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Aeolic Greek

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Aeolic Greek
Aeolian dialect
Lesbian dialect
Lesbic dialect
RegionAeolis, Boeotia, Lesbos, Thessaly
Erac. 800–300 BC[citation needed]
Early form
  • Boeotian
  • Thessalian
  • Lesbian
Greek alphabet (uncial and cursive forms)
Eastern Archaic Greek alphabet (up to 4th century BC)
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Distribution of Greek dialects in Greece in the classical period.[1]

In linguistics, Aeolic Greek (/ˈɒlɪk/), also known as Aeolian (/ˈliən/), Lesbian or Lesbic dialect, is the set of dialects of Ancient Greek spoken mainly in Boeotia; in Thessaly; in the Aegean island of Lesbos; and in the Greek colonies of Aeolis in Anatolia and adjoining islands.

The Aeolic dialect shows many archaisms in comparison to the other Ancient Greek dialects (Arcadocypriot, Attic, Ionic, and Doric varieties), as well as many innovations.

Aeolic Greek is widely known as the language of Sappho and of Alcaeus of Mytilene. Aeolic poetry, which is exemplified in the works of Sappho, mostly uses four classical meters known as the Aeolics: Glyconic (the most basic form of Aeolic line), hendecasyllabic verse, Sapphic stanza, and Alcaic stanza (the latter two are respectively named for Sappho and Alcaeus).

In Plato's Protagoras, Prodicus labelled the Aeolic dialect of Pittacus of Mytilene as "barbarian",[2] because of its difference from the Attic literary style:[3] "He didn't know to distinguish the words correctly, being from Lesbos, and having been raised with a barbarian dialect".







Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Greek * changed to Aeolic p everywhere. By contrast, PIE * changed to Attic/Ionic, Arcadocypriot, and Doric t before e and i.

  • PIE *etwores → Lesbian písures, Boeotian péttares ~ Attic téttares, Ionic tésseres, Doric tétores "four"

Similarly PIE/PGk * always became b and PIE *gʷʰ > PGk *kʰʷ always became ph (whereas in other dialects they became alternating b/d and ph/th before back/front vowels).

Labiovelars were treated the same way in the P-Celtic languages and the Sabellic languages.

Sonorant clusters


A Proto-Greek consonant cluster with h (from Indo-European *s) and a sonorant (r, l, n, m, w, y) changed to a double sonorant (rr, ll, nn, mm, ww, yy) in Lesbian and Thessalian (sub-dialects of Aeolic) by assimilation. In Attic/Ionic, Doric, and Boeotian Aeolic, the h assimilated to the vowel before the consonant cluster, causing the vowel to lengthen by compensatory lengthening.

PIE VsR or VRs → Attic/Ionic-Doric-Boeotian VVR.
PIE VsR or VRs → Lesbian-Thessalian VRR.[4]
  • PIE *h₁ésmi → Proto-Greek *ehmi → Lesbian-Thessalian emmi ~ Attic/Ionic ēmi (= εἰμί) "I am"

Loss of h


Lesbian Aeolic lost initial h- (psilosis "stripping") from Proto-Indo-European s- or y-. By contrast, Ionic sometimes retains it, and Attic always retains it.

  • PIE *sh₂wél(i)yos → Proto-Greek *hāwélios → Lesbian āélios, Ionic ēélios ~ Attic hēlios "sun"

Retention of w


In Thessalian and Boeotian (sub-dialects of Aeolic) and Doric, the Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Greek semi-vowel w (digamma) was retained at the beginning of a word.

  • PIE wekʷ-es- → Boeotian, Doric wépos ~ Attic-Ionic épos "word", "epic" (compare Latin vōx "voice")



Long a


In Aeolic and Doric, Proto-Greek long ā remains. By contrast, in Attic, long ā changes to long ē in most cases; in Ionic, it changes everywhere.[5]

  • PIE *meh₂ter- → Aeolic, Doric mātēr ~ Attic/Ionic mētēr "mother"

Compensatory lengthening


Compensatory lengthening of a, e, o in Lesbian gives ai, ei, oi (in Attic, it would be ā, ei, ou) for example in the accusative plural of a and o stem nouns, or in many 3 Pl verb conjugations.



