Same-sex union legislation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
State acceptance of homosexuality
  Other type of partnership (or unregistered cohabitation)
  Marriage recognized, not performed
  Federal recognition of marriage in non-recognition states
  Same-sex unions not recognized
  Restrictions on freedom of expression
  Unenforced penalty
  Imprisonment
  Up to life in prison
  Death penalty
Rings indicate local or case-by-case application.

Legal recognition of
same-sex relationships
Marriage
Recognized
  1. Can be registered also in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten
  2. When performed in Mexican states that have legalized same-sex marriage

Commencement dates:
  1. To be determined
  2. June 1, 2014 for statewide
LGBT portal

Same-sex marriage is legal nationwide in sixteen countries: the Netherlands,[nb 1] Belgium, Spain, Canada, South Africa, Norway, Sweden,[1] Portugal, Iceland, Argentina, Denmark,[nb 2] Brazil,[2] France, Uruguay, New Zealand[nb 3] and the United Kingdom.[nb 4]

The District of Columbia, eight Native American tribes, and sixteen US states perform same-sex marriages, those states being Massachusetts, Connecticut, Iowa, Vermont, New Hampshire, New York,[3] Maine, Maryland, Washington, California, Delaware, Rhode Island, Minnesota, New Jersey,[1][4] Hawaii and New Mexico. Additionally, a law that legalized same-sex marriage in the state of Illinois will take effect on 1 June 2014. Same-sex marriage in Mexico is performed in the federal district of Mexico City and the state of Quintana Roo,[5] and their marriage certificates are recognized in all 31 Mexican states. Same sex marriage is recognized, but not performed, in Israel. The federal government of the United States as well as the US state of Oregon also recognize same-sex marriage. The US state of Ohio recognize same-sex marriage only for death certificate purposes. Furthermore, same-sex marriages performed in the Netherlands are recognized in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten.

Whether same-sex couples should be allowed to marry has been and remains the topic of debate worldwide. Twenty-seven countries and thirty-five jurisdictions worldwide have passed mostly constitutional and in a few cases statutory amendments that explicitly prohibit the legal recognition of same-sex marriage and sometimes other forms of legal unions as well.[6] Eighteen countries and sixteen jurisdictions worldwide have authorized civil unions or unregistered cohabitation for same-sex couples as an alternative to marriage. The legal name of those unions as well as the amount of rights that they provide can vary greatly.

Efforts to enable same-sex unions

International level

Several attempts have been made to establish a right to same-sex marriage at the international level through strategic litigation, at the Human Rights Committee of the United Nations and at the European Court of Human Rights, both of which currently have not yet recognized an equal right to marry for same-sex couples. The Human Rights Committee case was in 1999, with two same-sex couples as the plaintiffs/petitioners and the government of New Zealand as the defender/respondent. The ECHR case was in 2010, with a same-sex couple as the plaintiffs/petitioners and the government of Austria as the respondents. Although both New Zealand and Austria then responded against the petitions then in each case, both countries now legally recognize same-sex unions, New Zealand in the form of same-sex marriage and Austria in the form of civil unions.

National level

The first legislation of unregistered cohabitation was introduced in the Netherlands in June 1979. However, the first substantial recognition of same-sex couples didn't occur before the introduction of a new legal form, that of registered partnerships, which was first enacted in Denmark in June 1989.[7] Many countries have followed with similar legislation since then. Legislation of these forms of legal unions still occur with a variety of different names, even after the introduction of same sex marriage, although sometimes they are overwritten by subsequent legislation of same-sex marriage.

There are currently eighteen countries that have an alternative form of partnership other than marriage on a national level. Those are Andorra, Australia, Austria, Colombia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Ecuador, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, San Marino (although only for one entitlement), Slovenia, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

As of December 2013, legislation to allow or expand any kind of alternative form of legal recognition of same-sex couples other than marriage have been proposed, is pending, or have passed at least one legislative house on a national level in Albania, Bolivia, Chile, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, Italy, Malta, Peru, Philippines, Poland and Thailand.

The first same-sex marriage bill ever voted on was passed in the Netherlands[nb 1] in December 2000 and went into force in 2001. Belgium passed a same-sex marriage bill in 2003, with Spain (2005), Canada (2005), and South Africa (2006) becoming the next three countries to pass such bills. Same-sex marriage was legalized in both Norway and Sweden in 2009 and in Portugal, Iceland, and Argentina in 2010. Denmark[nb 2] opened marriage to same-sex couples in 2012. Brazil, France, Uruguay and New Zealand[nb 3] gave same-sex couples the right to marry in 2013. The United Kingdom[nb 4] allows same-sex marriage since 2014.

As of January 2014, legislation to allow same sex marriage have been proposed, is pending, or have passed at least one legislative house on a national level in Austria, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Mexico, Nepal, Switzerland, Taiwan and Venezuela.

