Ashwatthama

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Ashwatthama in Javanese Wayang

A character of the Indian epic Mahābhārata, Ashwatthama (Sanskrit: अश्वत्थामा, Aśvatthāmā) or Ashwatthaman (Sanskrit: अश्वत्थामन्, Aśvatthāman) or Drauni was the son of guru Drona and he is the grandson of the Brahmin sage Bharadwaja. Ashwatthama is a mighty Maharathi[1] who fought on the Kaurava side against the Pandavas. Ashwatthama is the avatar of one of the eleven Rudras and he is one of the seven Chiranjivi.[2] Along with his maternal uncle Kripa, Ashwatthama is believed to be a living survivor of the Kurukshetra War.[3] The rumours about his death in the Kurukshetra war led to the death of Drona at the hands of Prince Dhrishtadyumna.

Along with sages Parashurama, Vyasa, and Kripa, Ashwatthama is considered to be foremost among the rishis in Kaliyuga.[4] The Mahabharatha describes him as being incredibly tall, with dark skin, dark eyes, and with a gem in his forehead.[5]

Etymology[edit]

According to The Mahabharata, Aswatthaman means "the horse-voiced".[6][7] It is so called because when he was born he cried like a horse[8]

Birth and Life Prior to the War[edit]

Ashwatthama was the son of Dronacharya and Kripi. Drona did many years of severe penance to please Lord Shiva in order to obtain a son who possesses the same valiance as Lord Shiva.

Ashwatthama was born with a gem in his forehead which gives him power over all living beings lower than humans; it protected him from hunger, thirst and fatigue.

Drona's love for Ashwatthama[edit]

Drona loved his son very dearly. Dronacharya was very poor. Once when Ashwatthama was a child, he desired to drink milk, like he had seen friends drink. Not even owning a cow, Ashwatthama painted his lips with a mixture of wheat flour with water, making it seem as if he had drank milk. This scene saddened Dronacharya. He remembered his childhood friend Drupada, who in a spurt of youthful exuberance, had promised to give Drona half of whatever he had. Dronacharya went to the court of Drupada to ask for a cow. King Drupada humiliated Drona, saying friendship existed only between equals. He told Drona to ask as a Brahmin asks for alms, but not as a friend, and Drupada would do his kingly duty and provide whatever he asked. Refusing, Dronacharya returned empty-handed and humiliated.

After this incident, on seeing the plight of Dronacharya, Kripacharya, who was teaching the Kuru princes, invited Drona to Hastinapur. There, he came upon the attention of his co-disciple Bhishma. Thus, Dronacharya became the guru of the Pandavas and of the Kauravas in Hastinapur. Ashwatthama was trained in the art of warfare along with them.[9]

Avatar of Lord Shiva[edit]

Just before Mahabaratha war, Bhishma himself declared that it will be virtually impossible for anyone to kill or defeat Ashwatthama in war as he is the part incarnate of Lord Shiva and he because was born to become a Chiranjivi. Bhishma said when Ashwatthama becomes angry then it will be impossible to fight him as he becomes a second Shiva. Bhishma told Duryodhana[10]

Lord Krishna and sage Vyasa also know about this and they advised Arjuna to seek the blessing of Lord Shiva himself. Arjuna gains the favour of Shiva by doing penance. Lord Shiva blesses victory to Arjuna, but warns that it is impossible for anyone to kill Ashwatthama.[11]

Role in the Kurukshetra war[edit]

Siding with the Kauravas[edit]

Since Hastinapura, ruled by King Dhritarashtra, offered Dronacharya the privilege of teaching the Kuru princes, both Dronacharya and Ashwatthama were loyal to Hastinapur and fought for the Kauravas in the Kurukshetra war. Before Dronacharya's death, Ashwatthama visited his father, desiring a blessing of victory, but Dronacharya refused. He advised Ashwatthama to win the war using his own strength and not through a blessing from him. Earlier, Dronacharya's favorite disciple and Pandava prince Arjuna had already obtained such a blessing from Drona.[citation needed]

Despite his friendship with the Pandavas, Ashwatthama had great familiarity with Duryodhana. He was attracted to Duryodhana's gregarious nature, and to Duryodhana's largesse bestowed upon him. Moreover, just as Duryodhana believed that the Pandavas were taking his birthright to the crown, Ashwatthama felt that Arjuna was usurping his place in Drona's heart.[citation needed]

Death of Drona[edit]

On the 10th day of the war, Bhishma falls, and Drona is named the supreme commander of the armies. He promises Duryodhana that he will capture Yudhishthira, but then he repeatedly fails to do so. Duryodhana taunts and insults him, which greatly angers Ashwatthama, causing friction between Ashwatthama and Duryodhana. Lord Krishna knew that it was not possible to defeat an armed Drona. Krishna also knew that Drona loved his son Ashwatthama very dearly. So, Krishna suggested to Yudhishthira that, if he were convinced that his son was killed on the battlefield, then Drona would renounce fighting in his grief.

