United States presidential election, 1876

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United States presidential election, 1876
United States
1872 ←
November 7, 1876 (1876-11-07) → 1880

All 369 electoral votes of the Electoral College
185 electoral votes needed to win
Turnout 81.8%[1]
  RutherfordBHayes.png SamuelJonesTilden.png
Nominee Rutherford B. Hayes Samuel J. Tilden
Party Republican Democratic
Home state Ohio New York
Running mate William A. Wheeler Thomas A. Hendricks
Electoral vote 185 184
States carried 21 17
Popular vote 4,034,311 4,288,546
Percentage 47.9% 50.9%

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About this image
Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Hayes/Wheeler, Blue denotes those won by Tilden/Hendricks. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

President before election

Ulysses S. Grant
Republican

Elected President

Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican

The United States presidential election of 1876 was the 23rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 7, 1876. It was one of the most contentious and controversial presidential elections in American history. The results of the election remain among the most disputed ever, although there is no question that Samuel J. Tilden of New York outpolled Ohio's Rutherford B. Hayes in the popular vote. After a first count of votes, it was clear that Tilden had won 184 electoral votes to Hayes's 165, with 20 votes unresolved. These 20 electoral votes were in dispute in four states: in the case of Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina, each party reported its candidate had won the state, while in Oregon one elector was declared illegal (as an "elected or appointed official") and replaced. The question of who should have been awarded these electoral votes is the source of the continued controversy concerning the results of this election.

An informal deal was struck to resolve the dispute: the Compromise of 1877, which awarded all 20 electoral votes to Hayes. In return for the Democrats' acquiescence in Hayes's election, the Republicans agreed to withdraw federal troops from the South, ending Reconstruction. The Compromise effectively ceded power in the Southern states to the Democratic Redeemers, who went on to pursue their agenda of returning the South to a political economy resembling that of its pre-war condition, including the disenfranchisement of black voters.

This was the first presidential election in 20 years in which the Democratic candidate won a majority of the popular vote. This is also the only election in which a candidate for president received more than 50 percent of the popular vote but was not elected president by the Electoral College, and one of four elections in which the person winning the plurality of the popular vote did not win the election. It is to date the smallest electoral vote victory and the election with the highest voter turnout of the voting age population[1][2] in American history.

Nominations[edit]

Republican Party nomination[edit]

Republican candidates:

Hayes/Wheeler campaign poster

During 1875 it was widely assumed that despite the poor economy and numerous political scandals he had endured, incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant would run for a third term as President, as despite the long-standing tradition set by George Washington that Presidents only served two terms, Grant was considerably younger than any of the other two-term Presidents (Grant would be 54 years old when his term ended; the second-youngest two-term President, Washington himself, had been 65). In the autumn of that year however, Grant's advisers told him that while he still had enough support within the party that he could probably have secured the nomination without too much difficulty, they doubted his ability to win the election. The sudden death of Vice-President Henry Wilson in November seemed to sap any remaining desire Grant had to hold onto his office, and he announced later in the month that he would not seek re-nomination.

When the 6th Republican National Convention assembled on June 14, 1876, it appeared that James G. Blaine would be the nominee. On the first ballot, Blaine was just 100 votes short of a majority. His vote began to slide after the second ballot, as many Republicans feared that Blaine could not win the general election. Anti-Blaine delegates could not agree on a candidate until Blaine's total rose to 41% on the sixth ballot. Leaders of the reform Republicans met privately and considered alternatives. The choice was Ohio's reform Governor, Rutherford B. Hayes. On the seventh ballot, Hayes was nominated with 384 votes to 351 for Blaine and 21 for Benjamin Bristow. William A. Wheeler was nominated for vice-president by a much larger margin (366–89), and then amidst the balloting through acclamation, over his chief rival, Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen, who later served as a member of the electoral commission that awarded the election to Hayes.

