rights? Women, Kurds and Baha’is searching for equality in Iran. Foreign Policy Centre. p. 8,18. ISBN 978-1-905833-12-2.
- Amnesty International (1996-10). "Dhabihullah Mahrami: Prisoner of Conscience". AI INDEX: MDE 13/34/96. Retrieved 2006-10-20.
- EU. 2004. (2004-09-13). EU Annual Report on Human Rights (PDF). Belgium: European Communities. ISBN 92-824-3078-2. Retrieved 2006-10-20.
- International Federation for Human Rights (2003-08-01). "Discrimination against religious minorities in Iran" (PDF). fdih.org. Retrieved 2007-03-19.
- Smith, Peter (2000). "Amir Kabir, Mirza Taqi Khan". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. p. 38. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
- de Vries, Jelle (2002). The Babi Question You Mentioned--: The Origins of the Baha'i Community of the Netherlands, 1844-1962. Peeters Publishers. p. 22. ISBN 978-90-429-1109-3.
- Fischer, Michael; Abedi, Mehdi (1990). Debating Muslims. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 48–54, 222–250. ISBN 0-299-12434-7.
- Taheri, Amir, The Spirit of Allah, (1985), p.189-90
- Akhavi, Shahrough (1980). Religion and politics in contemporary Iran: clergy-state relations in the Pahlavī period. SUNY Press. pp. 76–79. ISBN 978-0-87395-408-2.
- Samii, Bill (13 September 2004). "Iran Report: September 13, 2004". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty , Inc.). Retrieved 2009-12-11.
- Turban for the Crown : The Islamic Revolution in Iran, by Said Amir Arjomand, Oxford University Press, 1988, p.169
- from Poll Tax, 8. Tributary conditions, (13), Tahrir al-Vasileh, volume 2, pp. 497-507, Quoted in A Clarification of Questions : An Unabridged Translation of Resaleh Towzih al-Masael by Ayatollah Sayyed Ruhollah Mousavi Khomeini, Westview Press/ Boulder and London, c1984, p.432
- Cockroft, James (1979-02-23). Seven Days.
- "U.S. Jews Hold Talks With Khomeini Aide on Outlook for Rights". The New York Times. 1979-02-13.
- source: Kayhan International, May 30, 1983; see also Firuz Kazemzadeh, `The Terror Facing the Baha'is` New York Review of Books, 1982, 29 (8): 43-44.]
- Maneck (née Stiles), Susan (1984). "Early Zoroastrian Conversions to the Bahá'í Faith in Yazd, Iran". In Cole, Juan Ricardo; Momen, Moojan. Studies in Bábí and Baháʹí history. Volume 2 of Studies in Babi and Baha'i History: From Iran East and West (illustrated ed.). Kalimat Press. pp. 67–93. ISBN 978-0-933770-40-9.
- Smith, Peter (2000). "Zoroastrianism". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. p. 369. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
- Maneck, Susan (1990). "Conversion of Religious Minorities to the Baha'i Faith in Iran: Some Preliminary Observations". Journal of Baha'i Studies (Association for Baha'i Studies North America) 3 (3). Retrieved 3–28–2012.
- Sharon, Moshe (13/01/2011). "Jewish Conversion to the Bahā˒ī faith". Chair in Baha'i Studies Publications. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Retrieved 3–28–2012.
- Amanat, Mehrdad (2011). Jewish Identities in Iran: Resistance and Conversion to Islam and the Baha'i Faith. I.B.Tauris. p. 256. ISBN 978-1-84511-891-4.
- Sanasarian, Eliz (2000). Religious minorities in Iran. Cambridge University Press. pp. 53, 80. ISBN 978-0-521-77073-6.
- Sanasarian, Eliz (2008). "The Comparative Dimension of the Baha'i Case and Prospects for Change in the Future". In Brookshaw, Dominic P.; Fazel, Seena B. The Baha'is of Iran: Socio-historical studies. New York, NY: Routledge. p. 157. ISBN 0-203-00280-6.
- Afshari, Reza (2001). Human Rights in Iran: The Abuse of Cultural Relativism. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-8122-3605-7.
- The Sentinel Project (2009-05-19). "Preliminary Assessment: The Threat of Genocide to the Bahá'ís of Iran". The Sentinel Project. Retrieved 2010-10-10.
- Dallaire, Roméo (29 November 2011). "Baha'i People in Iran—Inquiry". Statements from Roméo Dallaire. The Liberal caucus in the Senate. Retrieved 3–28-2012.
- Dallaire, Roméo (16 June 2010). "Baha'i Community in Iran". Statements from Roméo Dallaire. The Liberal caucus in the Senate. Retrieved 3–28–2012.
- "Genocide and politicide watch: Iran". Genocide Watch; The International Alliance to End Genocide. 3–28–2012. Retrieved 3–28–2012.
- Seyfried, Rebeka (3–21–2012). "Progress report from Mercyhurst: Assessing the risk of genocide in Iran". Iranian Baha'is. The Sentinel Project for Genocide Prevention. Retrieved 3–28–2012.
- Affolter, Friedrich W. (January, 2005). "The Specter of Ideological Genocide: The Bahá’ís of Iran". War Crimes, Genocide, & Crimes against Humanity (Criminal Justice Program of Penn State Altoona) 1 (1): 75–114. ISSN 1551-322X. Retrieved 3–28–2012.
- Momen, Moojan (June, 2005). "The Babi and Baha’i community of Iran: a case of "suspended genocide"?". Journal of Genocide Research 7 (2): 221–241. Retrieved 3–28-2012.
- Russell, Jeffrey Burton (1987). The Devil: perceptions of evil from antiquity to primitive Christianity. Cornell University Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-8014-9409-3.
- Ahmadinejad: Religious minorities live freely in Iran (PressTV, 24 Sep 2009)
- Historical Churches in Iran Iran Chamber Society.
- Spellman, Kathryn (2004). Religion and nation: Iranian local and transnational networks in Britain. Berghahn Books. p. 169. ISBN 978-1-57181-576-7.
- Human Rights Watch Religious minorities
- "Iran's proud but discreet Jews". BBC News. 2006-09-22. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
- "Iran Jewish leader calls recent mass aliyah 'misinformation' bid".
- "Iran Jewish MP criticizes 'anti-human' Israel acts". Ynet. 5.7.2008.
- "Iran's proud but discreet Jews". BBC. 2006-09-22.
- Hennessy-Fiske, Molly; Abdollah, Tami (2008-09-15). "Community torn by tragedy". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
- Yegar, M (1993). "Jews of Iran". The Scribe (58): 2.. In recent years, Persian Jews have been well-assimilated into the Israeli population, so that more accurate data is hard to obtain.
- Several important Baha'i shrines have been demolished, including the House of the Bab in Shiraz and a house belonging to the Baha'i prophet's family in Tehran. U.S. Department of State (2005-09-15). "International Religious Freedom Report 2006 - Iran". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2006-11-08.
- hrw.org, Iran - THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK
- hrw.org Iran - THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK Legislation Affecting Freedom of Religion
- 7 November, 2002. Iranian academic sentenced to death
- hrw.org, November 9, 2002 Iran: Academic’s Death Sentence Condemned
- Iran: Trial for Conference Attendees