|• Hebrew||שֶׂגֶב שָׁלוֹם|
|• Also spelled||Segev Shalom (official)
Shaqeeb as-Salaam (unofficial)
|• Arabic||شقيب السلام|
|• Type||Local council|
|• Head of Municipality||Omar Abu Muamar|
|• Total||5,981 dunams (5.981 km2 or 2.309 sq mi)|
Shaqib was founded in 1979 as part of a government project to settle Bedouins in permanent settlements, and declared a local council in 1996. It is one of seven Bedouin townships in the Negev desert with approved plans and developed infrastructure (other six are: Hura, Tel as-Sabi (Tel Sheva), Ar'arat an-Naqab (Ar'ara BaNegev), Lakiya, Kuseife (Kseife) and the city of Rahat, the largest among them).
Township's name "Segev Shalom" comes from a Sagiv river that flows nearby and also relates to the Camp David Accords between Egypt and Israel (Shalom stands for peace in Hebrew) signed the same year the township was founded.
Prior to the establishment of Israel, the Negev Bedouins were a semi-nomadic society that had been through a process of sedentariness since the Ottoman rule of the region. Most researches agree that Bedouins arrived to the Negev around 1800 AD, but there is evidence of earlier migrations as well.
During the British Mandate period the administration didn't provide a legal frame to justify and preserve lands’ ownership. In order to settle this issue, Israel’s land policy was adapted to a large extent from the Ottoman land regulations of 1858 as the only preceding legal frame. Thus Israel nationalized most of the Negev lands using the state’s land regulations from 1969.
Israel has continued the policy of sedentarization of Negev Bedouins imposed by the Ottoman authorities, and at first it included regulation and re-location - during the 1950s Israel has re-located two-thirds of the Negev Bedouins into an area that was under a martial law. The next step was to establish seven townships built especially for Bedouins in order to sedentarize and urbanize them by offering them better life conditions, proper infrastructure and high quality public services in sanitation, health and education, and municipal services.
But not all Bedouins agree to move from tents and structures built on the state lands into apartments prepared for them. In permanent planned villages like Shaqib lives about 60% of Bedouin citizens of Israel, while the rest in illegal homes spread all over North Negev.
Process of sedentarization is full of hardships for any nation, since it means a harsh shift from one way of life to another - transition from wandering to permanent residence, and Bedouins whose society is based on tradition are no exception. As a result of rapid and unexpected changes of the social infrastructure Bedouins faced many difficulties, primarily related to the integration issues. The rate of unemployment remains high in Bedouin townships, as well as crime level. School through age 16 is mandatory by law, but the vast majority of the population does not receive a high school education. Women are discriminated in the patriarchal-type Bedouin society. There is another serious problem of trespassing on state lands and building unrecognized Bedouin settlements having no municipal status and facing demolition orders.
Shaqib al-Salam is one of several flagship projects aimed at improving life for the Negev Bedouin. Unlike illegal villages with scarce access to water, electricity and services, this township provides the residents with all their basic needs. Nevertheless, in December 2009, the town was ranked low (1 out of 10) in socio-economic standing, with an average income of 3,975 shekels to the national average's of 7,070.
The township is situated close to Beersheva so its economy is closely related to that of the city. Several industrial parks are situated in the area - Beersheba, Hura, Ramat Hovav, Idan haNegev and Rahat. Residents also work in the services industry in Beersheba. There are several organizations that promote entrepreneurship among the 160,000 Bedouins living in the Negev, primarily aimed at Bedouin women.
In May 2010 a One Stop Employment Center was established in Shaqib al-Salam and its work has been in facilitating the integration of Bedouins into the workplace. It has dramatically increased the proportion of Bedouins employed.
Education and culture
There is a number of organizations carrying out different activities aimed at supporting and facilitating entrepreneurship in Israel's South in order to further integrate the 160,000 Bedouins living in the Negev into Israel's mainstream economy. They are primarily aimed at Bedouin women.
Twenty Arab-Bedouin women from the towns of Rahat, Lakiya, Tel Sheva, Segev Shalom, Kuseife and Rachma participated in a sewing course for fashion design at the Amal College in Beer Sheva, including lessons on sewing and cutting, personal empowerment and business initiatives.
Health and public facilities
Many services can be found inside Beer Sheva that is at close distance from Shaqib al-Salam, including medical services, schooling, labor, shopping, etc. There is a branch of Clalit health clinic inside the township, as well as several perinatal (baby care) centers Tipat Halav.
Jewish National Fund has funded a central park complete with an amphitheater around the community’s town hall.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Segev Shalom.|
- PM Netanyahu meets with Negev Bedouin mayors MFA, November 3, 2011
- "CBS. Statistic abstract of Israel 2011. POPULATION AND DENSITY PER SQ. KM. IN LOCALITIES NUMBERING 5,000 RESIDENTS AND MORE ON 31 XII 2010(1)" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2010-12-31.
- State of Israel. Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. List of Issues to be taken up in Connection with the Consideration of Israel's Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports of Israel (CEDAW/C/ISR/4 and CEDAW/C/ISR/5)
- Israel Central Bureau of Statistics CBS. Table 3 - Population of Localities Numbering Above 1,000 Residents and Other Rural Population December 31, 2007. Retrieved April 4, 2008
- "Local Authorities in Israel 2005, Publication #1295 - Municipality Profiles - Segev-Shalom" (PDF) (in Hebrew). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2008-03-07.
- Dor Fridman. "About the Negev Bedouins". LocalEconomySeminar.
- Bedouin information, ILA, 2007
- Blueprint Negev. Working with Bedouin communities
- Sarab Abu-Rabia-Queder. The activism of Bedouin women: Social and political resistance Ben Gurion University
- Bedouins in the State of Israel Knesset official site
- Idan Hanegev Industrial Park
- Putting Meat on the Table: Employment Opportunities for Bedouins in the Negev (JDC)
- Economic Empowerment. Arab-Bedouin Fashion Design
- Working with Bedouin communities Jewish National Fund
- Shaqib al-Salam's Facebook page
- Fire within. A film about Jacobs International Teen Leadership Institute' program on bringing the American Jewish youth, Israeli Jewish youth and Israeli Bedouin youth together
- Lands of the Negev, a short film presented by Israel Land Administration describing the challenges faced in providing land management and infrastructure to the Bedouins in Israel's southern Negev region