Country Date Same-sex union Upper house Lower house Head of state Final
outcome
Yes No Yes No
Netherlands Netherlands June 1979 Unregistered cohabitation[8][9] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Netherlands Netherlands December 1980 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[9] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Netherlands Netherlands November 1984 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[9] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Denmark Denmark June 1986 Unregistered cohabitation[9][10] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Sweden Sweden 1987 Unregistered cohabitation[9][11] N/A Passed n/a1 Yes Yes
Denmark Denmark June 1989 Registered partnership[11][12] N/A 71 47 Signed Yes Yes2
Norway Norway July 1991 Unregistered cohabitation[13] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Norway Norway April 1993 Registered partnership[14] 18 16 58 40 Signed Yes Yes2
Sweden Sweden June 1994 Registered partnership[15] N/A 171 141 n/a1 Yes Yes2
Spain Spain November 1994 Unregistered cohabitation[9] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Canada Canada 1995 Marriage[16] 52 124 No No
Hungary Hungary May 1996 Unregistered cohabitation[9][17] N/A 207 73 Signed Yes Yes
Iceland Iceland June 1996 Registered partnership[18][19] N/A 44 1 Signed Yes Yes2
Netherlands Netherlands July 1997 Registered partnership[8] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Slovakia Slovakia 1997 Registered partnership[dead link] N/A Failed No No
Czech Republic Czech Republic June 1998 Registered partnership[20] Failed No No
France France October 1998 Civil solidarity pact[21] Failed No No
Belgium Belgium January 1999 Registered partnership[22][23] 39 8 98 10 Signed Yes Yes
Denmark Denmark June 1999 Registered partnership (expansion)[24] N/A 61 48 Signed Yes Yes2
France France November 1999 Civil solidarity pact Passed 315 249 Signed Yes Yes
Czech Republic Czech Republic December 1999 Registered partnership[25] 69 91 No No
Germany Germany November 2000 Life partnership Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Netherlands Netherlands December 2000 Marriage 49 26 109 33 Signed Yes Yes
Canada Canada 2000 Unregistered cohabitation[26] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Slovakia Slovakia 2000 Registered partnership[dead link] N/A Failed No No
Portugal Portugal March 2001 Unregistered cohabitation N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Zealand New Zealand April 2001 Unregistered cohabitation[27] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Finland Finland September 2001 Registered partnership[28] N/A 99 84 Signed Yes Yes
Czech Republic Czech Republic October 2001 Registered partnership[29] Failed No No
Czech Republic Czech Republic 2001 Unregistered cohabitation[30] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Belgium Belgium February 2003 Marriage[31] 46 15 91 22 Signed Yes Yes
Denmark Denmark May 2003 Registered partnership (expansion)[32] N/A 49 60 No No
Denmark Denmark May 2003 Registered partnership (expansion)[33] N/A 45 60 No No
Denmark Denmark May 2003 Registered partnership (expansion)[34] N/A 43 61 No No
Denmark Denmark June 2003 Registered partnership (expansion)[35] N/A 11 94 No No
Croatia Croatia July 2003 Unregistered cohabitation N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Luxembourg Luxembourg July 2004 Partnership[36] N/A 33 7 Signed Yes Yes
United Kingdom United Kingdom November 2004 Civil partnership[37] 251 136 426 49 Signed Yes Yes
Germany Germany December 2004 Life partnership (expansion) Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Zealand New Zealand December 2004 Civil union[38] N/A 65 55 Signed Yes Yes
Norway Norway 2004 Marriage[39] N/A Failed No No
Panama Panama 2004 Civil union[40] N/A Failed No No
Czech Republic Czech Republic February 2005 Registered partnership Failed No No
Andorra Andorra March 2005 Stable union of a couple N/A Passed Signed 3 Yes Yes
Slovenia Slovenia March 2005 Registered partnership Failed No No
New Zealand New Zealand March 2005 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[41][42] N/A 76 43 Signed Yes Yes
Switzerland Switzerland June 2005 Registered partnership[43] Nationwide referendum (58%) Yes Yes
Spain Spain July 2005 Marriage Vetoed 4 183 136 Signed Yes Yes
Canada Canada July 2005 Marriage[44] 47 21 158 133 Signed Yes Yes
Slovenia Slovenia July 2005 Registered partnership Passed 44 3 Signed Yes Yes
Czech Republic Czech Republic March 2006 Registered partnership[45] 65 14 86 54 Vetoed 5 Yes Yes
Denmark Denmark June 2006 Registered partnership (expansion)[46] N/A 49 62 No No
Iceland Iceland June 2006 Registered partnership (expansion)[47][48] N/A 41 0 Signed Yes Yes2
France France June 2006 Civil solidarity pact (expansion)[49] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
South Africa South Africa November 2006 Marriage and civil partnership[50] 36 11 230 41 Signed Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal December 2006 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion) N/A Passed Vetoed No No
Colombia Colombia June 2007 Civil union[51] 29 34 62 43 No No
Hungary Hungary December 2007 Registered partnership[52] N/A 185 154 Signed Yes No 6
Uruguay Uruguay December 2007 Cohabitation union[53][54] 17 5 Passed Signed Yes Yes
Iceland Iceland May 2008 Registered partnership (expansion)[55][56] N/A 54 0 Signed Yes Yes2
Norway Norway June 2008 Marriage[57] 23 17 84 41 Signed Yes Yes
Ecuador Ecuador September 2008 Civil union[58] Constitutional referendum (63.93%) Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal October 2008 Marriage[59] N/A Failed No No
Portugal Portugal October 2008 Marriage[59] N/A Failed No No
Australia Australia November 2008 Unregistered cohabitation[60] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Sweden Sweden April 2009 Marriage[61] N/A 261 22 n/a1 Yes Yes
Hungary Hungary April 2009 Registered partnership N/A 199 159 Signed Yes Yes
France France May 2009 Foreign unions as PACS[62] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Finland Finland May 2009 Registered partnership (expansion)[63] N/A 108 29 Signed Yes Yes
Denmark Denmark June 2009 Registered partnership (expansion)[64] N/A 107 2 Signed Yes Yes2
Portugal Portugal August 2009 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[65] N/A Passed Vetoed No No
Uruguay Uruguay September 2009 Cohabitation union (expansion)[66][67] 17 6 40 13 Signed Yes Yes
Austria Austria December 2009 Registered partnership 44 8 110 64 Signed Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal January 2010 Marriage[68] N/A Failed No No
Portugal Portugal January 2010 Marriage[69] N/A Failed No No
Portugal Portugal January 2010 Registered civil union[70] N/A Failed No No
Hungary Hungary February 2010 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion) N/A Passed Vetoed 5 Yes Yes
Australia Australia February 2010 Marriage[71] 5 45 No No
Portugal Portugal May 2010 Marriage[72] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Denmark Denmark May 2010 Registered partnership (expansion)[73] N/A 60 54 Signed Yes Yes2
Denmark Denmark June 2010 Marriage[74] N/A 52 57 No No
Iceland Iceland June 2010 Marriage[75][76] N/A 49 0 Signed Yes Yes
Republic of Ireland Ireland July 2010 Civil partnership and unregistered cohabitation[77][78] 48 4 Passed Signed Yes Yes
Argentina Argentina July 2010 Marriage[79] 33 27 125 109 Signed Yes Yes
Luxembourg Luxembourg August 2010 Partnership (expansion)[80] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal August 2010 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[81][82] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Germany Germany September 2010 Marriage[83] Failed No No
Germany Germany October 2010 Life partnership (expansion)[84] Failed No No
Germany Germany April 2011 Life partnership (expansion)[85] Failed No No
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein June 2011 Registered partnership[86] Nationwide referendum (68%) Yes Yes
France France June 2011 Marriage[87] 222 293 No No
Germany Germany June 2011 Life partnership (expansion)[88] Failed No No
Portugal Portugal February 2012 Marriage (expansion)[89] N/A Failed No No
Portugal Portugal February 2012 Marriage (expansion)[89] N/A Failed No No
Slovenia Slovenia March 2012 Registered partnership (expansion)[dead link] Nationwide referendum (45.36%) No No
Israel Israel May 2012 Marriage[90] N/A 11 39 No No
Denmark Denmark June 2012 Marriage[91] N/A 85 24 Signed Yes Yes
Germany Germany June 2012 Marriage[92][93] 260 309 No No
San Marino San Marino June 2012 Unregistered cohabitation (only one entitlement)[94] N/A 33 20 Signed Yes Yes
Australia Australia September 2012 Marriage[95] 42 98 No No
Australia Australia September 2012 Marriage[96] 26 41 No No
Germany Germany October 2012 Life partnership (expansion)[97] 253 288 No No
Slovakia Slovakia November 2012 Registered partnership[98] N/A 14 94 No No
Poland Poland January 2013 Registered partnership[99] Failed No No
Poland Poland January 2013 Registered partnership[100] Failed No No
Poland Poland January 2013 Partnership agreement[101] Failed No No
Germany Germany March 2013 Life partnership (expansion)[102][103] Passed No No
Germany Germany March 2013 Marriage[104] Passed No No
New Zealand New Zealand April 2013 Marriage[105] N/A 77 44 Signed Yes Yes
Colombia Colombia April 2013 Marriage[106] 17 51 No No
Uruguay Uruguay May 2013 Marriage[107][108] 23 8 71 21 Signed Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal May 2013 Marriage (expansion)[109] N/A 77 104 No No
Portugal Portugal May 2013 Marriage (expansion)[109] N/A Failed No No
Portugal Portugal May 2013 Marriage (expansion)[109] N/A Failed No No
France France May 2013 Marriage[110][111] 171 165 331 225 Signed Yes Yes
Australia Australia June 2013 Recognition of overseas marriage[112] 28 44 No No
Germany Germany July 2013 Life partnership (expansion)[113][114] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
United Kingdom UK
(England and Wales)
July 2013 Marriage[115][116] Passed 366 161 Signed Yes Yes
Austria Austria July 2013 Registered partnership (expansion)[117][118] 45 8 Passed Signed Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal October 2013 Marriage (expansion)[119][120] N/A Failed No No
Romania Romania December 2013 Civil partnership[121] Failed No No
Malta Malta April 2014 Civil union / Recognition of marriage celebrated abroad[122][123] N/A 37 0 Pending
Chile Chile April 2014 Life partner agreement[124][125] 28 6
Albania Albania 2014 Partnership[126] N/A Proposed
Austria Austria 2014 Marriage[127][128] Pending
Austria Austria 2014 Registered partnership (expansion)[129] Pending
Bolivia Bolivia 2014 Civil union[130] Proposed
Chile Chile 2014 Marriage[131][132] Proposed
Croatia Croatia 2014 Life partnership[133] N/A Pending
Cyprus Cyprus 2014 Civil partnership[134] N/A Proposed
Estonia Estonia 2014 Civil partnership[135] N/A Proposed
Finland Finland 2014 Marriage[136][137] N/A Pending
Germany Germany 2014 Marriage[138][139] Pending
Germany Germany 2014 Life partnership (expansion)[140] Pending
Germany Germany 2014 Life partnership (expansion)[141][142] Pending
Greece Greece 2014 Registered partnership[143][144][145] N/A Pending
Israel Israel 2014 Civil union[146] N/A Pending
Italy Italy 2014 Marriage[147][148][149] Pending
Italy Italy 2014 Civil union[150][151] Pending
Luxembourg Luxembourg 2014 Marriage[152][153] N/A Pending
Mexico Mexico 2014 Federal codification of marriage[154][155] Proposed
Peru Peru 2014 Civil union[156][157] N/A Pending
Philippines Philippines 2014 Registered partnership[158] Pending
Poland Poland 2014 Registered partnership[159][160][161][162][163] Pending
San Marino San Marino 2014 Recognition of marriage celebrated abroad[164] N/A Proposed
Switzerland Switzerland 2014 Marriage[165][166] Pending
Taiwan Taiwan 2014 Marriage and civil partnership[167][168] N/A Pending
Thailand Thailand 2014 Civil partnership[169][170] Proposed
Venezuela Venezuela 2014 Marriage[171] N/A Pending
Republic of Ireland Ireland 2015 Marriage[172][173] Pending a scheduled referendum

Notes:
1According to the 1974 Constitution, the King of Sweden is head of state but does not sign or veto any laws enacted by Parliament.
2Replaced by the gender-neutral marriage law.
3Only one of the two Co-Princes of Andorra signed the law.
4The Spanish Senate voted 131 "yes" to 119 "no" to veto the law. The veto was later overridden by the Spanish Congress of Deputies.
5Veto overridden.
6Ruled unconstitutional.

Sub-national level

For status in U.S. states, see Same-sex marriage legislation in the United States

In countries with a federal system of governance, states and territories often may grant recognition to same-sex couples in their own jurisdictions, although unitary states with a level of devolution, such as Spain or the United Kingdom, also offer such legalities to local authorities. The first jurisdiction to enact unregistered cohabitation was the Australian Capital Territory in Australia in 1994. However, further legislative moves in the Australian Capital Territory have been overturned twice by the federal government. The first jursdiction to legalize registered partnership was Greenland as part of the Kingdom of Denmark in April 1996. Finally, the first jurisdiction to legalize same-sex marriage was the Canadian province of Ontario in June 2003. In December 2009, Mexico City became the first jurisdiction in Latin America to legalize same-sex marriage.

Currently nineteen jurisdictions worldwide have legalized some kind of alternative form of legal union of same-sex couples other than marriage. Those are five Australian states (New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania and Victoria) and one Australian territory (the Australian Capital Territory), four US states (Colorado, Nevada, Oregon and Wisconsin), four Mexican states (Campeche, Coahuila, Colima and Jalisco), the Venezuelan state of Mérida, Greenland, an autonomous country and part of the Kingdom of Denmark, the British crown dependencies of Jersey and the Isle of Man, and the British overseas territory of Gibraltar

As of April 2014, legislation to allow or expand any kind of alternative form of legal recognition of same-sex couples other than marriage have been proposed in the British crown dependency of Guernsey.

For the time being, twenty-nine jurisdictions worldwide have legalised same-sex marriage. Those are eight Native American tribes, namely the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, the Coquille Tribe, the Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe, the Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians, the Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians, the Santa Ysabel Tribe and the Suquamish Tribe, seventeen US states, namely Massachusetts, Connecticut, Iowa, Vermont, New Hampshire, New York, Maine, Maryland, Washington, California, Delaware, Rhode Island, Minnesota, New Jersey, Hawaii and New Mexico (the relevant law in Illinois will take effect on 1 June 2014), as well as the District of Columbia, one Mexican state, namely Quintana Roo, the Mexican federal district of Mexico City and Scotland, a constituent country of the United Kingdom.