In Boeotian, the vowel-system was, in many cases, changed in a way reminiscent of the modern Greek pronunciation.

  • Attic/Ionic αι /ai/ ~ Boeotian η /eː/ ~ Modern Greek αι /e/
  • Attic/Ionic ει /eː/ ~ Boeotian ει /iː/ ~ Modern Greek ει /i/
  • Attic/Ionic οι /oi/ ~ Boeotian υ /yː/ ~ Mediaeval Greek and Old Athenaean οι /y/ ~ Modern Greek οι /i/



In Lesbian Aeolic, the accent of all words is recessive (barytonesis), as is typical only in the verbs of other dialects.[6]

  • Attic/Ionic potamós ~ Lesbian pótamos "river"



Contracted or vowel-stem verbs that are thematic in Attic/Ionic are often athematic (-mi) in Aeolic.[7]

  • Ionic philéō, Attic philô ~ Aeolic phílēmi "I love"

Aeolic athematic infinitive active ends in -men or (Lesbian) -menai. ~ Attic/Ionic has -enai.

  • Lesbian émmen, émmenai; Thessalian, Boeotian eîmen ~ Attic/Ionic eînai (spurious diphthong) "to be"

In the Lesbian dialect this ending also extends to the thematic conjugation, where Attic/Ionic has -ein. All three of these Aeolic endings occur in Homer.

Proto-Greek -ans and -ons-ais and -ois (first- and second declension accusative plural) ~ Attic/Ionic -ās and -ōs (-ους).[8][9]

Dative plural -aisi and -oisi ~ Attic/Ionic -ais and -ois.

The participle has -ois and -ais for Attic -ōs (-ους), -ās.[10]



Below is a list of several words in the Aeolian dialect, written in the Greek alphabet, along with a transcription in the Latin alphabet. Each word is followed by its meaning and compared to similar words in other ancient Greek dialects. The "notes" section provides additional information, and if applicable, an etymology is given.


