Avocado oil

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Avocado oil

Avocado oil is an edible oil pressed from the fruit of the Persea americana (avocado). As a food oil, it is used as an ingredient in other dishes, and as a cooking oil. It is also used for lubrication and in cosmetics, where it is valued for its supposed regenerative and moisturizing properties.[1]

It has an unusually high smoke point, both unrefined and especially when refined. The smoke point of the unrefined form is 480 °F (249 °C) and the refined form can reach 520 °F (271 °C).[2] The exact smoke point depends heavily on the quality of refinement and the way the oil has been handled until reaching store shelves and subsequent kitchens.

Uses[edit]

Avocado oil functions well as a carrier oil for other flavors. It is high in monounsaturated fats and vitamin E. Avocado oil also enhances the absorption of carotenoids and other nutrients.[3]

Because the avocado is a year-round crop, some olive oil processing facilities, particularly in Australia and New Zealand, process olive oil during the olive season, and avocado oil during the rest of the year.

Avocado oil was originally, and still is, extracted for cosmetic use because of its very high skin penetration and rapid absorption. Following drying of the avocado flesh to remove as much water as possible (≈65% water in avocado flesh), avocado oil for cosmetics is traditionally extracted with solvents at elevated temperatures. After extraction, the oil for application in skin care products is usually refined, bleached, and deodorized, resulting in an odorless yellow oil.[4] Like extra virgin olive oil, cold-pressed avocado oil is unrefined and so retains the flavor and color characteristics of the fruit flesh.[5]

Properties[edit]

Avocado oil is one of few edible oils not derived from seeds; it is pressed from the fleshy pulp surrounding the avocado pit.[6] Extra virgin avocado oil from the Hass cultivar has a characteristic flavor, is high in monounsaturated fatty acids, and has a high smoke point (≥250 °C or 482 °F), making it a good oil for frying. ‘Hass' cold-pressed avocado oil is a brilliant emerald green when extracted; the color is attributed to high levels of chlorophylls and carotenoids extracted into the oil. Cold-pressed ‘Hass' avocado oil has been described as having an avocado flavor, with grassy and butter/mushroom-like flavors. Other varieties may produce oils of slightly different flavor profile as has been seen with ‘Fuerte,' which has been described as having more mushroom and less avocado flavor.[5] As a culinary oil, avocado oil compares well with olive oil. It has a similar monounsaturated fat profile which helps to protect the oil from breakdown during heating. Avocado oil is naturally low acidic, helping to increase smoke point. An extra virgin avocado oil, characterized by a deep emerald green color (from avocado's chlorophyll content) can safely be heated to degree of 480 °F (249 °C) Both unrefined and refined avocado oil can safely be used to conduct almost any high heat cooking application including baking, stir-fry, deep-fry, sear, barbecue, roast and saute. Avocado oil is relatively new to the culinary world and is often mislabeled in regard to smoke point. It is important to note that like all oils, the more refined, the higher the smoke point.

The following table provides information about the composition of avocado oil and how it compares with other vegetable oils.

Vegetable oils
Type Processing
Treatment
Saturated
fatty acids[7]
Mono-
unsaturated
fatty acids[7]
Polyunsaturated fatty acids Oleic acid
(ω-9)
Smoke point
Total poly[7] linolenic acid
(ω-3)
Linoleic acid
(ω-6)
Avocado   11.560 70.554 13.486 1 12.5   480 °F (249 °C)[8]
Canola (rapeseed)   7.365 63.276 28.142 10 10   400 °F (204 °C)[9]
Coconut   91.000 6.000 3.000   2 6 350 °F (177 °C)[9]
Corn[10]   12.948 27.576 54.677 1 58 28 450 °F (232 °C)
Cottonseed   25.900 17.800 51.900 1 54 19 420 °F (216 °C)[10]
Flaxseed/Linseed (European)[11]   7.500 15.500 79.000 64 15 11 225 °F (107 °C)
Olive   14.000 72.000 14.000 1.5 15   380 °F (193 °C)[9]
Palm   49.300 37.000 9.300   10 40 455 °F (235 °C)
Peanut   16.900 46.200 32.000   32 48 437 °F (225 °C)[10]
Safflower (>70% linoleic)   8.000 15.000 75.000       410 °F (210 °C)[9]
Safflower (high oleic)   7.541 75.221 12.820       410 °F (210 °C)[9]
Soybean   15.650 22.783 57.740 7 50 24 460 °F (238 °C)[10]
Sunflower (<60% linoleic)   10.100 45.400 40.100 0.2 39.8 45.3 440 °F (227 °C)[10]
Sunflower (>70% oleic)   9.859 83.689 3.798       440 °F (227 °C)[10]
Cottonseed (hydrogenated)[7] Hydrogenated 93.600 1.529 0.587   0.287  
Palm (hydrogenated) Hydrogenated 47.500 40.600 7.500      
Soybean (hydrogenated)[7] Hydrogenated 21.100 73.700 0.400 0.096    
Values as percent (%) by weight of total fat.

Manufacturing[edit]

A centrifuge is suitable for manufacturing avocado oil. The industrial centrifuge separates the avocado pulp into the fruit flesh, oil and water phases. Following this, the separator refines the oil phase and removes ultrafine impurities. This process is gentle to the product and is appropriate for producing the highest grade of avocado oil. Processing with the Tricanter leads to a high yield, clear avocado oil and maximum product quality.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Why Is Avocado Oil Good For The Skin?". Livestrong Foundation. 2011-03-31. Retrieved 2013-07-13. 
  2. ^ "What is unrefined, extra virgin, cold pressed avocado oil?". 
  3. ^ Unlu, Nuray Z.; Bohn, Torsten; Clinton, Steven K.; Schwartz, Steven J. (1 March 2005). "Carotenoid Absorption from Salad and Salsa by Humans Is Enhanced by the Addition of Avocado or Avocado Oil". Journal of Nutrition (The American Society for Nutritional Sciences) 135 (3): 431–436. 
  4. ^ "Easy Avocado Oil Uses for Natural Skincare and Healthy Cooking". OilyOily. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  5. ^ a b "What is unrefined, extra virgin cold-pressed avocado oil?". American Oil Chemists' Society. April 2010. Retrieved 2013-07-13. 
  6. ^ "Avocado oil". Purdue University Center for New Crops and Plants Products. 1999-02-18. Retrieved 2013-07-13. 
  7. ^ a b c d e "Nutrient database, Release 24". United States Department of Agriculture.  All values in this column are from the USDA Nutrient database unless otherwise cited.
  8. ^ What is unrefined, extra virgin cold-pressed avocado oil?, The American Oil Chemists’ Society
  9. ^ a b c d e Katragadda, H. R.; Fullana, A. S.; Sidhu, S.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á. A. (2010). "Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils". Food Chemistry 120: 59. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f Wolke, Robert L. (May 16, 2007). "Where There's Smoke, There's a Fryer". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 5, 2011. 
  11. ^ Fatty acid composition of important plant and animal fats and oils (German) 21 December 2011, Hans-Jochen Fiebig, Münster
  12. ^ Scheda tecnica dell'olio di palma bifrazionato PO 64 (Italian)
  13. ^ "Manufacturing Avocado Oil". Flottweg SE. Retrieved 7 September 2013.