As of April 2014, legislation to allow same sex marriage have been proposed, is pending, or have passed at least one legislative house in the Australian state of Western Australia, the Mexican states of Coahuila, Guanajuato, Oaxaca and Yucatán, and Greenland.

State/Territory Country Date Same-sex union Upper House Lower house Head of State Final
outcome
Yes No Yes No
Ontario Ontario Canada Canada June 1994 Domestic partnership[174] N/A 58 69 No No
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia 1994 Unregistered cohabitation[175] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Greenland Greenland Denmark Denmark April 1996 Registered partnership[176][177] N/A 104 1 Signed Yes Yes
Ceuta Ceuta Spain Spain April 1997 De facto union[178] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Catalonia Catalonia Spain Spain June 1998 Stable union of couple[179][180] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Yukon Yukon Canada Canada December 1998 Unregistered cohabitation[181] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Aragon Aragon Spain Spain March 1999 Stable couple[179][182] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Quebec Quebec Canada Canada May 1999 Unregistered cohabitation[183] N/A 80 0 Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia June 1999 Unregistered cohabitation[184] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Ontario Ontario Canada Canada October 1999 Unregistered cohabitation[185] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada 1999 Unregistered cohabitation[186] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Yukon Yukon Canada Canada 1999 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[187] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Navarre Navarra Spain Spain July 2000 Stable couple[179][188] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada July 2000 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[189] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Nova Scotia Nova Scotia Canada Canada November 2000 Domestic partnership[190][191] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador Canada Canada December 2000 Unregistered cohabitation[192] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Brunswick New Brunswick Canada Canada 2000 Unregistered cohabitation[193] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Canton of Geneva Geneva Switzerland Switzerland February 2001 Partnership[165][194] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Canada Canada July 2001 Unregistered cohabitation[190] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Victoria (Australia) Victoria Australia Australia August 2001 Unregistered cohabitation Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador Canada Canada December 2001 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[195] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Balearic Islands Balearic Islands Spain Spain December 2001 Stable couple[179][196] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Community of Madrid Madrid Spain Spain December 2001 De facto couple[179][197] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Valencian Community Valencia Spain Spain 2001 De facto couple[179] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Manitoba Manitoba Canada Canada 2001 Common-law relationship[198][199] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Western Australia Western Australia Australia Australia April 2002 Unregistered cohabitation[200] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Asturias Asturias Spain Spain May 2002 Stable couple[179][201] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Quebec Quebec Canada Canada June 2002 Civil union[202] N/A 87 0 Signed Yes Yes
Manitoba Manitoba Canada Canada August 2002 Common-law relationship (expansion)[199][203] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Manitoba Manitoba Canada Canada August 2002 Common-law relationship (expansion)[199][204] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Canton of Zurich Canton of Zurich Switzerland Switzerland September 2002 Registered partnership[205] Cantonal referendum (63%) Yes Yes
Alberta Alberta Canada Canada December 2002 Adult interdependent relationship[206] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Queensland Queensland Australia Australia December 2002 Unregistered cohabitation N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Andalusia Andalusia Spain Spain December 2002 De facto couple[179][207] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires Argentina Argentina 2002 Civil union N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia 2002 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[208] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Northwest Territories Northwest Territories Canada Canada 2002 Unregistered cohabitation[187] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Prince Edward Island Prince Edward Island Canada Canada 2002 Unregistered cohabitation[209] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Canary Islands Canary Islands Spain Spain March 2003 De facto couple[179][210] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Extremadura Extremadura Spain Spain March 2003 De facto couple[179][211] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country Spain Spain May 2003 De facto couple[179][212] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Río Negro Province Rio Negro Argentina Argentina 2003 Civil union[213] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Tasmania Tasmania Australia Australia September 2003 Significant relationship[214] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia January 2004 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion) N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Canton of Neuchâtel Neuchâtel Switzerland Switzerland January 2004 Registered partnership[215][216] N/A 65 38 Signed Yes Yes
Northern Territory Northern Territory Australia Australia March 2004 Unregistered cohabitation N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Sydney Australia Australia July 2004 Relationship declaration program N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
South Australia South Australia Australia Australia October 2004 Civil union N/A Failed No No
Cantabria Cantabria Spain Spain May 2005 De facto couple[217] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Isle of Man Isle of Man November 2005 UK partnership recognition[218] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Northwest Territories Northwest Territories Canada Canada 2005 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[187] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Norfolk Island Norfolk Island Australia Australia February 2006 Unregistered cohabitation[219] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia June 2006 Civil union N/A Passed Signed No No1
Mexico City Mexico City Mexico Mexico November 2006 Law for coexistence partnerships[220] N/A 43 17 Signed Yes Yes
South Australia South Australia Australia Australia December 2006 Domestic partnership agreement[221] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Coahuila Coahuila Mexico Mexico January 2007 Civil pact of solidarity[222] N/A 20 13 Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia February 2007 Civil partnership N/A Passed Signed No No1
Melbourne Australia Australia April 2007 Relationship declaration register N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Australia Yarra Australia Australia May 2007 Relationship declaration program[223] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Argentina Villa Carlos Paz Argentina Argentina November 2007 Civil union[224] N/A 12 6 Signed Yes Yes
Melilla Melilla Spain Spain January 2008 De facto union[225] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Victoria (Australia) Victoria Australia Australia April 2008 Relationship register 29 10 54 24 Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia May 2008 Civil partnership[226] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia June 2008 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[227] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Brunswick New Brunswick Canada Canada December 2008 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[228] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Caledonia New Caledonia France France April 2009 Civil solidarity pact[229][230] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Wallis and Futuna Wallis and Futuna France France April 2009 Civil solidarity pact Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Argentina Río Cuarto Argentina Argentina May 2009 Civil union N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Tasmania Tasmania Australia Australia September 2009 Significant relationship (expansion)[231] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia November 2009 Civil partnership (expansion)[232] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Mexico City Mexico City Mexico Mexico December 2009 Marriage[233] N/A 39 20 Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales Blue Mountains Australia Australia March 2010 Relationship declaration program N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia May 2010 Relationship register[234][235] 32 5 62 9 Signed Yes Yes
Vienna Vienna Austria Austria June 2010 Registered partnership (expansion)[236][237] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Tasmania Tasmania Australia Australia October 2010 Out-of-state unions as significant relationship[238][239] Passed 22 3 Signed Yes Yes
Isle of Man Isle of Man March 2011 Civil partnership[240] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Queensland Queensland Australia Australia December 2011 Civil partnership[241][242] N/A 47 40 Signed Yes Yes
Jersey Jersey December 2011 Civil partnership[243][244] N/A 33 0 Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia September 2012 Civil union[245][246] N/A 11 6 Signed Yes Yes
Tasmania Tasmania Australia Australia September 2012 Marriage[247][248] 6 8 13 11 No No
Western Australia City of Vincent Australia Australia December 2012 Relationship register[249] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Macau Macau China China March 2013 Civil union[250] N/A Failed No No
South Australia South Australia Australia Australia July 2013 Marriage[251] Failed No No
Colima Colima Mexico Mexico July 2013 Marital bond[252][253][254] N/A 17 2 N/A Yes Yes
August 2013 N/A Passed Signed
Tasmania Tasmania Australia Australia October 2013 Marriage[255] 6 8 No No
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia October 2013 Marriage[256] N/A 9 8 Signed No No2
Jalisco Jalisco Mexico Mexico October 2013 Civil union[257] N/A 20 15 Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia November 2013 Marriage[258] 19 21 No No
Campeche Campeche Mexico Mexico December 2013 Civil union[259] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Scotland Scotland United Kingdom United Kingdom March 2014 Marriage[260][261] N/A 105 18 Signed Yes Yes
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands Denmark Denmark March 2014 Marriage[262] N/A 11 20 No No
Gibraltar Gibraltar March 2014 Civil partnership[263][264] N/A 16 0 Signed Yes Yes
Coahuila Coahuila Mexico Mexico 2014 Marriage[265] N/A Pending
Greenland Greenland Denmark Denmark 2014 Marriage[266][267] N/A Pending
Guanajuato Guanajuato Mexico Mexico 2014 Marriage[268] N/A Pending
Oaxaca Oaxaca Mexico Mexico 2014 Marriage[269] N/A Proposed
Western Australia Western Australia Australia Australia 2014 Marriage[270] Pending
Yucatán Yucatán Mexico Mexico 2014 Marriage[271] N/A Pending
Guernsey Guernsey 2015 Civil union[272] N/A Proposed

Note:
1Legislation overturned by federal government.

2Legislation overturned by the High Court.

Constitutional efforts to prohibit same-sex unions

Sometimes unintentionally but usually in response to legislation providing for marriage or other rights to same-sex couples, twenty-seven countries, twenty-eight states in the United States, two Mexican states and the Cayman Islands have passed constitutional amendments banning a variety of same-sex unions. These amendments have taken several forms. Some are limited to banning only marriage. Others ban marriage and prohibit legislation providing "similar rights". Some prohibit government from authorizing any form of same-sex union, while others invalidate existing and future private contracts, including wills, for same-sex couples. Fourteen of the countries with constitutional amendments prohibiting same-sex marriage passed them via constitutional referendum, with the amendment being, most of the times, one of many within a proposed constitution submitted to the people by the government.