Aeolian lemma Transcription Meaning Correspondence to other Greek dialects Notes
ἀέλιος āélios 'sun' * Doric āélios
* Attic hēlios
* Cretan abelios
* Laconian bela
* Pamphylian babelios
Derives from PIE *seh₂u-el- 'sun'.[11]
βᾶμα bama * Doric βᾶμα bama
* Attic βῆμα bema 'walking, step'
Per Beekes, both forms derive from root βῆ-, itself from PIE *gʷeh₂-. Corresponds to Avestan gā-man- 'step, pace'.[12]
Attic delphis Per Beekes, βέλφινες occurs in Lesbian, while Βελφοί is Aeolic.[13]
βραδινός bradinos 'slender, soft' Attic rhadinos Attested in Sapph. 90,104.[14]
βράκος brakos 'expensive garment' * Homeric ῥάκος rhakos 'rag, shred, wrinkles, remnants'
* ϝράκος wrakos
Attested in Sapph. 70. Per Beekes, of uncertain etymology.[15]
βρίζα briza 'root' Attic rhiza
βρόδον brodon 'rose' Attic ῥόδον rhodon 'rose' Possible Eastern borrowing (cf. Arm vard 'rose' < Old Iranian *u̯ṛda 'id').[16] Also means vagina metaphorically in Erotic Glossary
δνόφος dnophos 'darkness' Also appears in Ionic; Attic ζόφος zophos Per Beekes, the word "recalls" zóphos, knéphas and pséphas.[17]
Ἐννησιάδες Ennesiades Lesbian Nymphs
'nightmare' Attic ephialtēs Epialtēs attested in Alcaeus. Cf. Ephialtes, one of the Aloadae.[18]
ἴρον iron 'holy' * Attic ἱερόν hierón
* Doric hiarón
* Ionic hirón
Derives from PIE *ish₁ro- 'holy'.[19]
κλᾷδες klaides * Doric klaides
* Attic kleides 'bars, bolts, keys'
Derives from PIE *kleh₂u- 'lock', although Beekes suggests the original meaning must have been 'nail, pin, hook', as in, instruments to lock a door.[20]
* Attic ἐν μέσῳ 'in the middle'
* Cret./Boet. μέττος
Identical to Sanskrit mádhya-, Latin medius, Gothic midjis, all from PIE *médʰ-io- 'in the middle'.[21]
πέμπε pempe 'five' * Attic πέντε pente
* Pamphylian πέ(ν)δε pede
From PIE *pénkʷe 'five'.[22]
πέσδος pésdos 'pedestrian', 'infantry' (as a collective) Attic πεζός pezós Per Beekes, formally identical to Sanskrit pád-ya 'regarding the foot' < PIE *ped-i̯o-.[23]
πέσσον pesson 'plain' * Attic πεδίον pedion 'surface, plain, field'
* Cypriot πεδίjα 'plain'.
From PIE *ped- 'foot'.[24]
πέσσυρες pessyres 'four' * Lesbian πίσυρες pisyres
* Boeotian πέτταρες pettares
* Attic τέσσαρες tessares
* Doric tetores
Derives from PIE *kʷetuer- 'four'.[25]
ξέννος xennos 'foreigner, guest-friend, strange' Attic xenos; Ionic xeinos Beekes supposes it could be Pre-Greek.[26]
στρότος strótos 'army, troop' Attic στρατός stratós Per Beekes, exact correspondence to Sanskrit str̩ta- 'thrown down', Avestan stərəta- 'spread out'.[27]
ὔσδος usdos 'branch, twig, bough, offshoot' Attic ozos 'twig, branch' Derives from PIE *h₃esdo- > *Hosdo-.[28]
φηρία phēria 'wild animal' Attic θηρία thēria 'beasts' Derives from PIE *ǵʰueh₁r-.[29]
Ψάπφω Psapphō Attic Σαπφώ Sapphō
  • ἄγωνος ágōnos "struggle" (Attic ἀγῶν agōn; Elean dat. pl. agōnois for agōsi)
  • ἀθρήματα athrḗmata gifts sent by kin to Lesbian brides (Sappho fr.) (compare Homeric hedna, eedna)
  • Αἰολίωνες Aiolíōnes "Aeolians" (Attic Αἰολεῖς Aioleîs) (aiolizō "speak Aeolic, compose in the Aeolian mode, trick out with false words" Sophocles Fr.912 ) (aioleō vary, adorn, diversify (aiolos quick-moving, glittering, shifty)
