Warsaw Metro

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Warsaw Metro
Warsaw Metro logo.svg
Warsaw Metro Plac Wilsona 2.jpg
81 Series train at Plac Wilsona
Overview
Native name Metro Warszawskie
Owner City of Warsaw
Locale Warsaw, Poland
Transit type Rapid transit
Number of lines 1[1]
Number of stations 21[1]
Daily ridership 568,000 (2012;
avg. weekday)[1]
Annual ridership 139.17 million (2012)[1]
Website Metro Warszawskie
Operation
Began operation 1995
Operator(s) Metro Warszawskie
Technical
System length 22.7 km (14.1 mi)[1]
(6 km under construction)
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)
standard gauge
System map

Metro w Warszawie 1 linia.svg

The Warsaw Metro (Polish: Metro Warszawskie) is a rapid transit system serving the city of Warsaw, the capital of Poland.

It currently consists of a single north–south line that links central Warsaw with its densely populated northern and southern suburbs. The first section was opened in 1995, then was gradually extended until it reached its full planned length in October 2008. There are plans to add two more stations omitted during initial construction for cost saving reasons.

The contract for the construction of the initial central section of the second line,[2] running in the east–west direction, was signed on October 28th, 2009 and construction started on August 16th, 2010,[3] with completion originally planned for late 2013, but now likely delayed until the summer of 2014.[4] This section will be 6.1 km (3.8 mi) long (including a tunnel under the Vistula river) and have 7 stations, one of which (Świętokrzyska) will be a transfer station between the two lines.

In 2009, the Warsaw Metro won two "Metro Award" prizes in the categories: "Special Merit Award for Commitment to the Environment" and "Best Maintenance Programme". The system consistently receives very high ratings among its passengers; a survey conducted in September 2014 indicated that 98% of the respondents rated it good or very good.[5]

History[edit]

First phase of the planned metro network started in 1938 but never completed due to the World War II and consequent Planned destruction of Warsaw

.

Plans to build an underground rail system in Warsaw date as far back as 1918, when the idea was first floated in reaction to Warsaw regaining its status as Poland's capital city. An underground railway system was expected to solve the transport difficulties of the densely built city centre. Proper preliminary planning and boring work were initiated by the Warsaw Tramway Authority in 1925, with construction expected to start in the late 1920s. The Great Depression buried those plans as Poland and the world was gripped by hardship. In 1934, with the election of a new mayor of Warsaw, Stefan Starzyński, work was to resume on the metro. The mayor dusted off the plans from the mid-1920s, and with some minor adjustments, construction of the metro was planned to start by the late 1930s, with a projected finishing date of the first of two projected lines scheduled for the mid-1940s. By then, the subway network was to consist of two lines. Line 1 (North-South line, 4.6 mi (7.4 km) long) was to follow a route similar to the present-day line and was to link the southernmost borough of Mokotów with the city centre and the northern borough of Żoliborz. This line was to be connected with the newly constructed Warszawa Główna railway station and the railway tunnel crossing the city from west to the east. The line 2 (East-West, 3.95 mi (6.36 km) long) was to start beneath the westernmost borough of Wola, proceed along the Chłodna street to the pivotal station beneath the Saxon Square and then further eastwards to the Vistula river escarpment. There, the line was to go overground, cross the river through a newly built bridge and proceed to the easternmost railway station of Warszawa Wschodnia. Altogether, in 35 years, 7 lines were to be built. The works finally started in 1938, but World War II brought an end to the ambitious undertaking. The short trace tunnels made in 1938 serve as a wine cellar today.

The city suffered heavily during World War II. Although the majority of pre-war projects perished during the war, most of the engineers behind their creation survived the war and returned to their city to take part in its rebirth. However, the new Communist authorities of Poland envisioned a city completely different from what it used to be before the war. As the ideal communist city, Warsaw was to be decentralized and a need to commute to the city centre was to be reduced. Thus, the Reconstruction of Warsaw Office (BOS) commissioned a number of engineers to prepare a project of a fast urban railway (SKM) crossing the city in a deep cutting. Although to a large extent it was to follow the line 1 of the pre-war plans, only the central stations were to be located underground. However, by the end of the decade the project was cancelled. Instead, in 1948 a different concept was considered. This time the SKM was to be a rapid transit line at a depth of up to 15 metres (49 feet)). The suggested North-South direction, with three parallel branches of the same line in the city centre, corresponded to the planned development of the city along the Vistula. The works, however, never started and this project was also abandoned.