Presidential Ballot
Ballot 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th
James G. Blaine 285 296 293 292 286 308 351
Oliver P. Morton 124 120 113 108 95 85 0
Benjamin Bristow 113 114 121 126 114 111 21
Roscoe Conkling 99 93 90 84 82 81 0
Rutherford B. Hayes 61 64 67 68 104 113 384
John F. Hartranft 58 63 68 71 69 50 0
Marshall Jewell 11 0 0 0 0 0 0
William A. Wheeler 3 3 2 2 2 2 0
Elihu B. Washburne 0 1 1 3 3 4 0
Vice Presidential Ballot
Ballot 1st Partial
William A. Wheeler 366
Frederick T. Frelinghuysen 89
Stewart L. Woodford 70
Marshall Jewell 38
Joseph R. Hawley 25

Democratic Party nomination[edit]

Democratic candidates:

Interior of the Merchants Exchange Building of St. Louis, Missouri, during the announcement of Samuel J. Tilden as the Democratic presidential nominee
Tilden/Hendricks campaign poster

The 12th Democratic National Convention assembled in St. Louis in June 1876, the first political convention held west of the Mississippi River. Five thousand people jammed the auditorium in St. Louis hoping for the Democrats' first presidential victory in 20 years. The platform called for immediate and sweeping reforms following the scandal-plagued Grant administration. Tilden won more than 400 votes on the first ballot and the nomination by a landslide on the second.

Tilden defeated Thomas A. Hendricks, Winfield Scott Hancock, William Allen, Thomas F. Bayard, and Joel Parker for the presidential nomination. Although Tilden was strongly opposed by "Honest John" Kelly, the leader of New York's Tammany Hall, he was still able to obtain the nomination. Thomas Hendricks was nominated for vice-president since he was the only person put forward for the position.

The Democratic platform pledged to replace the corruption of the Grant administration with honest, efficient government and to end "the rapacity of carpetbag tyrannies" in the South. It also called for treaty protection for naturalized U.S. citizens visiting their homeland, restrictions on Oriental immigration, tariff reform, and opposition to land grants for railroads.[5]

It is claimed that Tilden's nomination was received by the voting Democrats with more enthusiasm than any leader since Andrew Jackson.[6]

Presidential Ballot
1st Before Shifts 1st After Shifts 2nd Before Shifts 2nd After Shifts Unanimous
Samuel J. Tilden 401.5 417.5 535 534 738
Thomas A. Hendricks 140.5 140.5 85 60
Winfield Scott Hancock 75 75 58 59
William Allen 54 54 54 54
Thomas F. Bayard 33 33 4 11
Joel Parker 18 18 0 18
James Broadhead 16 0 0 0
Allen G. Thurman 0 0 2 2

Source: Official proceedings of the National Democratic convention, held in St. Louis, Mo., June 27th, 28th and 29th, 1876. (September 3, 2012).

Vice Presidential Ballot
1st
Thomas A. Hendricks 730
Blank 8

Source: Official proceedings of the National Democratic convention, held in St. Louis, Mo., June 27th, 28th and 29th, 1876. (September 3, 2012).

Greenback Party nomination[edit]

Greenback candidates:

Candidates gallery[edit]

The Greenback Party had been organized by agricultural interests in Indianapolis in 1874 to urge the federal government to inflate the economy through the mass issuance of paper money called greenbacks. Their first national nominating convention was held in Indianapolis in the spring of 1876. Peter Cooper was nominated for president with 352 votes to 119 for three other contenders. The convention nominated anti-monopolist Senator Newton Booth of California for vice-president; after Booth declined to run, the national committee chose Samuel Fenton Cary as his replacement on the ticket.[citation needed] Cooper was 85 years old at the time of his nomination, thus the oldest person ever nominated by a political party to serve as President of the United States.

Presidential Ballot
Ballot 1st
Peter Cooper 352
Andrew Curtin 58
William Allen 31
Alexander Campbell 30

Source: US President - G Convention. Our Campaigns. (February 10, 2012).

Prohibition Party nomination[edit]

The Prohibition Party, in its second national convention, nominated Green Clay Smith as their presidential candidate and Gideon T. Stewart as their vice-presidential candidate.

American National Party nomination[edit]

This small political party used several different names, often with different names in different states. It was a continuation of the Anti-Masonic Party that met in 1872 and nominated Charles F. Adams for president. When Adams declined to run, the party did not contest the 1872 election.

The convention was held from June 8–10, 1875, in Liberty Hall, Pittsburgh. B.T. Roberts of New York served as chairman, and Jonathan Blanchard was the keynote speaker.

The platform supported the Reconstruction Amendments to the Constitution, international arbitration, the reading of the scriptures in public schools, specie payments, justice for the American Indians, abolition of the Electoral College, and prohibition of the sale of alcoholic beverages. It declared the first day of the week to be a day of rest for the United States. The platform opposed secret societies and monopolies.