  • ἀκλάδες aklades (unpruned vineyards) (Attic akladeutoi ampeloi)
  • ἀκόντιον akontion (part of troops) (Attic spear) (Macedonian rhachis, spine or backbone, anything ridged like the backbone)
  • ἀμένης -τος amenēs -tos (Attic ὑμήν humēn) thin skin, membrane.
  • ἀμώνες amōnes (Attic ἀνεμώνες anemones
  • ἄορος aoros (Attic ἄϋπνος aypnos, without sleep) Μηθυμναῖοι
  • ἄρπυς arpys (Attic ἔρως Eros, Love) attested in Crinagoras, ἁρπάζειν harpazein to snatch. Homeric harpaleos attractive,devouring
  • ἄσφε asphe to them (Attic sphe, sphi)
  • βακχόα bakchoa (Attic βόθρος bothros sacred dungeon, pit)
  • βάλλα balla threshold (Attic βῆλος bēlos) (Doric balos)
  • βλῆρ blēr incitement (Attic delear) τὸ δὲ αὐτὸ καὶ αἶθμα. παρὰ Ἀλκαίῳ ἡ λέξις
  • βραδανίζω bradanizō brandish, shake off. (Cf.Elean bratana Common rhatane)
  • βρᾴδιον braidion (Attic ῥᾴδιον rhaidion easy)
  • βράκειν brakein to understand (dysbrakanon imprehensible)
  • βροδόπαχυς brodopachus with pink, rosy forearms (Attic rhodopechys) (βροδόπαχυν brodopachun Sappho) and brododaktulos with rosy fingers
  • βροχέως brocheos or βρουκέων broukeon (Attic βραχύ brachy short) (Sapph.fr. 2,7)
  • δράσειν drasein (Attic θύειν to sacrifice)
  • εἴδη eide (Attic ὕλη, forest) (εἴδη Ionian also)
  • ζάδηλον zadelon with holes in it, open (Attic diadelon obvious) (Alcaeus 30 D 148P)
  • ἴμβηρις imbēris eel (Attic ἔγχελυς enchelys) Μηθυμναῖοι
  • Ἰσσα Issa old name of Lesbos Island Cf. Antissa
  • ἴσσασθαι issasthai (Attic κληροῦσθαι klerousthai to take sth by lot)
  • καγκύλη kankulē (Attic κηκῖς kēkis wet,vapour, mordant dyeing)
  • κάμμαρψις kammarpsis dry Measure (Attic ἡμιμέδιμνον hemimedimnon, one half of a medimnos)
  • καραβίδες karabides (Attic γρᾶες graes) Μηθυμναῖοι
  • καυαλέον kaualeon Hsch (Attic αἶθος aithos fire, burning heat) (Cf.kaiō burn)
  • Mεσοστροφώνια Mesostrophonia Lesbian festival
  • μόλσος molsos (Attic δημός, fat)
  • ξίμβα ximba (Attic ῥοιά rhoia pomegranate-tree) (Boeotian sida)
  • ὄθματα othmata (Attic ommata eyes)
  • ὄν ón ὄνα óna (Attic ἀνά aná) upon, through, again (Arcadocypriot also)
  • πασσύριον passyrion (Attic passydia 'totally, all together, with the whole army')
  • πεδαμείβω pedameivō (Attic metameivo exchange) (πεδέχω pedecho μετέχω metecho), pedoikos metoikos peda for meta
  • Πέῤῥαμος Perrhamos Priamus (Alcaeus 74D, 111P (it means also king)
  • σάωμι saōmi save (Attic σῴζω sōizō ) (Homeric σαόω saoō)
  • σίγλαι siglai ear-rings (Attic enōtia, Laconian exōbadia)
  • σκίφος skiphos Attic xiphos sword (skiptō, given as etym. of skiphos and xiphos, Sch.Il.1.220; cf. skipei: nussei, it pricks,pierces)
  • σπόλα spóla(Attic στολή stolē) equipment, garment (spaleis, the sent one, for staleis)
  • σύρξ syrx (Attic σάρξ flesh) (dative plural σύρκεσιν syrkesi Attic σαρξίν sarxin)
  • τενεκοῦντι tenekounti (Attic enoikounti dative singular of ἐνοικῶν enoikōn inhabiting)
  • τράγαις tragais you break, grow rough and hoarse and smell like a goat
  • τῦδε tude tudai and tuide here) (Ionic tēde)
  • φαυόφορος phauophoros priestess (Attic ἱέρεια hiereia) (light-keeper) (Aeolic phauō for Homeric phaō shine) (Homeric phaos light, Attic phōs and phōtophoros)