Krishna suggested Bhima kill an elephant named Ashwatthama and claim to have killed Drona's son. After killing the elephant, he loudly proclaimed that he had killed Ashwatthama. Knowing Ashwatthama's prowess and disbelieving Bhima, Drona asks Yudhishthira, the personification of honesty, for the truth. Yudhishthira confirms the lie (in some versions, precisely how this happens is different).

Drona descended from his chariot, laid down his arms and sat in meditation. Closing his eyes, his soul went to heaven in search of Ashwatthama's soul. Dhrishtadyumna took this opportunity and beheaded the unarmed Drona, though this was prohibited by the rules of war. Dhrishtadyumna cited the unjust death of Abhimanyu as a reason for this unethical killing of Drona.

Narayanastra[edit]

Ashwatthama uses Narayanastra

After discovering the Pandavas' deception, Ashwatthama rages and unleashed Narayanastra on the Pandava army. Earlier, Lord Narayana gifted this weapon to Drona, and Drona himself passed this terrible astra to his son Ashwatthama. Only Drona, Ashwatthama, Parasurama, and Lord Krishna possessed the knowledge of this weapon. The only way of defense towards this missile, is to show total submission before the missiles hit; this in turn will cause this weapon to stop and spare the target. When it was used, eleven Rudras appeared in the sky. Millions of types of weapons like chakras, gadhas, and ultra sharp arrows appeared to destroy the Pandavas. Krishna tells the Pandavas and their warriors to drop their weapons and lie down on the ground, so that they all surrender completely to the power of this weapon. Though Bhima refuses to surrender, thinking this an act of cowardice, the Pandavas and their allies manage to subdue him and disarm themselves. This act of surrender saved their army.[12]

The Narayana astra destroyed one akshauhini of Pandava army completely. Gleeful, Duryodhana asks Ashwatthama to use the weapon again, but Ashwatthama informs him that if they do so, the weapon will backfire.

Remainder of the War[edit]

After the use of Narayana astra, terrible war between both armies took place. Ashwatthama defeated Dhrishtadyumna in direct combat, but failed to kill him because many Pandava warriors came to his aid. These warriors broke the code of engagement by fighting together against a single warrior to protect Dhrishtadyumna. Then, Kaurava reinforcements come to the aid of Ashwatthama. Terrible war took place between the two sides. Ashwatthama defeated Satyaki and Bhima (covering Dhristadyumna's retreat) in direct combat, forcing them to flee. Yudhishthira blamed himself for the heavy loss they suffered at the hands of Ashwatthama.[13]

Despite his animosity, after the death of Dushasana, Ashwatthama still suggested Duryodhana that he make peace with the Pandavas, keeping in mind the welfare of Hastinapur. Duryodhana strongly rejected his suggestion. Later after Duryodhana is struck down by Bhima and facing death, Kripa, Kritavarma, and Ashwatthama, the only remaining soldiers from the Kaurava army, rush to his side. Duryodhana told them to take revenge on the Pandavas, reminding them off all the tricks the Pandavas had pulled off.[14]

Hearing these Ashwatthama flamed up in anger and vows on all that he is and was that he will destroy the Pandavas and send them to Yama. He specifically mentions taking revenged on the Pancala army, of whose nation Dhristadyumna hails from.[15] Hearing these words Duryodhana made Ashwatthama as the commander of his army.

Attack on Pandava Camp[edit]

On the night a very disturbed and restless Ashwatthama was sitting under a large tree, planning future attacks. An owl ambushing a group of crows caught his attention. This gave him an idea of attacking the Pandava camp at night. He gathered the only other surviving Kaurava warriorsKritavarma and Kripacharya-and attacked the Pandava camp on the 18th night of the Kurukshetra war.

