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Year 1253 (MCCLIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
- January 18 – Henry I of Cyprus dies and is succeeded as king by his newborn son Hugh II.
- July – William II, Count of Holland, defeats the Flemish army at Westkapelle.
- July 6 – Mindaugas is crowned as the only King of Lithuania.
- August 6 – Expedition by King Henry III of England to Gascony to repel a rumoured invasion from Castile. Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, returns from Gascony to England where he allies himself with barons who oppose Henry.
- October – Pope Innocent IV returns to Rome, having left 9 years earlier in 1244 to depose Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, and being unable to return until after Frederick's death, due to the agitation throughout Europe caused by that action.
- Having rebuffed the armed forces of Conrad IV of Germany, Pope Innocent IV offers Sicily to Edmund, son of King Henry III of England.
- A series of naval wars begins between the Italian city-states of Genoa and Venice, which will continue sporadically until 1371.
- Henry III of England meets with English nobles and church leaders to reaffirm the validity of the Magna Carta.
- Halych–Volynia becomes a vassal state to the expanding Mongol Empire.
- Matthew Paris completes the major part of his Chronica Majora, a chronicle of English history.
- The upper Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi, the earliest important structure of Italian Gothic architecture, is completed in Assisi, Italy.
- Sligo Abbey is built in Sligo, Ireland.
- The Domus Conversorum, a building and institution in London for Jews who had converted to Christianity, is established by King Henry III of England.
- ^ Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 84–86. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- ^ Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 141–144. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.