Boeotian lemma Transcription Meaning Correspondence to other Greek dialects Notes
'tomorrow' Attic αὔριον aurion cf. Attic ēōs 'dawn'
'women' (pl.)
Attic gunē
Attic gunaikes
Derived from PIE *gʷḗn-h₂.[30]
Δεύς Deus Zeus Also attested in:
* Laconian Δεύς Deús
* Rhodian Δεύς Deús
Derived from PIE *Dyeus ('sky-god').[31]
'sweet, pleasant' * Attic ἡδύ hēdú 'sweet, tasteful, pleasant, pleasing' Attested in Corinna.17. Derived from PIE *sueh₂d-ú- 'sweet'.[32]
κᾶρουξ karoux[33] * Attic κήρυξ kēryx 'herald, messenger'
* Doric κᾶρυξ káryx
Per Beekes, probably Pre-Greek.[34]
  • ἀμίλλακας amillakas wine Theban (Attic oinos)
  • ἀνωδόρκας anōdorkas a fish βρίγκος ὁ ἰχθῦς, ὑπὸ Θηβαίων
  • βαιδύμην baidumēn (Attic ἀροτριᾶν arotrian to plough)
  • βανά bana (βαλάρα balara) woman (Attic gunē); βανῆκες, banēkes βάττικες battikes women ( Attic gunaikes )
  • βάστραξ bastrax or bastax (Attic τράχηλος trachēlos neck) pl. bastraches
  • βλεερεῖ bleerei (Attic οἰκτείρει he feels pity) Cf. eleairei
  • ἐμπυρία empyria divination (Attic manteia) (Hsch. public oath, Koine ordeal by fire)
  • ζεκελτίδες zekeltides gourds[35] Amerias zakeltides (Phrygian zelkia vegetables)
  • ἴδηφιν idephin sweet-voiced. Hsch.: ἴδηφιν ἴδαις· Βοιωτοί. [καὶ ὁ ἡδυλάλος διὰ τῆς διφθόγγου] (Attic hēduphōnon) ( Aeolic wad-, ad- )
  • ἰστάκη istake scythe (Attic δρέπανον drepanon)
  • ἰυγοδρομεῖν iugodromein (Attic ἐκβοηθεῖν, ekboēthein, and boēdromein, run to help) (Ἰύγγυϊ Dionysus, ἰυγή voice,scream (Soph. Phil. 752))(Iungios Thessalian month)
  • ἰώ and hiōn (Attic ἐγώ egō, I) (hiōnga iōga for egōge)
  • Καραιός Karaios Boeotian epithet for Zeus meaning tall,head. Boeotian eponym Karaidas[36]
  • κριδδέμεν kriddemen (Attic γελᾶν gelan to laugh) (Strattis fr. 47) Cf. (Cf.Attic krizō creak,screech)
  • κόριλλα korilla little girl (Koine korasion from Attic korasis girl) (Aetolian korudion)
  • μηλάτας mēlatas (Attic ποιμήν poimen shepherd) (homeric μῆλον mēlon sheep) (Attic mēlon apple, Aeolic-Doric malon)
  • μνάριον mnarion (Attic κάλλυντρον kallyntron broom, brush)
  • ὀπισθοτίλα opisthotila (Attic σηπία sēpia cuttlefish) (Strattis. fr. 47,3) (squirts its liquor from behind)
  • ὀπίττομαι opittomai (homeric opizomai I care,respect) (Laconian opiddomai)
  • ὀφρυγνᾷ ophrygnai (Attic ὀφρυάζει ophryazei he winks raising the eyebrow, is haughty)
  • σεῖα seia I persecuted (Attic ἐδίωξα edioxa) (Cf.Homeric seuō move quickly, chase)
  • συοβοιωτοί syoboiōtoi Hog-Boeotians (Cratinus.310)
  • τρίπεζα tripeza (Attic trapeza,table)(from tetrapeza four-footed) (tripeza three-footed) (in Aeolic it would-be tripesda)
  • ψώσματα psōsmata Boeotian word