The convention considered three potential presidential nominees: Charles F. Adams, Jonathan Blanchard, and James B. Walker. When Blanchard declined to run, Walker was unanimously nominated. The convention then nominated Donald Kirkpatrick of New York unanimously for vice-president.[7]

General election[edit]

Campaign[edit]

The election was hotly contested, as can be seen by this poster published in 1877
A certificate for the electoral vote for Rutherford B. Hayes and William A. Wheeler for the State of Louisiana
A truce - not a compromise, but a chance for high-toned gentlemen to retire gracefully from their very civil declarations of war. By Thomas Nast in Harper's Weekly, 1877 Feb 17, p. 132.

Tilden, who had prosecuted machine politicians in New York and sent legendary political boss William M. Tweed to jail, ran as a reform candidate against the background of the corruption of the Grant administration. Both parties backed civil service reform and an end to Reconstruction. Both sides mounted mud-slinging campaigns, with Democratic attacks on Republican corruption being countered by Republicans raising the Civil War issue, a tactic ridiculed by Democrats who called it "waving the bloody shirt". Republicans chanted, "Not every Democrat was a rebel, but every rebel was a Democrat." The Democratic strategy for victory in the south was highly reliant on paramilitary groups such as the Red Shirts and the White League. Using the strategy of the Mississippi Plan, these groups actively suppressed black and white Republican voter turnouts by disrupting meetings and rallies and even using violence and intimidation. They saw themselves as the military wing of the Democratic Party. Because it was considered improper for a candidate to pursue the presidency actively, neither Tilden nor Hayes actively stumped as part of the campaign, leaving that job to surrogates.

Colorado[edit]

Colorado became the 38th state on August 1, 1876. With insufficient time or money to organize a presidential election in the new state, Colorado's state legislature selected the state's electors. These electors in turn gave their three votes to Hayes and the Republican Party. This is the last election where any state chose electors by state legislature.

Electoral disputes[edit]

In Florida (with 4 electoral votes), Louisiana (with 8), and South Carolina (with 7), reported returns favored Tilden, but election results in each state were marked by fraud and threats of violence against Republican voters. One of the points of contention revolved around the design of ballots. At the time, parties would print ballots or "tickets" to enable voters to support them in the open ballots. To aid illiterate voters the parties would print symbols on the tickets. In this election, however, many Democratic ballots were printed with the Republican symbol, Abraham Lincoln, on them.[8] The Republican-dominated state electoral commissions subsequently disallowed a sufficient number of Democratic votes to award their electoral votes to Hayes.

In two southern states, the governor recognized by the United States had signed the Republican certificates. The Democratic certificates from Florida were signed by the state attorney-general and the new Democratic governor. Those from Louisiana were signed by the Democratic gubernatorial candidate, and those from South Carolina by no state official. In the latter state, the Tilden electors simply claimed that they were chosen by the popular vote and so they were rejected by the state election board.[9]

Meanwhile, in Oregon, the vote of a single elector was disputed. The statewide result clearly had favored Hayes, but the state's Democratic governor, La Fayette Grover, claimed that that elector, former postmaster John Watts, was ineligible under Article II, Section 1, of the United States Constitution, since he was a "person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States." Grover then substituted a Democratic elector in his place. The two Republican electors dismissed Grover's action and each reported three votes for Hayes, while the Democratic elector, C.A. Cronin, reported one vote for Tilden and two votes for Hayes. The two Republican electors presented a certificate signed by the secretary of state of Oregon. Cronin and the two electors he appointed (Cronin voted for Tilden while his associates voted for Hayes) used a certificate signed by the governor and attested by the secretary of state.[9] Ultimately, all three of Oregon's votes were awarded to Hayes.

Hayes thus had a majority of one in the Electoral College. The Democrats cried fraud. Suppressed excitement pervaded the country. Threats were even muttered that Hayes would never be inaugurated. In Columbus, Ohio, a shot was fired at Governor Hayes' residence as he sat down to dinner. Supporters marched to his home, calling for the "president". Hayes urged the crowd that, "it is impossible, at so early a time, to obtain the result."[10] President Grant quietly strengthened the military force in and around Washington.[9]

The Constitution provides that "the President of the Senate shall, in presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the [electoral] certificates, and the votes shall then be counted." Certain Republicans held that the power to count the votes lay with the President of the Senate, the House and Senate being mere spectators. The Democrats objected to this construction, since Mr. Ferry, the Republican President of the Senate, could then count the votes of the disputed states for Hayes. The Democrats insisted that Congress should continue the practice followed since 1865, which was that no vote objected to should be counted except by the concurrence of both houses. The House was strongly Democratic; by throwing out the vote of one state it could elect Tilden.[9]

Facing an unprecedented constitutional crisis, the U.S. Congress passed a law on January 29, 1877, forming a 15-member Electoral Commission to settle the result. Five members were selected from each house of Congress, and they were joined by five members of the Supreme Court. William M. Evarts served as counsel for the Republican Party. The Compromise of 1877 might have helped the Democrats accept this electoral commission as well.