National level

Cuba was the first country to prohibit same-sex marriage in February 1976. Paraguay is the only case that not only marriage is prohibited but also any other equivalent/similar union. In November 2013, Vietnam became the first country to repeal a same-sex marriage ban which was previously established in April 1992. Legislative attempts to ban same-sex marriage in El Salvador and the United States have failed twice.

Currently, twenty-seven countries prohibit same-sex marriage on a national level. Those are Belarus, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Croatia, Cuba, DR Congo, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Honduras, Hungary, Kenya, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Montenegro, Paraguay, Poland, Rwanda, Serbia, South Sudan, Uganda, Ukraine, Venezuela, and Zimbabwe.

As of April 2014, legislation to ban same sex marriage have been proposed, is pending, or have passed at least one legislative house on a national level in Georgia, Russia, Slovakia, and Switzerland.

Country Date Ban on Upper House Lower house Head of state Final
outcome
Yes No Yes No
Cuba Cuba February 1976 Marriage[273] Constitutional referendum (97.7%) Yes Yes
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso June 1991 Marriage[274] Constitutional referendum (77.1%) Yes Yes
Bulgaria Bulgaria July 1991 Marriage[275] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Vietnam Vietnam April 1992 Marriage[276] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes1
Paraguay Paraguay June 1992 Marriage and equivalent/similar union[277] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Lithuania Lithuania October 1992 Marriage[278][279] Constitutional referendum (75.42%) Yes Yes
Cambodia Cambodia September 1993 Marriage[280] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Belarus Belarus March 1994 Marriage[281] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Moldova Moldova July 1994 Marriage[282] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Ukraine Ukraine June 1996 Marriage[283] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Poland Poland April 1997 Marriage[284] Constitutional referendum (52.71%) Yes Yes
Venezuela Venezuela December 1999 Marriage[285][286] Constitutional referendum (71.78%) Yes Yes
Rwanda Rwanda May 2003 Marriage[287] Constitutional referendum (93.42%) Yes Yes
United States United States July 2004 Marriage[288] 48 50 227 186 No No
Burundi Burundi February 2005 Marriage[289] Constitutional referendum (92.02%) Yes Yes
Honduras Honduras March 2005 Marriage[290][291] N/A 128 0 Signed Yes Yes
Uganda Uganda September 2005 Marriage[292] N/A 111 17 Signed Yes Yes
Latvia Latvia December 2005 Marriage[293] N/A 65 5 Signed Yes Yes
Democratic Republic of the Congo DR Congo December 2005 Marriage[294][295] Constitutional referendum (84.31%) Yes Yes
United States United States July 2006 Marriage[296] 49 48 236 187 No No
Serbia Serbia October 2006 Marriage[297] Constitutional referendum (53.04%) Yes Yes
Montenegro Montenegro October 2007 Marriage[298][299] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Ecuador Ecuador September 2008 Marriage[300] Constitutional referendum (63.93%) Yes Yes
Bolivia Bolivia January 2009 Marriage[301] Constitutional referendum (61.43%) Yes Yes
El Salvador El Salvador October 2009 Marriage[302] N/A 46 38 No No2
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic January 2010 Marriage[303] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Kenya Kenya August 2010 Marriage[304] Constitutional referendum (68.55%) Yes Yes
Zambia Zambia March 2011 Marriage[305][306] N/A Failed No No
Hungary Hungary April 2011 Marriage[307][308][309] N/A 262 44 Signed Yes Yes
South Sudan South Sudan July 2011 Marriage[310][311] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Liberia Liberia June 2012 Marriage[312] Passed Failed No No
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe March 2013 Marriage[313] Constitutional referendum (94.5%) Yes Yes
Republic of Macedonia Macedonia September 2013 Marriage[314] N/A Failed No No
Croatia Croatia December 2013 Marriage[315] Constitutional referendum (65.87%) Yes Yes
El Salvador El Salvador February 2014 Marriage[316] N/A Failed No No
Georgia (country) Georgia 2014 Marriage[317][318] N/A Proposed
Russia Russia 2014 Marriage[319] Proposed
Slovakia Slovakia 2014 Marriage[320] N/A Pending3
Switzerland Switzerland 2014 Marriage[165] N/A Pending

Note:
1 Repealed in November 2013, as an article 64 was replaced by article 36, which does not contain a definition of marriage[321][322]
2 The amendment was initially passed in April 2009 but was rejected in a second vote in October 2009.[323]
3 Passed in first reading, awaits second reading[324]

Sub-national level

For status in U.S. states, see Same-sex marriage legislation in the United States and List of U.S. state constitutional amendments banning same-sex unions by type

Very few jurisdictions outside of the United States have enacted constitutional bans on same-sex marriage. The first jurisdiction to explicitly ban same-sex marriage was the US state of Alaska in November 1998, but the first jurisdiction outside of the United States states to enact such a ban was the Cayman Islands, which are a British Overseas Territory, in June 2009. The first jurisdiction to repeal a ban on same sex marriage was the US state of California in June 2013.

Currently, thirty-two jurisdictions worldwide have conctitutional bans on sane-sex marriage. Those are the Cayman Islands, two Mexican states, Colima and Yucatán, and twenty-nine US states. Out of those twenty-nine US states, nine ban only same-sex marriage. Those are Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, Oregon and Tennessee. Eighteen more states ban same-sex marriage and civil unions. Those are Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Kentucky, Louisiana, Nebraska, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Kansas, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Utah and Wisconsin. Finally, two states ban same-sex marriage, civil unions and any other marriage-like recognition of same-sex couples. Those are Michigan and Virginia. However, there are four additional states that also ban same-sex marriage not by constitution but by statute. Those are Indiana, Pennsylvania, West Virginia and Wyoming.

State/Territory Country Date Ban on Upper House Lower house Head of
state
Final
outcome
Yes No Yes No
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands June 2009 Marriage[325] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Yucatán Yucatán Mexico Mexico July 2009 Marriage[326] N/A Passed N/A Yes Yes
Colima Colima Mexico Mexico July 2013 Marriage[252][253][327] N/A 17 2 N/A Yes Yes

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Excluding Aruba, Curaçao and St Maarten.
  2. ^ a b Excluding the Faroe Islands and Greenland.
  3. ^ a b Excluding Tokelau, Niue and the Cook Islands.
  4. ^ a b Excluding Northern Ireland.