Thessalian lemma Transcription Meaning Correspondence to other Greek dialects Notes
Ἄπλουν Aploun Apollo (Olympic deity; brother to Artemis) * Attic Ἀπόλλων Apollōn
* Doric/Pamphylian Ἀπέλο̄ν Apelon
δάμοσσος dámossos public Attic dēmósios See iddioûstikos below.
δέσποινα despoina 'woman' Feminine form of despotes. In Attic gunē, in Doric guna mean 'woman'. See also Despoina.
ἰδδιούστικος iddioûstikos privative Attic idiōtikós[38][39]
κίς kis 'who, anyone' * Attic tis
* Laconian tir
* Arcadocypriot sis
Derived from PIE *kʷi- (interrogative/relative pronoun).[40]
κῦῤῥος kyrrhos or kyrros 'sir, master' Attic kyrios
Μακετοὺν Maketoun[41] 'Macedonian man' Attic Μακεδών Makedōn 'id' Thessalian suffix -ουν '-oun' parallels Attic suffix ων ōn in both nominative and genitive of participles, pronouns and nouns.
ματτύη mattuē a meat-dessert of Macedonian or Thessalian origin (in Athenaeus)[42] Cf. Macedonian mattuēs 'a kind of bird'.
Pétthalos 'Thessalian man' * Boeotian Φέτταλος Phéttalos
* Attic Θετταλός Thettalós
* Ionic/Koine Θεσσαλός Thessalós 'id'
[43] Per Beekes, a Pre-Greek word derived from *Kʷettʸal-.[44]
  • ἀβρεμής abremēs (Attic ἀβλεπής ablepēs ἀνάξιος του βλέπεσθαι unworthy seeing, despicable (Cypriotic also) (Hes. text ἀβλεπής Κύπριοι καὶ Θετταλοί
  • ἀγορά agora (Attic λιμήν limen port, harbour) (Hes. text Θετταλοὶ δὲ καὶ τὸν λιμένα ἀγορὰν καλοῦσιν Κρῆτες δὲ τὴν ἐκκλησίαν
  • ἀλφινία alphinia white poplar (PIE *albho- 'white') (Attic leukē, PIE *leuk- 'bright, light') (Macedonian aliza)
  • ἀσπάλεια aspaleia safeness (Attic asphaleia)[45]
  • ἀστραλός astralos (Attic ψάρ -ος psar Starling)
  • βεβυκῶσθαι bebukousthai to be swollen (Homeric βυκτάων buktaon blowing)
  • βουσία bousia (Attic γογγυλίδι gongylidi turnip)
  • δάρατος daratos Thessalian bread (Macedonian dramis) (Athamanian dramix) (PIE *der- 'cut, split')
  • ἔνορμος enormos (agora, assembly, market and chōra) (Attic enormeō get in a harbour, hormos bay, anchorage
  • ἐρέας ereas children (Hsch.Attic τέκνα tekna) (Homeric ernos young sprout, scion) (Neo-Phrygian eiroi children)
  • θεανῶσται theanoustai (Attic ξυστῆρες xysters)
  • ἰθείη itheiē (Attic ἁμαξιτός hamaxitos chariot-road) (Homeric ἰθεῖα ὀρθή Ψ 580) (Attic ithys, eytheia straight line)
  • ἴμψας impsas past participle of impto (Attic ζεύξας zeuxas zeugnymi join together) (Ἴμψιος Impsios Ποσειδῶν ὁ ζύγιος Poseidon Zygius on horses)
  • κάλαφος kalaphos (Attic ἀσκάλαφος, Ascalaphus a bird (Magnesian)
  • καπάνη kapanē chariot (Attic ἀπήνη apēnē) also, a helmet(kapanikos plenteous
  • καρπαία karpaia Thessalo-Macedonian mimic military dance (see also Carpaea) Homeric karpalimos swift (for foot) eager,ravenous.
  • νεαλεῖς nealeis new-comers, newly caught ones (Cf. nealeis, neēludes)
  • νεβεύω[46] nebeuō pray (Macedonian neuō) (Attic euchomai, neuō 'wink')
  • ὀνάλα onala, ὀνάλουμα onalouma (Attic analōma expense cost) (on- in the place of Attic prefix ana-, ongrapsantas SEG 27:202
  • Πετθαλια Petthalia 'Thessalia'; Petthaloi 'Thessalians'; Koine thessalisti 'the Thessalian way'. Cf. Attic ἐντεθετταλίζομαι entethettalizomai become a Thessalian, i.e. wear the large Thessalian cloak (Thettalika ptera feathers), Eupolis.201.)
  • ταγεύω tageuō to be tagos archon in Thessaly ταγευόντουν τοῦμ Πετθαλοῦν