The majority party in each house named three members and the minority party two. As the Republicans controlled the Senate and the Democrats the House of Representatives, this yielded five Democratic and five Republican members of the Commission. Of the Supreme Court justices, two Republicans and two Democrats were chosen, with the fifth to be selected by these four.

The justices first selected a political independent, Justice David Davis. According to one historian, "[n]o one, perhaps not even Davis himself, knew which presidential candidate he preferred."[10] Just as the Electoral Commission Bill was passing Congress, the legislature of Illinois elected Davis to the Senate. Democrats in the Illinois legislature believed that they had purchased Davis's support by voting for him. However, they had made a miscalculation; instead of staying on the Supreme Court so that he could serve on the Commission, he promptly resigned as a Justice in order to take his Senate seat.[11] All the remaining available justices were Republicans, so the four justices already selected chose Justice Joseph P. Bradley, who was considered the most impartial remaining member of the court. This selection proved decisive.

Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage of the winning candidate in each county. Shades of blue are for Tilden (Democratic) and shades of red are for Hayes (Republican).

It was drawing perilously near to Inauguration Day. The commission met on the last day of January. The cases of Florida, Louisiana, Oregon, and South Carolina were in succession submitted to it by Congress. Eminent counsel appeared for each side. There were double sets of returns from every one of the states named.[9]

The commission first decided not to question any returns that were prima facie lawful.[9] Bradley joined the other seven Republican committee members in a series of 8-7 votes that gave all 20 disputed electoral votes to Hayes, giving Hayes a 185-184 electoral vote victory. The commission adjourned on March 2; two days later Hayes was inaugurated without disturbance.[9]

The returns accepted by the Commission put Hayes' margin of victory in South Carolina at 889 votes, making this the second-closest election (by popular vote) in U.S. history, after the 2000 election, decided by 537 votes in Florida (though in 2000, the declared margin of victory in the Electoral College for George W. Bush was five votes to Hayes' one).

It is not possible to conclude definitively what the result would have been if a fair election had been held without the violence and intimidation throughout the South that disenfranchised many African Americans made eligible to vote under the 15th Amendment.[12] Nevertheless, in the likeliest fair scenario, Hayes would have won the election with 189 electoral votes to Tilden's 180 by winning all of the states that he did ultimately carry, plus Mississippi, but minus Florida.[12] A strong case can be made that South Carolina, Louisiana, and Mississippi, states with an outright majority African-American population, would have gone for Hayes, since nearly all African Americans during this time voted Republican (while nearly all European-Americans in the South during this time voted Democratic).[12] Regardless, Hayes would be the last Republican until Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1956 to win the electoral votes of Louisiana and the last Republican until Barry M. Goldwater in 1964 to carry South Carolina (both of these states were carried by Strom Thurmond, nominee of the third-party "States' Rights Democrats," in 1948). Florida, with a majority white population, would have likely gone to Tilden in a fair election.[12] It is therefore likely that Hayes would have won appreciably more of the popular vote in a fair election, perhaps even a plurality or majority.[12]

Upon his defeat, Tilden said, "I can retire to public life with the consciousness that I shall receive from posterity the credit of having been elected to the highest position in the gift of the people, without any of the cares and responsibilities of the office."

Results[edit]

Reflecting the Commission's rulings.

Of the 2,249 counties/independent cities making returns, Tilden won in 1,301 (57.85%) while Hayes carried only 947 (42.11%). One county (0.04%) in Nevada split evenly between Tilden and Hayes.

This was the last presidential election to occur prior to the end of Reconstruction. It would be another 44 years before a Southern state would again vote for a Republican presidential candidate, as Warren G. Harding would carry Tennessee in 1920.

Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote Electoral
vote
Running mate
Count Pct Vice-presidential candidate Home state Elect. vote
Rutherford B. Hayes Republican Ohio 4,034,142 47.92% 185 William A. Wheeler New York 185
Samuel J. Tilden Democratic New York 4,286,808 50.92% 184 Thomas A. Hendricks Indiana 184
Peter Cooper Greenback New York 83,726 0.99% 0 Samuel Fenton Cary Ohio 0
Green Clay Smith Prohibition Kentucky 6,945 0.08% 0 Gideon T. Stewart Ohio 0
James Walker American National Party Illinois 463 0.01% 0 Donald Kirkpatrick New York 0
Other 6,575 0.08% Other
Total 8,418,659 100% 369 369
Needed to win 185 185

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. 1876 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (July 27, 2005). Source (Electoral Vote): Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (July 31, 2005).

Popular vote
Tilden
  
50.92%
Hayes
  
47.92%
Cooper
  
0.99%
Others
  
0.17%
Electoral vote
Hayes
  
50.14%
Tilden
  
49.86%

Results by state[edit]

[13]

States won by Tilden/Hendricks
States won by Hayes/Wheeler
Samuel J. Tilden
Democratic
Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican
Peter Cooper
Greenback
Green Smith
Prohibition
Margin State Total
State electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % #
Alabama 10 102,989 59.98 10 68,708 40.02 - - - - - - - 34,281 19.97 171,699 AL
Arkansas 6 58,086 59.92 6 38,649 39.87 - 211 0.22 - - - - 19,437 20.05 96,946 AR
California 6 76,460 49.08 - 79,258 50.88 6 47 0.03 - - - - -2,798 -1.80 155,784 CA
Colorado* 3 3 CO
Connecticut 6 61,927 50.70 6 59,033 48.33 - 774 0.63 - 374 0.31 - 2,894 2.37 122,134 CT
Delaware 3 13,381 55.45 3 10,752 44.55 - - - - - - - 2,629 10.89 24,133 DE
Florida 4 22,927 49.01 - 23,849 50.99 4 - - - - - - -922 -1.97 46,776 FL
Georgia 11 130,157 72.03 11 50,533 27.97 - - - - - - - 79,624 44.07 180,690 GA
Illinois 21 258,611 46.66 - 278,232 50.20 21 17,207 3.10 - - - - -19,621 -3.54 554,227 IL
Indiana 15 213,526 48.65 15 208,011 47.39 - 17,233 3.93 - 141 0.03 - 5,515 1.26 438,911 IN
Iowa 11 112,121 38.28 - 171,326 58.50 11 9,431 3.22 - - - - -59,205 -20.21 292,878 IA
Kansas 5 37,902 30.53 - 78,324 63.10 5 7,770 6.26 - 110 0.09 - -40,422 -32.56 124,134 KS
Kentucky 12 160,060 61.41 12 97,568 37.44 - - - - - - - 62,492 23.98 260,626 KY
Louisiana 8 70,508 48.35 - 75,315 51.65 8 - - - - - - -4,807 -3.30 145,823 LA
Maine 7 49,917 42.65 - 66,300 56.64 7 - - - - - - -16,383 -14.00 117,045 ME
Maryland 8 91,779 56.05 8 71,980 43.95 - - - - - - - 19,799 12.09 163,759 MD
Massachusetts 13 108,777 41.90 - 150,064 57.80 13 - - - - - - -41,287 -15.90 259,620 MA
Michigan 11 141,685 44.49 - 166,901 52.41 11 9,023 2.83 - 766 0.24 - -25,216 -7.92 318,450 MI
Minnesota 5 48,587 39.16 - 72,955 58.80 5 2,389 1.93 - 144 0.12 - -24,368 -19.64 124,075 MN
Mississippi 8 112,173 68.08 8 52,603 31.92 - - - - - - - 59,570 36.15 164,776 MS
Missouri 15 202,086 57.64 15 145,027 41.36 - 3,497 1.00 - - - - 57,059 16.27 350,610 MO
Nebraska 3 17,413 35.30 - 31,915 64.70 3 - - - - - - -14,502 -29.40 49,328 NE
Nevada 3 9,308 47.27 - 10,383 52.73 3 - - - - - - -1,075 -5.46 19,691 NV
New Hampshire 5 38,510 48.05 - 41,540 51.83 5 - - - - - - -3,030 -3.78 80,141 NH
New Jersey 9 115,962 52.66 9 103,517 47.01 - 714 0.32 - - - - 12,445 5.65 220,193 NJ
New York 35 521,949 51.40 35 489,207 48.17 - 1,978 0.19 - 2,369 0.23 - 32,742 3.22 1,015,503 NY
North Carolina 10 125,427 53.62 10 108,484 46.38 - - - - - - - 16,943 7.24 233,911 NC
Ohio 22 323,182 49.07 - 330,698 50.21 22 3,057 0.46 - 1,636 0.25 - -7,516 -1.14 658,649 OH
Oregon 3 14,157 47.38 - 15,214 50.92 3 510 1.71 - - - - -1,057 -3.54 29,881 OR
Pennsylvania 29 366,204 48.25 - 384,184 50.62 29 7,204 0.95 - 1,318 0.17 - -17,980 -2.37 758,993 PA
Rhode Island 4 10,712 40.23 - 15,787 59.29 4 68 0.26 - 60 0.23 - -5,075 -19.06 26,627 RI
South Carolina 7 90,897 49.76 - 91,786 50.24 7 - - - - - - -889 -0.49 182,683 SC
Tennessee 12 133,177 59.79 12 89,566 40.21 - - - - - - - 43,611 19.58 222,743 TN
Texas 8 104,755 70.04 8 44,800 29.96 - - - - - - - 59,955 40.09 149,555 TX
Vermont 5 20,254 31.38 - 44,091 68.30 5 - - - - - - -23,837 -36.93 64,553 VT
Virginia 11 140,770 59.58 11 95,518 40.42 - - - - - - - 45,252 19.15 236,288 VA
West Virginia 5 56,546 56.75 5 41,997 42.15 - 1,104 1.11 - - - - 14,549 14.60 99,647 WV
Wisconsin 10 123,926 48.19 - 130,067 50.57 10 1,509 0.59 - 27 0.01 - -6,141 -2.39 257,177 WI
TOTALS: 369 4,286,808 50.92 184 4,034,142 47.92 185 83,726 0.99 - 6,945 0.08 - 252,666 3.00 8,418,659 US