References

  1. ^ a b "Same-Sex Marriage FAQ – - Gender-Neutral Marriage Laws". About.com. Retrieved 2009-09-09. 
  2. ^ "Brazil: Judges rule in favour of nationwide same-sex marriage". Pinknews.co.uk. May 14, 2013. Retrieved January 6, 2014. 
  3. ^ Nicholas Confessore; Michael Barbaro (June 24, 2011). "New York Allows Same-Sex Marriage, Becoming Largest State to Pass Law". The New York Times. Retrieved June 25, 2011. 
  4. ^ "Same-Sex Marriage, Civil Unions, and Domestic Partnerships". The New York Times. December 7, 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2012. 
  5. ^ "Mexico City's gay marriage law takes effect". MSNBC. Associated Press. 4 March 2010. Retrieved 6 March 2010. 
  6. ^ Rauch, Jonathan (June 13, 2004). "Virginia's New Jim Crow". Washington Post. Retrieved 2009-09-09. 
  7. ^ Rule, Sheila (2 October 1989). "Rights for Gay Couples in Denmark". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  8. ^ a b Waaldijk, Kees. "Major legal consequences of marriage, cohabitation and registered partnership for different-sex and same-sex partners in the Netherlands". INED. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g "International trends in legal recognition of same-sex couples". Irish Human Rights Commission. October 16, 2004. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  10. ^ Same-Sex Marriage: A Reference Handbook. Books.google.pl. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  11. ^ a b Boele-Woelki, Katharina; Fuchs, Angelika. "Legal recognition of same-sex couples in Europe". Google Books. Retrieved September 9, 2009. 
  12. ^ "Governments that have recognized same-sex relationships". Religious Tolerance. Retrieved September 9, 2009. 
  13. ^ Asland, John; Waaldijk, Kees. "Major legal consequences of marriage, cohabitation and registered partnership for different-sex and same-sex partners in Norway". INED. Retrieved September 9, 2009. 
  14. ^ "International Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships". University of Minnesota. Retrieved September 9, 2009. 
  15. ^ Sarcevic, Petar; Volken, Paul. "Yearbook of Private International Law". Google Books. Retrieved September 9, 2009. 
  16. ^ Leonard, Arthur S. "Lesbian/Gay Law Notes". QRD. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  17. ^ Wockner, Rex (June 1996). "Hungary recognises common-law gay marriage". ILGA Europe. Retrieved September 9, 2009. 
  18. ^ Jensen, Steffen (June 1996). "Partnership law in Iceland". ILGA Euroletter. Retrieved September 9, 2009. 
  19. ^ (Icelandic) "320. mál lagafrumvarp Lög nr. 87/1996, 120. löggjafarþingi.". Althingi. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  20. ^ Bluhm, Michael (June 1998). "Czech Republic: No Marriages for Gays and Lebians". ILGA Europe. Retrieved October 4, 2010. 
  21. ^ Leonard, Arthur S. (November 1998). "Lesbian/Gay Law Notes". INED. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  22. ^ De Schutter, Olivier; Waalkijk, Kees. "Major legal consequences of marriage, cohabitation and registered partnership for different-sex and same-sex partners in Belgium". INED. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  23. ^ Wetsontwerp tot invoering van de wettelijke samenwoning, Senate
  24. ^ (Danish) "1998-99, 1. samling - L 70 A (oversigt): Forslag til lov om ændring af lov om registreret partnerskab. (Ændring af betingelserne for indgåelse af registreret partnerskab og stedbarnsadoption for registrerede partnere).". Webarkiv.dk. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  25. ^ Kotisova, Miluska. "No to registered partnership in the Czech Republic". ILGA Euroletter. Retrieved September 9, 2009. 
  26. ^ Wockner, Rex. "Canadian Partner Bill Passes House of Commons". ILGA Euroletter. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  27. ^ "Property (Relationships) Amendment Act 2001". New Zealand Legislation. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  28. ^ "Parliament narrowly passes law allowing same-sex registration". Helsingin Sanomat. September 28, 2001. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  29. ^ Merin, Yuval. "Equality for same-sex couples". Google Books. Retrieved September 9, 2009. 
  30. ^ Kaczorowski, Craig. "Prague". glbtq.com. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  31. ^ Wetsvoorstel tot openstelling van het huwelijk voor personen van hetzelfde geslacht / Proposition de loi ouvrant le mariage à des personnes de même sexe, Senate
  32. ^ (Danish) "2002-03 - L 91 (oversigt): Forslag til lov om ændring af adoptionsloven og lov om registreret partnerskab. (Ligestilling mellem registreret partnerskab og ægteskab ved adoption)". Webarkiv.dk. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  33. ^ (Danish) "2002-03 - L 93 (oversigt): Forslag til lov om ændring af lov om registreret partnerskab. (Ligestilling mellem registreret partnerskab og heteroseksuelle ægtefæller med hensyn til fremmedadoption af danske og udenlandske børn)". Webarkiv.dk. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  34. ^ (Danish) "2002-03 - L 129 (oversigt): Forslag til lov om ændring af lov om registreret partnerskab. (Ophævelse af kravet om statsborgerskab eller bopæl her i landet ved registrering af partnerskab)". Webarkiv.dk. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  35. ^ (Danish) "2002-03 - L 119 (oversigt): Forslag til lov om ændring af adoptionsloven. (Adgang til stedbarnsadoption for registreret partner fra barnets fødsel)". Webarkiv.dk. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  36. ^ (French) "4946 - Projet de loi relative aux effets légaux de certains partenariats". Chamber of Deputies. Retrieved January 11, 2014. 
  37. ^ "Civil Partnership Act 2004 (c. 33)". Uk-legislation.hmso.gov.uk. November 18, 2004. Retrieved February 25, 2010. 
  38. ^ Orsman, Bernard (December 10, 2004). "Mayor stuns gays with abuse claim". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved February 25, 2010. 
  39. ^ Grew, Tony (June 11, 2008). "Norway legalises gay marriage". Pink News. Retrieved December 21, 2009. 
  40. ^ "Panama: Support Civil Union Proposal Now under Attack by the Catholic Church". IGLHRC. September 16, 2004. Retrieved August 9, 2005. 
  41. ^ "Relationships (Statutory References) Act 2005". New Zealand Legislation. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  42. ^ "Relationships (Statutory References) Act". Parliamentary Conscience Votes Database. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  43. ^ "Swiss vote to join Schengen area". Swissinfo.ch. June 5, 2005. Retrieved February 25, 2010. 
  44. ^ Foust, Michael (November 30, 2005). "In Canadian political tussle, 'gay marriage' could be reversed". Baptist Press. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  45. ^ "Czech MPs approve gay rights law". BBC News. March 15, 2006. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  46. ^ (Danish) "L 228 Forslag til lov om ændring af lov om registreret partnerskab". Folketinget. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  47. ^ Gunnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur (June 12, 2006). "Important Improvements in Gay and Lesbian Rights in Iceland". ILGA Europe. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  48. ^ (Icelandic) "340. mál lagafrumvarp Lög nr. 65/2006, 132. löggjafarþingi.". Althingi. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  49. ^ (French) "Loi n° 2006-728 du 23 juin 2006 portant réforme des successions et des libéralités". Legifrance. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  50. ^ "SA same-sex marriage law signed". BBC News. November 30, 2006. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  51. ^ Goodman, Joshua (June 21, 2007). "Colombia Conservatives Derail Same-Sex Couples Bill". Advocate. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  52. ^ Than, Krisztina; Kahn, Michael (December 18, 2007). "Hungary legalizes same-sex civil partnerships". In.reuters.com. Retrieved February 25, 2010. 
  53. ^ "Uruguay approves gay civil unions". BBC News. December 19, 2007. Retrieved February 25, 2010. 
  54. ^ (Spanish) "Uruguay: las parejas gay celebran la aprobación de la ley de unión concubinaria". AG Magazine. December 18, 2007. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  55. ^ "First Lesbian Couple in Iceland "Marries" in Church". Icelandic Review. July 2, 2008. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  56. ^ (Icelandic) "532. mál lagafrumvarp Lög nr. 55/2008, 135. löggjafarþingi". Althingi. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  57. ^ "Gay marriage law passes in Norway". MSNBC. June 17, 2008. Retrieved February 25, 2012. 
  58. ^ Partlow, Joshua; Küffner, Stephan (September 29, 2008). "Voters in Ecuador Approve Constitution". Washington Post. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  59. ^ a b Sung, Michael (October 11, 2008). "Portugal parliament votes down legalization of same-sex marriage". Jurist. Retrieved May 27, 2013. 
  60. ^ "Sweeping gay law reform finally passes". The Age. November 27, 2008. Retrieved August 9, 2009. 
  61. ^ Nyberg, Per (April 1, 2012). "Sweden passes same-sex marriage law". CNN. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  62. ^ "Gay Couples With Foreign Marriages, Partnerships Win Recognition Battle in France". UK Gay News. April 29, 2009. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  63. ^ "Finland allows gay couples to adopt partner’s children". Pink News. May 15, 2009. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  64. ^ (Danish) "L 105 Forslag til lov om ændring af adoptionsloven og forskellige andre love". Folketinget. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  65. ^ "President unties the knot on civil union". PressEurop. August 26, 2009. Retrieved December 21, 2009. 
  66. ^ "Uruguay lawmakers approve gay adoptions". AFP. August 27, 2009. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  67. ^ Oliviera, Yanina (September 9, 2009). "Uruguay approves Latin America's first gay adoption law". AFP. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  68. ^ (Portuguese) "Projeto de Lei 14/XI". Assembleia Da Republica. Retrieved May 27, 2013. 
  69. ^ (Portuguese) "Projeto de Lei 24/XI". Assembleia Da Republica. Retrieved May 27, 2013. 
