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- January 18 – Henry I of Cyprus dies and is succeeded as king by his newborn son Hugh II.
- July – William II, Count of Holland, defeats the Flemish army at Westkapelle.
- July 6 – Mindaugas is crowned as the only King of Lithuania.
- August 6 – Expedition by King Henry III of England to Gascony to repel a rumoured invasion from Castile. Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, returns from Gascony to England where he allies himself with barons who oppose Henry.
- October – Pope Innocent IV returns to Rome, having left 9 years earlier in 1244 to depose Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, and being unable to return until after Frederick's death, due to the agitation throughout Europe caused by that action.
- Having rebuffed the armed forces of Conrad IV of Germany, Pope Innocent IV offers Sicily to Edmund, son of King Henry III of England.
- A series of naval wars begins between the Italian city-states of Genoa and Venice, which will continue sporadically until 1371.
- Henry III of England meets with English nobles and church leaders to reaffirm the validity of the Magna Carta.
- Halych–Volynia becomes a vassal state to the expanding Mongol Empire.
- Matthew Paris completes the major part of his Chronica Majora, a chronicle of English history.
- The upper Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi, the earliest important structure of Italian Gothic architecture, is completed in Assisi, Italy.
- Sligo Abbey is built in Sligo, Ireland.
- The Domus Conversorum, a building and institution in London for Jews who had converted to Christianity, is established by King Henry III of England.
- April 28 – Nichiren, a Japanese Buddhist monk, declares his intent to preach the Lotus Sutra and Namu Myōhō Renge Kyō as the true Buddhism, thus founding Nichiren Buddhism.
- May – King Louis IX of France dispatches William of Rubruck from Constantinople, on a missionary journey to convert the Tatars of central and eastern Asia. Later that year, William records the first meeting between European Christians and Buddhists.
- The Mongol Empire launches attacks on the Muslim cities of Baghdad and Cairo.
- The Mongol Empire destroys the Dali Kingdom in modern Yunnan, and incorporates the region into their empire.
- Kublai Khan introduces the baisha xiyue song and dance suite, to the music of Yunnan.
- The Chinese era Baoyou begins, in the Southern Song Dynasty of China.
- The Mongols defeat the Thai Confederacy.
- March 20 – Magadu, renamed Wareru, founder of Ramanya Kingdom, renamed Hanthawady Kingdom of Pegu (b. a commoner; d. on a Saturday in January 1307)
- October 17 – Saint Ivo of Kermartin, French canon lawyer (d. 1303)
- date unknown – Eschiva of Ibelin, lady regnant of Beirut (d. 1312)
- date unknown; Charles II of Naples (died 1309), King of Naples and son of Charles of Anjou
- January 18 – King Henry I of Cyprus (b. 1217)
- April 3 – Saint Richard of Chichester
- June 24 – Amadeus IV, Count of Savoy (b. 1197)
- July 8 – Theobald I of Navarre (b. 1201)
- August 11 – Clare of Assisi, Italian saint, follower of Francis of Assisi (b. 1194)
- September 22 – Dōgen, Japanese founder of the Soto school of Zen Buddhism
- September 23 – Wenceslaus I of Bohemia
- October 9 – Robert Grosseteste, English statesman and theologian