When Kripa expresses discomfort and engaging in such a horrible attack (attacking sleeping, unarmed, soldiers in their camp at night), Ashwatthama reminds them of his promise to Duryodhana, as well as the wicked acts committed by the Pandavas and the Pancalas. He expresses that he doesn't care about any karmic consequences of these actions, as long as he can kill these foes.[16] Kripa tells Ashwatthama to seek the advice of Dhritarashtra and Vidura, elders of his family who are much wiser and more experienced, and criticizes his non-Brahminic way of thinking. Ashwatthama rejects Kripa’s reasoning; though a Brahmin, has always followed the Kshatriya Dharma.[17][18]

The three warriors proceeded to the Pandava camp. Kripa and Kritavarma waited outside to ambush those escaping the slaughter. When reached there, Ashwatthama found a Bhairava, posted by Krishna. So Ashwatthama worshiped Lord Shiva for the fulfillment of his desires, offering himself up to the fire.[19]

Seeing this, the pleased Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati in her most ferocious Kali form appeared before Ashwatthama with their millions of Shiva's ganas. In addition, there appeared millions of Kali's Sakthis, Nityas, Yoginis. They eagerly awaited for the impending massacre. Lord Shiva smilingly told Ashwatthama.[20]

Having said these words to Ashwatthama, Lord Shiva entered into Ashwatthama's body after giving him an excellent and polished sword. Filled by that divine being, Ashwatthama blazed up with energy, becoming all-powerful. Kali appeared in her most terrible form with 64 hands with different kinds of weapons for the aid of Ashwathama. The appearance of Kali was earlier prophesied, so Krishna purposely kept the five Pandava princes and Satyaki in Duryodhana's former camp. Since the beginning of the war, many Pandava soldiers saw horrific dreams about a ferocious form and considered this as a very bad omen.[citation needed] This ferocious being was Mahakali. Shiva and Kali gana's, many invisible beings, pisachas, rakshasas, and all kinds of evil spirits proceeded along Ashwatthama's flanks as he set out. With the sword of Lord Shiva, Ashwatthama and his spiritual army burned the entire Pandava camp to ashes. Hearing the din, the entire Pandava camp wakes up. Ashwatthama first kicked and woke up Dhrishtadyumna, the commander of the Pandava army and the killer of his father Drona. Dhrishtadyumna was no match for Ashwatthama empowered with Lord Shiva.[citation needed]

Dhrishtadyumna begged for mercy at the feet of Ashwatthama, asking to at least die with a sword in hand.[21] Unrelenting, Ashwatthama strangled Dhrishtadyumna to death. He moved on and fought with Shikhandi, Uttamaujas and many other prominent warriors of the Pandava army, killing them all in direct fight. None were able to resist Ashwatthama empowered by Lord Shiva. Those who tried to flee were hacked down by Kripa and Kritavarma at the camp's entrance. Shiva's ganas assisted Ashwatthama, attacking and killing the Pandavas soldiers whilst feasting on them. Hearing the loud noise inside the camp, the Upapandavas came with weapons and Ashvatthama fought with them and killed all of them. After destroying the entire Pandava camp, Ashwatthama proceeds towards Duryodana with the cut off heads of the Upapandavas. He told Duryodhana that he only managed to kill the Pandava's children as the Pandavas were not not there, and this makes Duryodhana happy, as that means the Pandava lineage would die out.[22]

Duryodhana then, having heard the news that were so agreeable to his heart, regained his senses and praised Ashwatthama for achieving what Bhisma, Drona, and Karna had failed to accomplish.[23]

Duryodhana died happily after hearing this and the three remaining Kuru warriors cremated him. After these events, Lord Shiva exited Ashwatthama's body and left along with his wife and ganas.

Defeat and Consequences[edit]

Ashwatthama goes to Sage Vyasa's ashram and told everything to him.

The Pandavas and Krishna return to their camp the next day morning. Hearing the news of these events, Yudhishthira fainted and the Pandavas become inconsolable. Later Yudhishthira laments at the pyrrhic victory which had cost them the lives of all they held near and dear.[24] To placate a distraught Draupadi, the Pandavas agree to obtain the gem from Ashwatthama's forehead.

Pandavas went searching for Ashwatthama at Vyasa's ashram. On seeing the approaching Pandavas, Ashwatthama, as a last resort, used his sacred knowledge of the Vedas to devise a Brahmashirsha astra from a blade of grass. On seeing the Brahmashirsha astra approaching the Pandavas, Krishna asked Arjuna to invoke the same.