  70. ^ (Portuguese) "Projeto de Lei 119/XI". Assembleia Da Republica. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  71. ^ "Gay marriage bill fails in Senate". SBS. February 26, 2010. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  72. ^ "Portugal's president to ratify same-sex marriage law". BBC News. May 17, 2010. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  73. ^ (Danish) "L 146 Forslag til lov om ændring af lov om registreret partnerskab, lov om en børnefamilieydelse og lov om børnetilskud og forskudsvis udbetaling af børnebidrag". Folketinget. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  74. ^ (Danish) "L 123 Forslag til lov om ændring af lov om ægteskabs indgåelse og opløsning og forskellige andre love samt ophævelse af lov om registreret partnerskab". Folketinget. June 3, 2010. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  75. ^ "Iceland parliament votes for gay marriage". IceNews. June 11, 2010. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  76. ^ (Icelandic) "48. mál fyrirspurn til iðnaðarráðherra 138. löggjafarþingi". Althingi. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  77. ^ "Civil Partnership Bill passes through Dáil". RTE. July 1, 2010. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  78. ^ "Civil Partnership Bill passes the Seanad". RTE. July 9, 2010. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  79. ^ "Cristina formalized the gay marriage law". M24Digital.com. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  80. ^ (French) "A –– N° 134". Le Gouvernement du Grand Duché de Luxembourg. August 12, 2010. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  81. ^ (Portuguese) "Projeto de Lei 280/XI". Assembleia Da Republica. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  82. ^ (Portuguese) "Cavaco promulga diploma que altera uniões de facto". Expresso. August 16, 2010. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  83. ^ (German) "Bundesrat lehnt Gleichstellung ab". Queer.de. September 24, 2010. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  84. ^ (German) "Bundestag: Regierung lehnt Gleichstellung ab". Queer.de. October 28, 2010. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  85. ^ (German) "Bundesrat votiert gegen Gleichstellung". Queer.de. April 18, 2011. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  86. ^ (German) "Landtag einhellig für Partnerschaftsgesetz". Liechtensteiner Vaterland. March 16, 2011. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  87. ^ "French Parliament Rejects Gay 'Marriage' Bill". The Associate Press. February 13, 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  88. ^ (German) "CDU-Länder verhindern wieder die Gleichstellung". Queer.de. June 20, 2011. Retrieved September 10, 2012. 
  89. ^ a b "Gay rights: Lawmakers defeat adoption bill for couples". Portugal Daily Views. February 24, 2012. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  90. ^ Lahav, Harkov (May 16, 2012). "Knesset rejects marriage equality bill". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved September 10, 2012. 
  91. ^ "Denmark Approves Gay Weddings In Church". Huffington Post. July 6, 2012. Retrieved September 10, 2012. 
  92. ^ (German) "Bundestag stimmt für Beibehaltung der Diskriminierung". Queer.de. June 28, 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  93. ^ (German) "Endgültiges Ergebnis der Namentlichen Abstimmung Nr. 3". Deutscher Bundestag. June 28, 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  94. ^ Gessa, Daniele Guido (June 27, 2012). "San Marino axes medieval law to let gay couples live together". GayStarNews. Retrieved September 10, 2012. 
  95. ^ "Gay marriage bill defeated". The Australian. September 19, 2012. Retrieved September 19, 2012. 
  96. ^ Cullen, Simon (September 21, 2012). "Australian Senate votes down same-sex marriage bill". ABC. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  97. ^ (German) "Bundestag stimmt gegen Ehegattensplitting für Homo-Paare". queer.de. October 25, 2012. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  98. ^ (Slovak) "Národná rada Slovenskej republiky - hlasovanie poslancov". Narodna Rada Slovenskej Republiky. November 6, 2012. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  99. ^ (Polish) "Poselski projekt ustawy o związkach partnerskich". SEIJM. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  100. ^ (Polish) "Poselski projekt ustawy o związkach partnerskich". SEIJM. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  101. ^ (Polish) "Poselski projekt ustawy o związkach partnerskich". SEIJM. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  102. ^ (German) "Bundesrat votiert für Gleichstellung im Steuerrecht". queer.de. March 1, 2013. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  103. ^ (German) "Koalition will Ehegattensplitting zügig selbst umsetzen". queer.de. June 7, 2013. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  104. ^ (German) "Bundesrat stimmt für Ehe-Öffnung". queer.de. March 22, 2013. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  105. ^ "MPs vote to legalise same sex marriage". TV NZ. April 17, 2013. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  106. ^ Lavers, Michael K. (April 24, 2013). "Colombian Senate rejects same-sex marriage bill". Washington Blade. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  107. ^ Shoichet, Catherine E.; Klein, Dario (April 3, 2013). "Uruguay's senate approves same-sex marriage bill". CNN. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  108. ^ Shoichet, Catherine E. (April 11, 2013). "Same-sex marriage bill awaits president's signature in Uruguay". CNN. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  109. ^ a b c (Portuguese) "Parlamento chumba alargamento da adopção a casais de homossexuais". Sol. May 17, 2013. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  110. ^ (French) Vignal, Francois (April 15, 2013). "Mariage pour tous : le détail du vote au Sénat". Public Senat. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  111. ^ (French)"Société : ouverture du mariage aux couples de même sexe". Assemblée nationale. May 17, 2013. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  112. ^ McKinnon, Alex (June 20, 2013). "Foreign same-sex marriage bill defeated". Star Observer. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  113. ^ (German) "Bundestag beschließt Steuergleichstellung light". queer.de. June 27, 2013. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  114. ^ (German) "Gesetz zur Änderung des Einkommensteuergesetzes in Umsetzung der Entscheidung des Bundesverfassungsgerichtes vom 7. Mai 2013". Deutscher Bundestag. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  115. ^ "Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Act 2013". UK Parliament. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  116. ^ "Gay marriage: Commons passes Cameron's plan". BBC. May 21, 2013. Retrieved May 21, 2013. 
  117. ^ "Adoptionsrechts-Änderungsgesetz 2013". Parlament Republik Österreich. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  118. ^ "Austria becomes the 14th European country to allow same-sex second-parent adoption". ILGA. August 1, 2013. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  119. ^ (Portuguese) "Projeto de Lei 278/XII". Assembleia da República. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  120. ^ (Portuguese) Conservadores barram direito de adoção a casais gays
  121. ^ (Romanian) "Pl nr. L597/2013 Propunere legislativă privind parteneriatul civil". Cdep.ro. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  122. ^ Sansone, Kurt (April 14, 2014). "Civil Unions Bill passes through Parliament". Malta Independent. Retrieved April 14, 2014. 
  123. ^ Bill No. 20 - Civil Unions Bill, Parliament of Malta
  124. ^ (Spanish) "Proyecto de ley que crea el Acuerdo de Vida en Pareja". Cámara de Diputados de Chile. August 17, 2011. Retrieved April 11, 2013. 
  125. ^ "Senate takes first step toward gay civil unions". The Santiago Times. January 7, 2014. Retrieved January 7, 2017. 
  126. ^ "Same Saxe Partnership and Gender Recognition for Albania". Kaosgl.org. 2013-12-05. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  127. ^ "Nationalrat: Grüne bringen Antrag zur Ehe-Öffnung für Lesben und Schwule ein". Thinkoutsideyourbox.net. 10 January 2014. 
  128. ^ Allgemeine Bürgerliche Gesetzbuch, Änderung (49/A), National Council
  129. ^ "Karmasin: Homo-Paare sollen "Familiennamen" wählen dürfen". Die Presse. March 29, 2014. Retrieved April 4, 2014. 
  130. ^ (Spanish) "El Parlamento boliviano estudia ley para reconocer concubinatos homosexuales". ABC.es. April 11, 2012. Retrieved July 27, 2012. 
  131. ^ Andres, Luis (2014-03-13). "Chile New President Promises to Fight for Same-Sex Marriage". EDGE Boston. Retrieved 2014-03-29. 
  132. ^ 24HORAS.CL. "Ministro Gómez abre discusión sobre matrimonio homosexual". 24horas.cl. Retrieved 2014-03-29. 
  133. ^ (Croatian) "Hrvatska priprema zakon o gay brakovima". MOJE Vijesti. August 2, 2013. Retrieved August 2, 2013. 
  134. ^ "Civil partnership bill will go ahead". Cyprus-mail.com. 2013-11-19. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  135. ^ "Parliamentary Working Group to Codify Cohabitation". Estonian Public Broadcasting. 21 March 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  136. ^ "Finland gay marriage bill reaches parliament". Gaystarnews.com. February 20, 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2014. 
  137. ^ "Citizens' initiative to the Parliament to modify the Marriage Act, the Registered Partnerships Act and the Act Determining the Gender of Transsexual Persons". Eduskunta. 
  138. ^ Entwurf eines Gesetzes zur Einführung des Rechts auf Eheschließung für Personen gleichen Geschlechts (Drucksache 18/8), Bundestag
  139. ^ "Bundestag: Linke beantragt Ehe-Öffnung". Queer.de. 9 October 2013. 
  140. ^ (German)"Adoptionsrecht: Bundeskabinett billigt "Placebo-Gesetz"". queer.de. 2014-03-12. Retrieved 2014-03-21. 
  141. ^ (German)"Bundesregierung plant kleine Verbesserungen für Lebenspartner". queer.de. 2014-03-20. Retrieved 2014-03-20. 
  142. ^ (German)"Entwurf eines Gesetzes zur Anpassung steuerlicher Regelungen an die Rechtsprechung des Bundesverfassungsgerichts". Bundesfinanzministerium. 2014-03-13. Retrieved 2014-03-20. 
  143. ^ (Greek) Ανάληψη πρωτοβουλίας του ΠΑΣΟΚ για το σύμφωνο συμβίωσης
  144. ^ (Greek) Τροπολογία για το σύμφωνο συμβίωσης από το ΠΑΣΟΚ
  145. ^ (Greek) Τροπολογία για ένταξη ομόφυλων ζευγαριών στο σύμφωνο συμβίωσης
  146. ^ "Israel: Civil union legislation introduced to extend marriage rights to same-sex couples". Pink News. October 29, 2013. Retrieved October 31, 2013. 
  147. ^ (Italian) Atto Senato n. 15
  148. ^ (Italian) Atto Senato n. 204
  149. ^ (Italian) Atto Senato n. 393
  150. ^ "Unioni civili, Alfano gela Renzi: Prima pensare alla famiglia". Repubblica. January 3, 2014. Retrieved January 4, 2014. 
  151. ^ Atto Senato n. 1211, Senate
  152. ^ (French) "6172A". Chambre des Députés du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  153. ^ Jim Waterson. "Europe Is About To Get Its Second Out Gay Prime Minister". Buzzfeed.com. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  154. ^ (Spanish) "No habrá matrimonio igualitario en todo el país". Animal Politico. November 26, 2013. Retrieved December 3, 2013. 
  155. ^ (Spanish) "Senadores proponen legalizar el matrimonio gay en todo México". CNN Mexico. November 14, 2013. Retrieved December 3, 2013. 