Close states[edit]

Margin of victory less than 5% (171 electoral votes):

  1. South Carolina, 0.49%
  2. Ohio, 1.14%
  3. Indiana, 1.26%
  4. California, 1.80%
  5. Florida, 1.97%
  6. Pennsylvania, 2.37%
  7. Connecticut, 2.37%
  8. Wisconsin, 2.39%
  9. New York, 3.22%
  10. Louisiana, 3.30%
  11. Oregon, 3.54%
  12. Illinois, 3.54%
  13. New Hampshire, 3.78%

Margin of victory between 5% and 10% (33 electoral votes):

  1. Nevada, 5.46%
  2. New Jersey, 5.65%
  3. North Carolina, 7.24%
  4. Michigan, 7.92%

Geography of results[edit]

Cartographic gallery[edit]

Popular culture[edit]

The Presidential Election of 1876 is a major theme of Gore Vidal's novel 1876.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Between 1828-1928: "Voter Turnout in Presidential Elections: 1828 - 2008". The American Presidency Project. UC Santa Barbara. Retrieved 2012-11-09. 
  2. ^ Between 1932 and 2008: "Table 397. Participation in Elections for President and U.S. Representatives: 1932 to 2010". U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012. U.S. Census Bureau. 
  3. ^ Presidential election of 1876
  4. ^ Was Grant a candidate?
  5. ^ DeGregorio, William (1997). The Complete Book of U.S. Presidents. New York: Gramercy. ISBN 0-517-18353-6. 
  6. ^ They Also Ran
  7. ^ "US President - American National Convention Race - Jun 08, 1875". Our Campaigns. 2010-06-21. Retrieved 2014-02-17. 
  8. ^ "Flashback to 1876: History repeats itself". BBC News (London). December 12, 2000. Retrieved November 28, 2006. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Andrews, E. Benjamin (1912). History of the United States. Charles Scribner's Sons. 
  10. ^ a b Morris, Roy, Jr. (2003). Fraud Of The Century: Rutherford B. Hayes, Samuel Tilden And The Stolen Election Of 1876. New York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 168, 239. ISBN 978-0-7432-5552-3
  11. ^ "Hayes v. Tilden: The Electoral College Controversy of 1876–1877." HarpWeek
  12. ^ a b c d e Who Won the 1876 Election? Issue 9 of Buttons and Ballots, in Spring 1997.
  13. ^ "1876 Presidential General Election Data - National". Retrieved May 7, 2013. 

Reference and further reading[edit]

Primary sources[edit]

External links[edit]