In the 1950s, as the Cold War raged on, Soviet strategic plans required that a secure transport link across the river Vistula be built. One of the ways to achieve this was to create a deep metro system in Warsaw (up to 150 feet (46 m) beneath the ground), which would be interlinked with the rail network and could serve as an underground conduit for transporting troops. Plans assumed that the first line (about 11 kilometres (6.8 miles) long) would lie along North-South axis, with a branch of the same line crossing the Vistula river in the city centre. The construction works started almost simultaneously at 17 different points on both sides of the river. By 1953 only 771 metres (843 yd) of tunnels had been built; however, after the death of Joseph Stalin and the start of a period of détente, all works were halted under the pretext of technical difficulties. In following years, only one junction tunnel and one shield-driven tunnel were continued to be constructed. These works were undertaken experimentally, in order to discover the best driving methods suitable for the ground conditions beneath Warsaw (pliocene clay formations layer spread beneath quaternary soils). Finally, in 1957, all the work was halted.

Since 1955, there was a return to the old idea of a shallow metro network. However, the planning phase proceeded at a very slow pace and the economical situation prevented all successive governments from actually starting a serious work. Finally, in 1984, the programme was approved by the government and the first tunnels were built. Lack of funds, technical difficulties, shortage of materials and outdated tunneling methods meant that the work progressed very slowly, at a speed no greater than 2 metres (6.6 ft) a day. The Metro was opened in 1995 with a total of 11 stations. The line now has 21 stations along a distance of 23 kilometres (14 mi).

Timeline[edit]

Warsaw Metro line 1
Młociny
Wawrzyszew
Stare Bielany
Słodowiec
Marymont
Plac Wilsona
Dworzec GdańskiPolish State Railways
Muranów(planned)
Ratusz Arsenał
Świętokrzyska
link to Warszawa Sródmiescie PKP
CentrumPolish State Railways
Warsaw Cross-City Line
Plac Konstytucji(planned)
Politechnika
Pole Mokotowskie
Racławicka
Wierzbno
Wilanowska
Służew
Ursynów
Stokłosy
Imielin
Natolin
Kabaty
link to railway network
Kabaty STP depot
Date opened Length (km) Segment
KabatyPolitechnika 11.1 7 April 1995
PolitechnikaCentrum 1.4 26 May 1998
CentrumRatusz Arsenał 1.7 11 May 2001
Ratusz ArsenałDworzec Gdański 1.5 20 December 2003
Dworzec GdańskiPlac Wilsona 1.5 8 April 2005
Plac WilsonaMarymont 0.9 29 December 2006
MarymontSłodowiec 1.0 23 April 2008
SłodowiecMłociny 2.6 25 October 2008[6]
Total: 21 Stations[1] 22.7 km[1]

Lines[edit]

# Opened Length Stations
M1 1995-2008 22.7 km (14.1 mi)[1] 22[1]
2 Under construction  32 km (20 mi)[1] 27[1]
3 In planning 8
Total: 54.7 km (34.0 mi) 58

Rolling stock[edit]

Annual ridership and number of stations of the Warsaw Metro
London Underground lines
Line Current stock Image Start Refurb Driving No of
Cars
Length Seats Capacity
M1 81 Series Malantaŭo de metroa trajno en Varsovio.jpeg 1990–2009 2005–2007 OPO 6 115.4m 260 1200
M1 Alstom Metropolis STP Kabaty - elektrowozownia 1.jpg 2000–2005 OPO 6 117.1m 264 1454
M1 Siemens Inspiro Siemens Inspiro Front 01.jpg 2013 OPO 6 117.7 232 1500
OPO: One Person Operation.

Initially, all of the trains were Russian built. They first arrived in Warsaw in 1990 as a gift from the USSR, five years prior to the Metro's opening, from Metrovagonmash plant in Mytishchi (near Moscow) (model 81-717.3/714.3 - 10 carriages). Subsequent trains arrived from Saint Petersburg's Yegorov Plant in 1994 (81-572/573 - 32 carriages) and additional 18 81-572.1/573.1 carriages in 1997.[7]

In 1998, 108 new carriages were ordered from Alstom. These were all delivered by 2005[8] (24 were produced in Barcelona and the rest in Chorzów).[9] In 2006 additional carriages were ordered from Russia, with deliveries taking place during 2007, to lengthen the existing trains using older Russian carriages.

Currently, out of the 40 trains running, 15 consist of the older Russian-produced cars, 7 of the newer Russian-produced cars and 18 of Alstom-produced cars. The Russian and Alstom carriages are incompatible and cannot be used in the same train. However, the older Russian-produced cars and the newer Russian-produced carriages can be used in the same train, but the cabs on each train must be the same at both ends.