Narada and Vyasa came to stop Brahmashirsha astra used by Aswatthama and Arjuna

On seeing the two powerful astras heading for a head on cataclysmic collision that would result in the total annihilation of the entire Earth, sage Vyasa stopped these divine weapons from colliding with each other by using his yogic power. He asked both these warriors to withdraw their respective weapons. Arjuna could do so, while Ashwatthama didn't have the required knowledge. However, Ashwatthama was capable of redirecting the weapon to a single isolated object in a place where the weapon would detonate harmlessly. But instead, out of rage, he directed the weapon towards the womb of Uttara, carrying the Kuru heir, in an attempt to end the lineage of the Pandavas. The angered Pandavas want to kill Ashwatthama, but Sage Vyasa reminded the Pandavas of their own deceit in killing their own guru. Sage Vyasa explained that due to the severe sin of killing their guru by unethical means, the Pandavas had suffered such tragedy. Further, Sage Vyasa warned that he will curse the Pandavas if they ever tried to kill Ashwatthama, the lone survivor of their Guru's lineage.

Ashwatthama surrenders his gem to Draupadi

Ashwatthama was asked to surrender the gem on his forehead. Enraged, Krishna then cursed Ashwatthama. For 3000 years he will roam in the forests with blood and puss oozing out of his injuries as he cries for death. Since he had no fear of death during war, death will not meet him. He will have neither any hospitality nor any accommodation; he will be in total isolation without any contact of physical communication from mankind and society. The wound caused by the removal of this gem on his forehead will not heal and his body will suffer from a host of incurable diseases forming sores and ulcers. It is believed that in Kali Yuga, his name will be "Suryakanta".[25]

Fate[edit]

Ashwatthama will become the next sage Vyasa and will divide the Veda in the 29th Mahayuga of the 7th Manvantara.[26] Aswatthama will also become one of the Saptarishis in the 8th Manvantara.[27]

Alternate theories about Ashwatthama's fate[edit]

In a Kannada version of Mahabaratha written by Kumara Vyasa, the author claimed the he wrote the story by listening to Sage Ashwatthama. It was said in different sources and alternate theories that, in order to escape from the curse of Lord Krishna, Ashwatthama approached his parama guru (guru's guru) Lord Parasurama.[citation needed] Lord Parasurama felt pity at Aswatthama and agreed to help him. It was said that Ashwatthama was only an instrument in Lord Shiva's plan to exterminate all the evil people from earth. Since it was Lord Shiva who entered into Aswatthama's body and exterminated Pandava forces, Ashwatthama was absolved of all sins. It was said that Pandavas met Ashwathama once again 36 years later when they were travelling to the Himalayas to seek pardon from Lord Shiva for their heinous crimes in war. The description says Pandavas found Aswhatthama happy in the company of Lord Parasurama and Sage Durvasa in an ashram on the banks of river Ganga[citation needed]; Ashwatthama was found free from all curses. It was believed that Lord Parasurama and Maharishi Durvasa initiated Aswatthama into Sakthi worship, which is considered to be the supreme of all modes of worship. By worshipping Adi ParaSakthi, the mother of Lord Brahma, Lord Vishnu, and Lord Shiva, Aswatthama bypassed the curse of Lord Krishna.[28]

It is said in ancient scriptures that "If God is angry at you, Guru can save you. But if Guru is angry at you, even God cannot save you". Alternate theories suggest that as per the words in scriptures Aswatthama sought the help of his gurus and escaped the wrath of God. Maharashi Ashwathama lives along with his mother Kripi and his maternal uncle Kripa, both being great yogis somewhere in the Himalayas.[29]

Ashwatthama and Brahmashirsha Astra[edit]

Ashwatthama sought the knowledge of Brahmashirsha astra from his father Drona, who teaches him how to invoke, but not how to withdraw, the astra. This was because Drona earlier gave his word to Arjuna that he will make Arjuna the greatest archer. So in order to fulfill his promise, Drona gave only partial knowledge to Ashwatthama.[30] Also, without the knowledge of how to withdraw the astra, Ashwatthama could only use the weapon once; hence, Dronacharya only gives partial knowledge about it. If an archer invokes the astra once, it not only destroys the target, but also leads to a famine in the region for 12 years. If invoked twice, then it can even lead to draining of the entire ocean on Earth.[citation needed]

Duryodhana’s dilemmas[edit]

