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The Sanskrit grammatical tradition of vyākaraṇa (Sanskrit: व्याकरण, IPA: [ʋjɑːkərəɳə]) is one of the six Vedanga disciplines. It has its roots in late Vedic India, and includes the famous work, Aṣṭādhyāyī, of Pāṇini (c. 4th century BCE).
The work of the very early Indian grammarians has been lost; for example, the work of Sakatayana (roughly 8th century BCE) is known only from cryptic references by Yaska (c. 6th or 5th century BCE) and Pāṇini. One of the views of Sakatayana that was to prove controversial in coming centuries was that most nouns can be derived etymologically from verbs.
In his monumental work on etymology, Nirukta, Yaska supported this claim based on the large number of nouns that were derived from verbs through a derivation process that became known as krit-pratyaya; this relates to the nature of the root morphemes.
Yaska also provided the seeds for another debate, whether textual meaning is inherent in the word (Yaska's view) or in the sentence (see Pāṇini, and later grammarians such as Prabhakara or Bhartrihari). This debate continued into the 14th and 15th centuries CE, and has echoes in the present day in current debates about semantic compositionality.
Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī, which is said to have eclipsed all other contemporary schools of grammar, mentions the names of nine grammarians. A number of predecessors are referred to by Yāska, who is thought to have flourished a couple of centuries before Panini (c. 800 BCE). Many of these individual names actually reflect the opinion of different schools of thought. Some of these pre-Paninian names of individuals / schools are:
- Āpiśali (Pan. 6.1.92)
- Aurnabhava (Nir. 6.13, also
- Cakravarmaṇa (Pan. 6.1.130)
- Gālava (Nir. 4.3
- Kāśyapa (Pan. 8.4.67)
- Krauṣṭuki (Nir. 8.2)
- Kuṇaravāḍava (Pan. 3.2.14; 7.3.1)
- Śākalya (Pan. 8.4.51)
- Śākaṭāyana (Pan. 8.4.50)(c. 800 BCE)
- Senaka (Pan. 5.4.112)
- Sphoṭāyana (Pan. 6.1.123)
The works of most these authors are lost but we find reference of their ideas in the commentaries and rebuttals by later authors. Yāska's Nirukta is one of the earlier surviving texts, and he mentions Śākaṭāyana, Krauṣṭuki, Gārgya, etc. In Yāska's time, nirukta "etymology" was in fact a school which gave information of formation of words. The etymological derivation of words. According to the nairuktas or "etymologists", all nouns are derived from s verbal root. Yāska defends this view and attributes it to Śākaṭāyana. While others believed that there are some words which are "Rudhi Words". 'Rudhi" means custom. Meaning they are a part of language due to custom, and a correspondence between the word and the thing if it be a noun or correspondence between an act and the word if it be a verbroot. Such word can not be derived from verbal roots. Yāska also reports the view of Gārgya, who opposed Śākaṭāyana who held that certain nominal stems were 'atomic' and not to be derived from verbal roots
Pāṇini's extensive analysis of the processes of phonology, morphology and syntax, the Aṣṭadhyāyī, laid down the basis for centuries of commentaries and expositions by following Sanskrit grammarians. Pāṇini's approach was amazingly formal; his production rules for deriving complex structures and sentences represent modern finite state machines.
Pāṇini's grammar consists of four parts:
- Śivasūtra: phonology (notations for phonemes specified in 14 lines)
- Aṣṭadhyāyī: morphology (construction rules for complexes)
- Dhātupāṭha: list of roots (classes of verbal roots)
- Gaṇapāṭha: lists classes of primitive nominal stems
Commentators on Pāṇini and some of their views:
- Kātyāyana (linguist and mathematician, 3rd century BCE): that the word-meaning relation is siddha, i.e. given and non-decomposable, an idea that the Sanskriticist Ferdinand de Saussure called arbitrary. Word meanings refer to universals that are inherent in the word itself (close to a nominalist position).