See also



  1. ^ Roger D. Woodard (2008), "Greek dialects", in: The Ancient Languages of Europe, ed. R. D. Woodard, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 51.
  2. ^ Protagoras by Plato - Greek text
  3. ^ James A. Towle, Commentary on Plato: Protagoras 341c
  4. ^ V = vowel, R = sonorant, s is itself. VV = long vowel, RR = doubled or long sonorant.
  5. ^ Smyth, Greek Grammar, par. 30 and note, 31: Attic long e, long a
  6. ^ Smyth, par. 162 note: (Lesbian) Aeolic recessive accent
  7. ^ Smyth, Greek Grammar, par. 656: contract verbs in Aeolic
  8. ^ Smyth, par. 214 note 9: first declension in dialects
  9. ^ Smyth, par. 230 note: second declension in dialects
  10. ^ Smyth, par. 305 note
  11. ^ Beekes 2009, p. 516
  12. ^ Beekes 2009, pp. 1289–1290
  13. ^ Beekes 2009, pp. 313–314
  14. ^ Beekes 2009, p. 1270
  15. ^ Beekes 2009, p. 1273
  16. ^ Beekes 2009, pp. 1289–1290
  17. ^ Beekes 2009, pp. 343–344
  18. ^ Beekes 2009, p. 487
  19. ^ Beekes 2009, p. 580
  20. ^ Beekes 2009, pp. 711–712
  21. ^ Beekes 2009, p. 935
  22. ^ Beekes 2009, pp. 1172–1173
  23. ^ Beekes 2009, p. 1161
  24. ^ Beekes 2009, pp. 1160–1161
  25. ^ Beekes 2009, p. 1471
  26. ^ Beekes 2009, p. 1034
  27. ^ Beekes 2009, pp. 1411–1412
  28. ^ Beekes 2009, p. 1050
  29. ^ Beekes 2009, p. 547
  30. ^ Beekes 2009, pp. 291–292
  31. ^ Beekes 2009, p. 498
  32. ^ Beekes 2009, pp. 509–510
  33. ^ Boiotia — Orchomenos — early 1st century BC
  34. ^ Beekes 2009, p. 690
  35. ^ Athenaeus Deipnosophists -9.369
  36. ^ Boiotia —Anthedon
  37. ^ Beekes 2009, p. 118
  38. ^ Selected Papers in Greek and Near Eastern History [1] by David Malcolm Lewis, Peter John Rhodes
  39. ^ Skotoussa — 197-185 BC SEG 43:311
  40. ^ Beekes 2009, p. 1487
  41. ^ Thessalia — Larisa — 220-210 BC - SEG 27:202
  42. ^ Deipnosophists 14.663-4 (pp.1059-1062)
  43. ^ Scarborough 2023a, p. 76
  44. ^ Beekes 2009, p. 544
  45. ^ Krannon — c. 250 - 215 BC SEG 23:437, 7
  46. ^ MagnesiaDemetrias — late 2nd century BC [2]

General references

  • Beekes, Robert S. P. (2009). Etymological Dictionary of Greek. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-90-04-17418-4.
  • Scarborough, Matthew (2023a). "The Core Aeolic Isoglosses". The Aeolic Dialects of Ancient Greek. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. pp. 60–129. doi:10.1163/9789004543713_004. ISBN 978-90-04-54371-3.

Further reading


General studies

  • Adrados, Francisco Rodríguez (2005). "The Specific Literary Languages: Lesbian, Boeotian and Syracusan". A History of the Greek Language. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. pp. 118–125. doi:10.1163/9789047415596_009. ISBN 978-90-474-1559-6.
  • Bakker, Egbert J., ed. 2010. A companion to the Ancient Greek language. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Beek, Lucien van (2022). "Greek". In Thomas Olander (ed.). The Indo-European Language Family. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 173–201. doi:10.1017/9781108758666.011. ISBN 978-1-108-75866-6.
  • Colvin, Stephen C. 2007. A historical Greek reader: Mycenaean to the koiné. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Dosuna, J. Mendes (2007). "The Aeolic dialects". In Christidis, Anastasios-Phoivos (ed.). A history of Ancient Greek: From the beginnings to Late Antiquity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 460–474. ISBN 9780521833073.
  • Miller, D. Gary (2014). "4. Greece, Greek, and Its Dialects". Ancient Greek Dialects and Early Authors: Introduction to the Dialect Mixture in Homer, with Notes on Lyric and Herodotus. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 25–33. doi:10.1515/9781614512950.25. ISBN 978-1-61451-493-0.
  • Horrocks, Geoffrey. 2010. Greek: A history of the language and its speakers. 2nd ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Scarborough, Matthew (2023). "The Problem of Aeolic in Ancient Greek Dialectology". The Aeolic Dialects of Ancient Greek. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. pp. 1–39. doi:10.1163/9789004543713_002. ISBN 978-90-04-54371-3.
  • Scarborough, Matthew (2023b). "The Peripheral Aeolic Isoglosses". The Aeolic Dialects of Ancient Greek. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. pp. 130–211. doi:10.1163/9789004543713_005. ISBN 978-90-04-54371-3.
  • Palmer, Leonard R. 1980. The Greek language. London: Faber & Faber.