In February 2011 an order has been signed with Siemens for 35 complete trains from their new Inspiro line. A large number of these were to be manufactured in Poland by Newag. The first 5 of these trains were put into service in 2013. However in November 2013 a fire broke out on one of these trains and for safety reasons all 5 of the new Siemens Inspiro trains were withdrawn from service until the cause of the fire was determined. Once the investigation was completed the five new Inspiro trains were all put back into service on the metro in March 2014.

Depots[edit]

A single depot is located south of the Kabaty station. There is a single-track connection between the depot and Warszawa-Okęcie station on the PKP rail network. This link is not electrified, and used only for an occasional rolling-stock transfer.

Plans[edit]

A map of the Warsaw Metro, showing the north–south Line 1, as well as the planned east–west lines
Two new stations planned from the beginning as completion of the line 1

The first line was a compromise between earlier route proposals further east and west (one of which belonged to the planned Line 4) and as such does not go to some important areas of the city. For example, it does not pass directly under the old town, Warsaw's main tourist attraction, which has few public transport links, passing it about 600 m to the west. It also does not go to the central railway station, and the nearest stop is over 400 m to the east (the planned second line will also avoid it, with the closest station also about 400 m to the north). Furthermore, the first line, and thus the Metro system for the immediate future, is confined to the western bank of the Vistula river, thus doing nothing to ease traffic problems on Warsaw's bridges, a major bottleneck between the city centre and the eastern Praga district. Plans for the third line to Okęcie airport have been abandoned for the foreseeable future.

Transport planners have suggested that the WKD, a light rail line that runs to the western suburbs, could be integrated with the city's tram system, or be more closely tied to the Metro and a future suburban rail network, or both. The first such plans were prepared in the late 1930s and the railway tunnel running below the city centre was to be shared by both the railways and the metro. In the mid-1990s the WKD, PKP and Warsaw Metro systems were temporarily integrated and Warsaw city travel cards were valid also in the suburban railways. This idea was, however, dropped in 1999 due to financial problems.

Future extensions[edit]

  • Plac Konstytucji and Muranów, two stations omitted from the original plan to reduce cost were to be built by 2009, but construction has not yet started, and will not start in the near future.[10]
  • Line 2: the first, central section[11] will consist of 7 stations: Rondo Daszyńskiego, Rondo ONZ, Świętokrzyska, Nowy Świat, Powiśle, Stadion and Dworzec Wileński. It will pass under the Vistula river between the Powiśle and Stadion stations. Most of the funding for building this section has been secured from the European Union and construction started in August 2010. The original plan to finish this section in time for Euro 2012 was too optimistic, and the expected completion date is autumn 2014. This line will be built using a different boring technology which should allow for much faster construction, compared to the first line. The rest of the line, which will consist of 28 stations in total, will be built later. A tender was opened for 35 trains (most to be used on line 2, some on line 1); Škoda Transportation and Vagonmash submitted the lowest price[12] but Siemens/Newag scored more points and were chosen to provide the trains.[13]
  • It is planned that there will eventually be 4 metro lines incorporating 100km of track.[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Online
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Raport roczny 2012" [Annual Report 2012] (pdf) (in Polish & English). 2012. p. 6 (12+13) (i.e. str.6 (12+13)). Retrieved 2014-02-10. 
  2. ^ website of Warsaw Metro - Line 2 information and maps
  3. ^ PAP. "Wielka chwila: ruszają prace przy drugiej linii metra" (in Polish). Gazeta.pl. Retrieved 2010-08-13. 
  4. ^ "Budowa metra jak kopalnia. Zaglądamy 30 m pod ziemię". Gazeta Wyborcza. December 12, 2012. 
  5. ^ "Pasażerowie zadowoleni z metra. Mamy wyniki najnowszych badań" (in Polish). Onet.pl. 2014-08-23. Retrieved 2014-09-07. 
  6. ^ "First train to pull into Mlociny metro station". Polskie Radio. Retrieved 25 October 2008. 
  7. ^ "Метровагоны" (in Russian). 
  8. ^ "Warsaw Metro". ALSTOM Cars. 
  9. ^ "Przegubowiec". Tabor Metra Warszawskiego (in Polish). 
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ [2]
  12. ^ "2010-10-01". Retrieved 2010-10-05. 
  13. ^ "Railway Gazette: Warszawa metro selects Siemens Inspiro". Retrieved 2010-10-16. 
  14. ^ http://www.railway-technology.com/projects/warsawmetro/
General
  • various authors (1962). Jan Rossman, ed. Studia i projekty metra w Warszawie; 1928-1958. Warsaw: Arkady. p. 391. 

External links[edit]