- Patanjali (linguist and yoga sutras, 2nd century BCE) – author of Mahabhashya. The notion of shabdapramânah – that the evidentiary value of words is inherent in them, and not derived externally. Not to be confused with the founder of the Yoga system.
- The Nyaya school, close to the realist position (as in Plato). Considers the word-meaning relation as created through human convention. Sentence meaning is principally determined by the main noun. uddyotkara, Vachaspati (sound-universals or phonemes)
- The Mimamsa school. E.g. sentence meaning relies mostly on the verb (corresponds to the modern notion of linguistic head). Kumarila Bhatta (7th century), prabhakara (7th century CE).
- Bhartṛhari (c. 6th century CE) that meaning is determined by larger contextual units than the word alone (holism).
- Kāśikāvṛttī (7th century)
- Bhaṭṭi (c. 7th century CE) exemplified Pāṇini's rules in his courtly epic the Bhaṭṭikāvya.
- The Buddhist school, including Nagarjuna (logic/philosophy, c. 150 CE) Dignaga (semantics and logic, c. 5th century CE), Dharmakirti.
The Indica of Al-Biruni (973–1048), dating to c. 1030 contains detailed descriptions of all branches of Hindu science.
Similar to the Chinese Buddhists, Tibetan Buddhism aroused interest in India among its followers. Taranatha (born 1573) in his treatise of the history of Buddhism in India (completed around 1608) speaks about Pāṇini and provides some information about grammars, but not in the manner of a person familiar with their content.
Modern Sanskrit grammarians
Beginning of Western scholarship
- Jean François Pons
- Henry Thomas Colebrooke
- August Wilhelm von Schlegel
- Wilhelm von Humboldt
- Dimitrios Galanos
- Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar
- Franz Kielhorn
- William Dwight Whitney
- Bruno Liebich
- Otto Boehtlingk
- Georg Bühler
- Franz Bopp
- Jacob Wackernagel, Altindische Grammatik
20th century to present
- Leonard Bloomfield
- Paul Thieme
- Karl Hoffmann
- Louis Renou
- Bimal Krishna Matilal
- Johannes Bronkhorst
- George Cardona
- Paul Kiparsky
- Frits Staal
- Michael Witzel
- Kshetresa Chandra Chattopadhyaya
- Vagish Shastri
- Monier Monier-Williams (1876). Indian Wisdom Or Examples of the Religious, Philosophical and Ethical Doctrines of the Hindus. quote: "Panini himself mentions several grammarians as having preceded him, such as Apisali, Kasyapa, Gargya, Galava, Cakravarmana, Bharadvaja, Sakatayana, Sakalya, Senaka, and Sphotayana. The Unadi-sutras are thought by some to be anterior to Panini." Also discusses the differences in opinions on interpreting Vedic texts, as given by Aurnabhava, Aupamanyava, Agrayana, Katthakya, Kautsa and Shakapuni – all mentioned as "anterior to Yaska" on p. 169
- Ashtyadhyayi 6.1.92, 6.1.123, 8.4.67, etc. (annotated in list)
- Satkari Mukhopadhyaya,. "Sanskrit Grammatical Literature". in Encyclopaedia of Indian literature v.2, ed. Amaresh Datta, Sahitya Akademi. p. 1490.
- Matilal, Bimal Krishna (1990/2001), The word and the world: India's contribution to the study of language, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-565512-5 8f. (excerpts)
- Fallon, Oliver. 2009. Bhatti's Poem: The Death of Rávana (Bhaṭṭikāvya). New York: Clay Sanskrit Library. ISBN 978-0-8147-2778-2 | ISBN 0-8147-2778-6 |
- Frits Staal, A Reader on the Sanskrit Grammarians, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1972), reprint by Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi (1985), ISBN 81-208-0029-X.
- Sri Jiva – Hari-nāmāmṛta-vyākaraṇam
- Coward, Harold G., and K. Kunjunni Raja, eds., The Philosophy of the Grammarians, Volume V of Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, ed. Karl Potter, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990.