  156. ^ (Spanish) "Presentan proyecto de ley en Perú para crear la unión civil de homosexuales". El Economista América. 13 September 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  157. ^ (Spanish) "Peru: Presentan Proyecto Para Reconocer Uniones De Parejas Del Mismo Sexo". Globedia. 12 September 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  158. ^ Chiu, Patricia Denise (23 October 2013). "Bill protecting same-sex couples' property rights filed". GMA News Online. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  159. ^ (Polish) Projekt ustawy o związkach partnerskich
  160. ^ (Polish) Przepisy wprowadzające ustawę o związkach partnerskich
  161. ^ (Polish) Projekt ustawy o związkach partnerskich
  162. ^ (Polish) Przepisy wprowadzające ustawę o związkach partnerskich
  163. ^ (Polish) PO ma projekt dot. związków partnerskich. "Względnie konserwatywny"
  164. ^ Nick Duffy (8 April 2014). "San Marino: Governors to consider recognising overseas same-sex marriages". Pinknews.co.uk. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  165. ^ a b c Andrew Potts (6 December 2013). "Swiss Greens pushing for gay marriage and tax equality". Gaystarnews.com. Retrieved 5 January 2014. 
  166. ^ 13.468 Ehe für alle, Federal Assembly
  167. ^ "Rights groups introduce bills to legalize gay marriage, partnership". Radio Taiwan International. 10 October 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  168. ^ Lok-Sin, Loa (4 October 2013). "Same-sex activists deliver first citizen-drafted acts". Taipei Times. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  169. ^ "A panel discussion reveals the obstacles ahead for same-sex marriage campaigners in Thailand". Bangkok Post. 25 July 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  170. ^ Russeau, Simba Shani Kamaria (25 July 2013). "Thailand opens gay marriage debate in Asia". Asia Times. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  171. ^ "Venezuela activists petition for same-sex marriage". 31 January 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014. 
  172. ^ "Convention votes in favour of referendum on same-sex marriage". Irish Examiner. 14 April 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  173. ^ Collins, Stephen; Carbery, Genevieve (5 November 2013). "Referendum on same-sex marriage to be held in 2015". The Irish Time. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
  174. ^ "Other Domestic Partnership Updates". Queer Resources Directory. Summer 1994. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  175. ^ "Domestic Relationships Act 1994". Australasian Legal Information Institute. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  176. ^ "Danish Partnership Act in Greenland". Cibercity. Retrieved September 9, 2009. 
  177. ^ (Danish) "1995-96 - L 162 (oversigt): Forslag til lov om ændring af kriminalloven og arveloven for Grønland. (Ændringer som følge af indførelse af registreret partnerskab)". Webarkiv.dk. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  178. ^ (Spanish) Reglamento regulador del Registro de Uniones de Hecho
  179. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Galán, José Ignacio Pichardo. "Same-sex couples in Spain. Historical, contextual and symbolic factors". Institut national d'études démographiques. Retrieved 30 December 2012. 
  180. ^ Leston, Cesar (July 1998). "Catalonia has granted Domestic Partnership rights". ILGA. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  181. ^ "AN ACT TO AMEND THE FAMILY PROPERTY AND SUPPORT ACT, Chapter 8, Statutes of the Yukon 1998" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  182. ^ Leston, Cesar (April 1999). "Domestic Partnership bill passed in Aragon". ILGA. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  183. ^ "Bill n°32 : An Act to amend various legislative provisions concerning de facto spouses, 1st Session, 36th Legislature, National Assembly of Québec". Assnat.qc.ca. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  184. ^ "Property (Relationships) Legislation Amendment Act 1999 No 4". New South Wales Government. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  185. ^ "Bill 5, Amendments Because of the Supreme Court of Canada Decision in M. v. H. Act, 1999, 1st Session, 37th Legislature, Legislative Assembly of Ontario". Ontla.on.ca. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  186. ^ "DEFINITION OF SPOUSE AMENDMENT ACT, 1999, Bill 100, 1998/99 Legislative Session: 3rd Session, 36th Parliament, Legislative Assembly of the Province of British Columbia". Leg.bc.ca. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  187. ^ a b c ""Sexual Orientation and Legal Rights", Background Paper, Parliamentary Information and Research Service, Library of Parliament, Publication 08-49-E, revised 24 February 2010" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  188. ^ (Spanish) "LEY FORAL 6/2000, DE 3 DE JULIO, PARA LA IGUALDAD JURÍDICA DE LAS PAREJAS ESTABLES". Lexnavarra.navarra.es. Retrieved 2014-04-03. 
  189. ^ "DEFINITION OF SPOUSE AMENDMENT ACT, 2000, Bill 21, 2000 Legislative Session: 4th Session, 36th Parliament, Legislative Assembly of the Province of British Columbia". Leg.bc.ca. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  190. ^ a b "Opinion on Common-Law Relationships of Jennifer A. Cooper, Q.C.". Manitoba Government. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  191. ^ "Law Reform (2000) Act". The Nova Scotia Legislature. Retrieved September 25, 2012. 
  192. ^ "CHAPTER 29 - AN ACT TO AMEND THE FAMILY LAW ACT". Assembly.nl.ca. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  193. ^ "BILL 26 - An Act to Amend the Family Services Act". Gnb.ca. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  194. ^ (French) Loi sur le partenariat
  195. ^ "CHAPTER 22 - AN ACT TO AMEND THE LAW TO CONSIDER SAME SEX COHABITING PARTNERS IN THE SAME MANNER AS OPPOSITE SEX COHABITING PARTNERS". Assembly.nl.ca. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  196. ^ (Catalan) Llei 18/2001 de 19 de desembre, de parelles estables
  197. ^ (Spanish) LEY DE UNIONES DE HECHO DE LA COMUNIDAD DE MADRID
  198. ^ "AN ACT TO COMPLY WITH THE SUPREME COURT OF CANADA DECISION IN M. V. H., Bill 41, 2000/01 Legislative Session: 2nd Session, 37th Parliament, Legislative Assembly of Manitoba". Web2.gov.mb.ca. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  199. ^ a b c "Family Law in Manitoba - 2005 Edition Chapter 3". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  200. ^ "Acts Amendment (Lesbian and Gay Law Reform) Act 2002". State Law Publisher. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  201. ^ (Spanish) LEY 4/2002, de 23 de mayo, de Parejas Estables
  202. ^ "Bill n°84 : An Act instituting civil unions and establishing new rules of filiation". Assnat.qc.ca. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  203. ^ "The Charter Compliance Act". Web2.gov.mb.ca. 2002-08-01. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  204. ^ "The Common-Law Partners' Property And Related Amendments Act". Web2.gov.mb.ca. 2002-08-09. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  205. ^ ""Zurich grants gay couples more rights", swissinfo.ch, 22 September 2002". Swissinfo.ch. 2002-09-22. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  206. ^ "Bill 30-2: Adult Interdependent Relationships Act (Hancock)". Assembly.ab.ca. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  207. ^ (Spanish) LEY 5/2002, de 16 de diciembre, de Parejas de Hecho
  208. ^ "Miscellaneous Acts Amendment (Relationships) Act 2002". Australasian Legal Information Institute. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  209. ^ "CHAPTER F-2.1 - FAMILY LAW ACT" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  210. ^ (Spanish) LEY 5/2003, de 6 de marzo, para la regulación de las parejas de hecho en la Comunidad Autónoma de Canarias
  211. ^ (Spanish) Ley 5/2003, de 20 de marzo, de Parejas de Hecho de la Comunidad Autónoma de Extremadura
  212. ^ (Spanish)Ley 2/2003, de 7 de mayo, reguladora de las parejas de hecho
  213. ^ (Spanish) "En 5 años, sólo 10 parejas gays pasaron por el Registro Civil". Rio Negro Online. February 3, 2008. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  214. ^ "Relationships Act 2003". Tasmanian Legislation. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  215. ^ (French) Partenariat enregistré cantonal
  216. ^ (French) Le pacs gagne du terrain
  217. ^ (Spanish) "Ley de la C.A. de Cantabria 1/2005, de 16 de mayo, de parejas de hecho de la Comunidad Autónoma de Cantabria". Lexur Editorial. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  218. ^ "The Civil Partnership Act 2004". Isle of Man Government. Retrieved November 23, 2011. 
  219. ^ "DE FACTO RELATIONSHIPS ACT 2005". Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  220. ^ Cota, Erich (November 17, 2006). "Mexico City Approves Same Sex Unions". Ohmy News. Retrieved December 21, 2009. 
  221. ^ Grew, Tony (December 6, 2006). "South Australia gays get new rights". Pink News. Retrieved December 21, 2009. 
  222. ^ "Mexican state approves gay civil unions". Mail & Guardian Online. January 13, 2007. Retrieved December 21, 2009. 
  223. ^ "Relationship Declaration Register". City of Yarra. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  224. ^ (Spanish) "Córdoba: aprueban la unión civil entre homosexuales en Villa Carlos Paz". Clarin. November 23, 2007. Retrieved December 21, 2009. 
  225. ^ (Spanish) REGLAMENTO REGULADOR DEL REGISTRO DE PAREJAS DE HECHO DE LA CIUDAD AUTÓNOMA DE MELILLA
  226. ^ "ACT recognises same sex couples". The Age. May 20, 2008. Retrieved December 21, 2009. 
  227. ^ "Miscellaneous Acts Amendment (Same Sex Relationships) Bill 2008". The Age. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  228. ^ Communications New Brunswick. "Modernization of Benefits and Obligations Act". Gnb.ca. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  229. ^ "New Caledonia catches up to France". Sydney Star Observer. June 9, 2009. Retrieved October 4, 2009. 
  230. ^ "Timeline Of Gay and Lesbian Marriage, Partnership or Unions Worldwide". UK Gay News. Retrieved October 4, 2009. 
  231. ^ Geen, Jessica (September 30, 2009). "Tasmania to give gay couples official ceremonies". PinkNews. Retrieved December 21, 2009. 
  232. ^ "ACT win fight on gay wedding laws". AdelaideNow. November 26, 2009. Retrieved December 21, 2009. 
  233. ^ Castillo, E. Eduardo (December 21, 2009). "Mexico City Approves Gay Marriage". The Huffington Post. Retrieved December 21, 2009. 