On the Boeotian dialect

  • Buck, R. J. (1968). "The Aeolic Dialect in Boeotia". Classical Philology. 63 (4): 268–280. doi:10.1086/365411.
  • Miller, D. Gary (2014). "19. Boeotian and Thessalian". Ancient Greek Dialects and Early Authors: Introduction to the Dialect Mixture in Homer, with Notes on Lyric and Herodotus. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 219–233. doi:10.1515/9781614512950.219. ISBN 978-1-61451-493-0.
  • Pantelidis, Nikolaos. "Boeotian and its Neighbors: A Central Helladic Dialect Continuum?" In: Studies in Ancient Greek Dialects: From Central Greece to the Black Sea. Edited by Georgios Giannakis, Emilio Crespo and Panagiotis Filos. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter, 2018. pp. 167–188. doi:10.1515/9783110532135-010
  • Page, Denis L. 1953. Corinna. London: Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies.
  • West, Martin L. 1990. "Dating Corinna." Classical Quarterly 40 (2): 553–57.

On the Lesbian dialect

  • Bowie, Angus M. 1981. The poetic dialect of Sappho and Alcaeus. New York: Arno.
  • Finkelberg, Margalit. "Lesbian and Mainland Greece". In: Studies in Ancient Greek Dialects: From Central Greece to the Black Sea. Edited by Georgios Giannakis, Emilio Crespo and Panagiotis Filos. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter, 2018. pp. 447–456. doi:10.1515/9783110532135-023
  • Hodot, René (2018). "Lesbian, in Space, Time, and its Uses". In Georgios Giannakis; Emilio Crespo; Panagiotis Filos (eds.). Studies in Ancient Greek Dialects: From Central Greece to the Black Sea. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 457–470. doi:10.1515/9783110532135-024.
  • Miller, D. Gary (2014). "20. Lesbian". Ancient Greek Dialects and Early Authors: Introduction to the Dialect Mixture in Homer, with Notes on Lyric and Herodotus. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 234–254. doi:10.1515/9781614512950.234. ISBN 978-1-61451-493-0.
  • Tribulato, Olga (2021). "Sappho's Dialect". In P. J. Finglass; Adrian Kelly (eds.). The Cambridge Companion to Sappho. Cambridge Companions to Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 135–46. doi:10.1017/9781316986974.011. ISBN 978-1-316-98697-4.

On the Thessalian dialect

  • Chadwick, John (1992). "The Thessalian Accent". Glotta. 70 (1/2): 2–14. JSTOR 40266905. Accessed 23 Mar. 2024.
  • Helly, Bruno. "Some Materials for a Historical Grammar of the Thessalian Dialect". In: Studies in Ancient Greek Dialects: From Central Greece to the Black Sea. Edited by Georgios Giannakis, Emilio Crespo and Panagiotis Filos. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter, 2018. pp. 351–374. doi:10.1515/9783110532135-018
  • Miller, D. Gary (2014). "19. Boeotian and Thessalian". Ancient Greek Dialects and Early Authors: Introduction to the Dialect Mixture in Homer, with Notes on Lyric and Herodotus. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 219–233. doi:10.1515/9781614512950.219. ISBN 978-1-61451-493-0.