When Duryodhana was lying in the battle field, awaiting death, he and Krishna have a conversation about the tactical mistakes Duryodhana had made. One of these issues was not making Ashwatthama the commander-in-chief after the death of Dronacharya. If Duryodhana had made Ashwatthama as the commander of the army after the death of Drona, victory would have surely be his as Ashwatthama was the avatar of Lord Shiva.[31] No one can handle a a furious Ashwatthama; Shiva is pleasing most of the time but no one in the entire universe can handle a furious Lord Shiva. Similarly, all Duryodhana would have needed to do to win the war would have been to make Ashwatthama angry. Just like the Pandavas had Lord Krishna, the avatar of Lord Vishnu, Duryodhana had the avatar of Lord Shiva, but he never utilized it. The remorse about underutilizing Ashwatthama prompted Duryodhana to make Ashwatthama the final commander of his army.[32] These events led to the complete destruction of Pandava army and lineage. After the night raid of Ashwatthama on the Pandava camp, Duryodhana felt like he had won the war, as the Pandavas lost everything and everyone they cared about.[33]

Skill as a warrior[edit]

In Udyoga Parva of Mahabaratha, Bhishma declared Ashwatthama as a mighty Maharathi, or a warrior capable of fighting 720,000 warriors simultaneously; circumspect in his mastery of all forms of weapons and combat skills.[34]

In Drona Parva of Mahabarath, it gives a detailed explanation of the skill of Drona's son Aswatthaman.[35] Aswatthama studied Dhanurveda and Brahmavidya from Parasurama, Durvasa, Vyasa, Bhishma, Kripa, and Drona. Ashwatthama is the master of all forms of knowledge and possesses complete mastery over 64 forms of arts or Kalas and 18 Vidyas or branches of knowledge.

Themes and Analysis[edit]

Aswatthama was a great warrior and was one of the greatest archers of his times.[citation needed] Like Bhishma, Drona, Arjuna, and Karna, he had all divine weapons in his armory. But Duryodhana did not think highly of him because of his immense love for Karna, making no secret of this opinion. For Duryodhana, one who sought immortality was afraid of death and one who was afraid of death was a disgrace to the community of warriors.[citation needed] Aswatthama always considered the war as unnecessary but he fought in the war just to do his duty towards his king. Aswatthama was a very good friend of the Pandavas, and always argued Duryodhana to desist from war. Aswatthama was never part of any crooked methods of Duryodhana and is always considered fair to both Pandavas and Kauvaras. He was always strongly against the plots of Duryodhana. The Pandavas even requested Aswatthama to fight for them before the beginning of the war but just like Bhishma, Drona and Kripa, Aswatthama was also tied to Hastinapura owing to his duty towards Kaurava king[citation needed]. But towards the end of the war, Aswatthama become furious and decided to exterminate the Pandavas by any means necessary.

References[edit]