  234. ^ "Massive support for register". Star Observer. May 13, 2010. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  235. ^ "Relationships Register Bill 2010". Parliament of New South Wales. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  236. ^ (German) "Wien gleicht Eingetragene Partner an Ehepaare an". GGG.at. June 24, 2010. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  237. ^ (German)"Eingetragene Partnerschaften: Sammelnovelle im Wiener Landtag". APA. June 24, 2010. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  238. ^ "Relationships Amendment (Recognition of Registered Relationships) Bill 2010". Parliament of Tasmania. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  239. ^ "Tasmania votes to recognise foreign same-sex marriages". Star Observer. September 1, 2010. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  240. ^ Corker, Sarah (March 15, 2011). "Isle of Man gay couples get right to civil partnership". BBC. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  241. ^ "Civil Partnerships Bill 2011". Queensland Government. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  242. ^ Agius, Kym (December 1, 2011). "Bligh asks ALP to support gay marriage". Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  243. ^ "Jersey States approves civil partnerships". BBC. July 12, 2011. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  244. ^ "Civil Partnerhip (Jersey) Law 2012". BBC. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  245. ^ "Civil Unions Bill 2011". ACT Government. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  246. ^ "Assembly passes civil unions reforms". Canberra Times. August 23, 2012. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  247. ^ Harrison, Dan (August 21, 2012). "Tasmania's gay marriage bill clears first hurdle". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  248. ^ ""Tasmania's Upper House votes down gay marriage", ABC News, updatd 28 September 2012". Abc.net.au. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  249. ^ "Relationship Declaration Register". City of Vincent. 
  250. ^ "AL: Same-sex unions "not accepted in Chinese communities", bill vetoed". Macaudailytimes.com.mo. 2013-03-29. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  251. ^ "Legalising gay unions would ensure marriage remains relevant, says Premier Jay Weatherill". News.com.au. 2013-07-25. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  252. ^ a b (Spanish) Congreso de Colima aprueba enlaces conyugales de parejas gay
  253. ^ a b (Spanish) Colima declara válida la ley sobre bodas gay
  254. ^ (Spanish) Reglamenta Congreso de Colima bodas de parejas gay
  255. ^ "Same-sex marriage fails again in Tasmania". News.ninemsn.com.au. October 29, 2013. Retrieved November 5, 2013. 
  256. ^ "ACT legalises same-sex marriage". Dailytelegraph.com.au. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  257. ^ "Mexican State of Jalisco Passes Same-Sex Civil Unions Law". Lez Get Real. October 31, 2013. Retrieved November 5, 2013. 
  258. ^ "Vote on gay marriage fails in first Australian state". Gay Star News. November 14, 2013. Retrieved November 14, 2013. 
  259. ^ "Legalizan bodas gays en Campeche". SDP Noticias. Retrieved 2014-03-29. 
  260. ^ Marriage and Civil Partnership (Scotland) Bill, Scottish Parliament
  261. ^ "Victory: Gay marriage now legal in Scotland". Gaystarnews.com. 4 February 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2014. 
  262. ^ "Faroe Islands: Equal marriage bill voted down". Pinknews.co.uk. 2014-03-18. Retrieved 2014-03-29. 
  263. ^ "Civil Partnerships Bill Passed in Parliament". GBC News. 21 March 2014. 
  264. ^ "CIVIL PARTNERSHIP ACT 2014" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-04-03. 
  265. ^ (Spanish) Proponen legalizar matrimonios gay en Coahuila
  266. ^ (Danish) "Der lagt op til ændring af kirkeloven i Grønland, der skal bane vejen for homoseksuelle vielser i kirken". Sermitsiaq. 20 January 2014. 
  267. ^ (Danish) "Homovielser i Grønland fra juli 2014". Greenlandic Broadcasting Corporation. 19 November 2013. 
  268. ^ (Spanish) "Apoya PRD iniciativa sobre las bodas gay". Correo. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  269. ^ "Mexican State Oaxaca To Legalize Gay Marriage". Ontopmag.com. 2012-12-06. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  270. ^ "Western Australian Liberals allow Greens state gay marriage bill to move forward". Gaystarnews.com. February 20, 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2014. 
  271. ^ (Spanish) Van por matrimonio universal en Yucatán
  272. ^ "Civil unions to be debated in Guernsey next year". Bbc.com. 2014-01-15. Retrieved 2014-03-29. 
  273. ^ "The text of the Constitution of the Republic of Cuba". Walterlippman. January 31, 2003. Retrieved 2009-08-12. 
  274. ^ (French) CONSTITUTION DU BURKINA FASO
  275. ^ "Article 46(1), Bulgaria – Constitution". Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  276. ^ "Article 64, 1992 Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (as amended 25 December 2001" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  277. ^ "Paraguay – Constitution". Retrieved 2010-10-15. 
  278. ^ "Article 38, The Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania". .lrs.lt. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  279. ^ "Lithuania - Gay Rights and Life in Lithuania". Gaylife.about.com. 2010-04-07. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  280. ^ "Article 45, The Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia". Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. 21 September 1993. Retrieved 7 September 2012. 
  281. ^ Prof. Dr. Axel Tschentscher, LL.M. "Belarus - Constitution". Servat.unibe.ch. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  282. ^ CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA, Constitution Finder, University of Richmond[dead link]
  283. ^ "Constitution of Ukraine - Title II". President of Ukraine Official website. 
  284. ^ "The Constitution of the Republic of Poland". Sejm. Retrieved 2009-08-12. 
  285. ^ (Spanish) "Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela". Retrieved 2011-03-10. 
  286. ^ (Spanish) SALA CONSTITUCIONAL Magistrado Ponente: PEDRO RAFAEL RONDÓN HAAZ
  287. ^ "Article 26, The Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  288. ^ "ACLU Applauds House Stand Against Discriminatory Marriage Amendment; Calls Vote a Victory for All American Families". American Civil Liberties Union. September 30, 2004. Retrieved 2009-08-12. 
  289. ^ (French) "Constitution of the Republic of Burundi". Retrieved 2010-10-15. 
  290. ^ (Spanish) CONSTITUCION POLITICA DE LA REPUBLICA DE HONDURAS DE 1982
  291. ^ "Honduras Bans Gay Marriage & Adoption". Global Gayz. March 30, 2005. Retrieved 2009-08-12. 
  292. ^ "Museveni signs 3rd term bill". New Vision Online. September 29, 2005. Retrieved 2009-08-12. 
  293. ^ "President Signs Anti-Gay Constitutional Amendment". UK Gay News. December 21, 2005. Retrieved 2009-08-12. 
  294. ^ Zajtman, Arnaud (February 19, 2006). "New DR Congo constitution adopted". BBC. Retrieved 2009-08-12. 
  295. ^ (French) Constitution de la République Démocratique du Congo.
  296. ^ "House vote fails on amendment to define marriage". Washington Times. July 18, 2006. Retrieved 2009-08-12. 
  297. ^ "Constitution of the Republic of Serbia". Serbian Parliament. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  298. ^ "THE CONSTITUTION OF MONTENEGRO and THE CONSTITUTIONAL LAW FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CONSTITUTION OF MONTENEGRO ADOPTED ON 19 OCTOBER 2007" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  299. ^ "Information on the rights of minority groups in Montenegro" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  300. ^ (Spanish) CONSTITUCIÓN DEL ECUADOR
  301. ^ (Spanish) "Constitución Política del Estado (CPE) (7-Febrero-2009)". Infoleyes. Retrieved September 15, 2012. 
  302. ^ Melloy, Kilian (October 5, 2009). "Church & Political Right Fail to Ban Marriage Equality in El Salvador". Edge Boston. Retrieved September 15, 2012. 
  303. ^ (Spanish) Constitución Política de la República Dominicana, proclamada el 26 de enero 2010, Publicada en la Gaceta Oficial No. 10561, del 26 de enero de 2010.
  304. ^ "The Proposed Constitution of Kenya". Sunday Nation. Retrieved September 15, 2012. 
  305. ^ Chanda, Ernest (February 18, 2010). "NCC to adopt clause that forbids same sex marriage". Saturday Post Online. Retrieved September 15, 2012. 
  306. ^ "Constitution Bill fails, 1996 constitution to remain in place". Lusakatimes.com. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  307. ^ "Fundamental Law of Hungary". TASZ. Retrieved September 15, 2012. 
  308. ^ Gorondi, Pablo (April 18, 2011). "Hungary passes new conservative constitution". Reading Eagle. Retrieved September 15, 2012. 
  309. ^ Turner, Rob (April 25, 2011). "Hungarian president signs new constitution despite human rights concerns". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved September 15, 2012. 
  310. ^ "The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011". Sudan Tribune. Retrieved September 15, 2012. 
  311. ^ Mainye, Job (July 9, 2011). "Birth Of A Nation: The Republic Of South Sudan". Gurtong. Retrieved September 15, 2012. 
  312. ^ "Liberian Senate votes to ban gay marriage in constitution". Radio Netherlands Worldwide. June 20, 2012. Retrieved September 15, 2012. 
  313. ^ Williams, Ken (February 27, 2012). "In Zimbabwe, final constitutional draft criminalizes homosexuality and marriage equality". Retrieved January 6, 2014. 
  314. ^ "Macedonia rejects amending constitution to define marriage as one man, one woman". Lgbtqnation.com. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  315. ^ "Croatians vote to ban same-sex marriage". Rt.com. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  316. ^ "Attempt To Ban Gay Marriage Fails In El Salvador". Ontopmag.com. Retrieved 2014-02-10. 
  317. ^ "Govt Offers Setting Constitutional Bar to Same-Sex Marriage". Civil.ge. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  318. ^ "Georgia to Consider a Ban on Same-Sex Marriage". Eurasianet.org. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  319. ^ "Campaign started to declare gay marriage unconstitutional". RT. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  320. ^ (Slovak)"Návrh poslancov NR SR". nrsr.sk. Retrieved 2014-03-26. 
  321. ^ (Vietnamese) Nghị quyết sửa đổi, bổ sung Hiến pháp năm 1992
  322. ^ DPA (2013-11-28). "Vietnam amends Constitution". Thehindu.com. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  323. ^ St, Jason (2009-10-05). "Church & Political Right Fail to Ban Marriage Equality in El Salvador". Edgeboston.com. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  324. ^ (Slovak) Hlasovanie podľa klubov
  325. ^ "The Cayman Islands Constitution Order 2009". Cayman Constitution. Retrieved September 15, 2012. 
  326. ^ "Aprueba Yucatán ley contra matrimonio gay". Anodis.com. Retrieved 2014-01-06. 
  327. ^ (Spanish) Aprueban reforma para celebrar matrimonios civiles gay en Colima