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This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1926.
- February 8 – Seán O'Casey's play The Plough and the Stars opens at the Abbey Theatre, Dublin. On February 11, the performance is marred by ugly scenes in the audience: one man strikes an actress.
- February 12 – The Irish Free State minister for Justice, Kevin O'Higgins, appoints a Committee on Evil Literature.
- February 26 – The future English novelist Graham Greene is received into the Catholic Church.
- April 1 – Hugo Gernsback launches his pioneering science fiction magazine Amazing Stories in the United States.
- May 11 – C. S. Lewis and J. R. R. Tolkien meet for the first time in Oxford.
- October 10 – Mikhail Bulgakov's novel The White Guard (Белая гвардия), partially serialized in Rossiya before the magazine's suppression earlier in the year, opens in a dramatic adaptation, The Days of the Turbins, at the Moscow Art Theatre which is enjoyed by Stalin.
- October 14 – The children's book Winnie-the-Pooh, by A. A. Milne, is first published by Methuen in London.
- December 3 – English detective story writer Agatha Christie disappears from her home in Surrey; on December 14 she is found staying at a Harrogate hotel (under her husband's mistress's surname) by journalist Ritchie Calder.
- December – Thomas Mann begins writing Die Geschichten Jaakobs in Munich, first of the tetralogy Joseph and His Brothers (Joseph und seine Brüder) on which he will work until January 1943.
- Antonin Artaud and Roger Vitrac establish the Théatre Alfred-Jarry in Paris for the production of surrealist drama.
- Bread Loaf Writers' Conference is founded in Middlebury, Vermont.
- Ford Madox Ford publishes A Man Could Stand Up --, the third book of a four-volume work titled Parade's End published between 1924 and 1928.
- Vsevolod Meyerhold stages a landmark expressionistic production of Gogol's satirical comedy The Government Inspector (Ревизор, 1836) in Moscow.
- Margaret Mitchell begins writing the novel Gone with the Wind (published 1936).
- The remains of English poet Isaac Rosenberg (k. 1918) are re-interred at Bailleul Road East Cemetery, Plot V, St. Laurent-Blangy, Pas de Calais, France.
- S. S. Van Dine publishes the first Philo Vance mystery novel, The Benson Murder Case.
- Peter Llewelyn Davies establishes the London publishing house Peter Davies Ltd.
Children and young people
- January 5 – W. D. Snodgrass, American poet (died 2009)
- January 14 – Tom Tryon, American actor and novelist (died 1991)
- February 3 – Richard Yates, American writer (died 1992)
- February 20 – Richard Matheson, American writer (died 2013)
- March 3 – James Merrill, American poet (died 1995)
- March 24 – Dario Fo, Italian dramatist and actor (died 2016)
- March 27 – Frank O'Hara, American poet (died 1966)
- March 31 – John Fowles, English novelist (died 2005)
- April 3 – Luís de Sttau Monteiro, Portuguese novelist and dramatist (died 1993)
- April 13 – Egon Wolff, Chilean dramatist (died 2016)
- April 23 – Éva Janikovszky, Hungarian novelist and children's writer (died 2003)
- April 28 – Harper Lee, American novelist (died 2016)
- May 15 – English twins
- May 21 – Robert Creeley, American author (died 2005)
- June 3 – Allen Ginsberg, American Beat Generation poet (died 1997)
- June 13
- June 19 – Giangiacomo Feltrinelli, Italian publisher (died 1972)
- July 7 – Spencer Holst, American writer and storyteller (died 2001)
- July 11 – Frederick Buechner, American author and minister
- July 18 – Elizabeth Jennings, English poet (died 2001)
- August 12 – Wallace Markfield, American comic novelist (died 2002)
- August 14
- September 14 – Michel Butor, French writer (died 2016)
- October 2 – Jan Morris (James Morris), Welsh historian and travel writer
- October 15 – Evan Hunter, American author and screenwriter (died 2005)
- November 5 – John Berger, English art critic and novelist (died 2017)
- November 11
- November 19 – Barry Reckord, Jamaican playwright (died 2011)
- November 20 – John Gardner, English novelist (died 2007)
- November 25 – Poul Anderson, American science fiction writer (died 2001)
- December 23 – Robert Bly, American writer
- January 14
- January 26 – Bucura Dumbravă, Romanian novelist and spiritualist (malaria, born 1868)
- February 1 – Ishibashi Ningetsu (石橋 忍月), Japanese author and critic (born 1865)
- February 6 – Wolf Wilhelm Friedrich von Baudissin, German theologian (born 1847)
- February 12 – Radu Rosetti, Romanian politician, historical novelist and memoirist (born 1853)
- March 3 – Sir Sidney Lee, English biographer (born 1859)
- May 9 – J. M. Dent, English publisher (born 1849)
- May 21 – Ronald Firbank, English novelist (born 1886)
- May 26 – Srečko Kosovel, Slovenian Expressionist poet (meningitis, born 1904)
- July 8 – Karel Václav Rais, Czech realist novelist (born 1859)
- July 11 – Fran Detela, Slovenian academic and writer (born 1850)
- August 1 – Israel Zangwill, English poet (born 1864)
- October 5 – Javier de Viana, Uruguayan writer (born 1868)
- October 9 – Helena Nyblom, Danish-born poet and writer of fairy tales (born 1843)
- October 11 – Albert Robida, French illustrator and novelist (born 1848)
- November 10 – Lyubov Dostoyevskaya, Russian memoirist (born 1869)
- December 8 – Sarah Doudney, English novelist, children's writer and hymnist (born 1841)
- December 12 – Jean Richepin, French poet, dramatist and novelist (born 1849)
- December 29 – Rainer Maria Rilke, German poet (born 1875)