  1. ^ K M Ganguly (1883–1896). The Mahabharata, Book 5 Udyoga Parva, Section CLXVIII sacred-texts.com, October 2003, Retrieved 2014-02-11
  2. ^ "Asvathama and Kripa are born immortals and unslayable by any kind of weapons". Retrieved June 28, 2015. 
  3. ^ Pilot Baba. Pilot Baba and Maharishi Aswathama Retrieved 2015-02-15
  4. ^ K M Ganguly (1883-1896). The Mahabharata, Book 13 Anusasana Parva, Section CL sacred-texts.com, October 2003, Retrieved 2014-02-11
  5. ^ K M Ganguly (1883–1896) The Mahabharata, Book 8 Karna Parva, SECTION 20 sacred-texts.com, October 2003, Retrieved 2014-02-11
  6. ^ http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/m01/m01132.htm
  7. ^ http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/m07/m07193.htm
  8. ^ http://spokensanskrit.de/index.php?tinput=azvatthAma&direction=SE&script=HK&link=yes&beginning=
  9. ^ K M Ganguly(1883-1896). The Mahabharata,Book 5 Udyoga Parva,Section CLXVIII sacred-texts.com,October 2003,Retrieved 2013-11-14
  10. ^ K M Ganguly(1883-1896). The Mahabharata,Book 5 Udyoga Parva,Section CLXVIII sacred-texts.com,October 2003,Retrieved 2013-11-14
  11. ^ J.L Shastri. "The Shiva Purana - The Complete Set in 4 Volumes". Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt Ltd; 2008 Edition
  12. ^ id=7DYnAgAAQBAJ&pg=PT114&lpg=PT114&dq=ashwathama+narayanastra&source=bl&ots=4Xffl7YUwm&sig=pXITzKAcwWb9igoWv2V5XPog8XI&hl=en&sa=X&ei=4futVKuPKMzGuAT35ICwAQ&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAzgK#v=onepage&q=ashwathama%20narayanastra&f=false The Puffin Mahabharat By Namita Gokhale Aswathama uses Narayana astra
  13. ^ K M Ganguly(1883-1896). The Mahabharatha Book 7: Drona page 478-479 Aswathama defeated Satyaki,Bhima Drishtadumna,October 2003,Retrieved 2015-01-13
  14. ^ K M Ganguly(1883-1896). The Mahabharatha Book 9: Shalya Parva section 64 Asvathama speaking to Duryodhana,Kripa and Kritavarma,October 2003,Retrieved 2015-04-17
  15. ^ K M Ganguly(1883-1896). The Mahabharatha Book 9: Shalya Parva section 65 Duryodhana speaking to Asvathama,Kripa and Kritavarma,October 2003,Retrieved 2015-04-17
  16. ^ K M Ganguly(1883-1896)
  17. ^ Smith, John. "The Mahabharata : an abridged translation". Penguin Books, 2009, p. 565
  18. ^ The Mahabharatha Book 10: Sauptika Parva section 5 Asvathama speaking to Kripa and Kritavarma,October 2003,Retrieved 2015-04-17
  19. ^ K M Ganguly(1883-1896). The Mahabharatha Book 10: Sauptika Parva section 7 Ashwathama praying to Lord Siva,October 2003,Retrieved 2015-04-17
  20. ^ K M Ganguly(1883-1896). The Mahabharatha Book 10: Sauptika Parva section 7 Lord Siva blessing Ashvatthama,October 2003,Retrieved 2015-04-17
  21. ^ K M Ganguly(1883-1896). The Mahabharatha Book 10: Sauptika Parva section 8 Ashwatthama killing Dhrishtadyumna ,October 2003,Retrieved 2015-04-17
  22. ^ K M Ganguly(1883-1896). The Mahabharatha Book 10: Sauptika Parva section 9 Ashwatthama killing Dhrishtadyumna ,October 2003,Retrieved 2015-04-17
  23. ^ K M Ganguly(1883-1896). The Mahabharatha Book 10: Sauptika Parva section 9 Duryodhana praising Ashwatthama,October 2003,Retrieved 2015-04-17
  24. ^ K M Ganguly(1883-1896). The Mahabharatha Book 10: Sauptika Parva section 10 Yudishtira crying over the death of Upapandavas, October 2003, Retrieved 2015-04-17
  25. ^ K M Ganguly(1883-1896). The Mahabharata,Book 10: Sauptika Parva Section 16 sacred-texts.com,October 2003,Retrieved 2014-07-04
  26. ^ Vishnu Purana -Drauni or Asvathama as Next Vyasa Retrieved 2015-03-22
  27. ^ Vishnu Purana -Drauni or Ashwathama as Next saptarishi Retrieved 2015-02-15
  28. ^ Kumara Vyasa Kumara Vyasa Mahabratha, August 2014, Retrieved 2014-08-01
  29. ^ Pilot Baba. Pilot Baba and Maharishi Aswathama Retrieved 2015-02-15
  30. ^ K M Ganguly (1883–1896). The Mahabharata,Book 1 Adi Parva, Section CLXVIII sacred-texts.com,October 2003, Retrieved 2015-02-11
  31. ^ J.L Shastri. "The Siva Purana - The Complete Set in 4 Volumes".Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt Ltd; 2008 Edition
  32. ^ K M Ganguly(1883-1896). The Mahabharatha Book 9: Shalya Parva section 65 Duryodhana speaking to Ashwatthama, Kripa and Kritavarma, October 2003, Retrieved 2015-04-17
  33. ^ K M Ganguly(1883-1896). The Mahabharatha Book 10: Sauptika Parva section 10 Yudishtira and Pandavas crying over the death of Upapandavas and Panchalas,October 2003,Retrieved 2015-04-17
  34. ^ K M Ganguly(1883-1896). The Mahabharata,Book 5 Udyoga Parva,Section CLXVIII sacred-texts.com,October 2003,Retrieved 2013-11-14
  35. ^ K M Ganguly(1883-1896 The Mahabharata,Book 7 Drona Parva,Section CXCV sacred-texts.com,October 2003,Retrieved 2014-05-18

External links[edit]

Original text online (Sanskrit)