Sunflower oil

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Unrefined sunflower oil with sunflower inflorescence
High-oleic sunflower oil

Sunflower oil is the non-volatile oil pressed from the seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Sunflower oil is commonly used in food as a frying oil, and in cosmetic formulations as an emollient. The world's total production of sunflower oil in 2014 was nearly 16 million tonnes, with Ukraine and Russia as the largest producers.[1]

Sunflower oil is a mixture mainly of the monounsaturated fat, oleic acid (30% of total) and the polyunsaturated fat, linoleic acid (59% of total). In sunflower oil plant breeding and manufacturing, four types of processed oil containing different amounts of the major fatty acids are produced.[2] The expressed oil has light amber color with a mild flavor. The oil contains a rich content of vitamin E.

As of 2017, genome analysis[3] and development of hybrid sunflowers to increase oil production are under development to meet greater consumer demand for sunflower oil and its commercial varieties.[4][5]

Composition[edit]

Sunflower oil is mainly triglycerides (fats), typically derived from the fatty acids linoleic acid and oleic acid

Sunflower oil is mainly a triglyceride.[6] The British Pharmacopoeia lists the following profile:[7]

Four types of sunflower oils with differing concentrations of fatty acids are produced through plant breeding and industrial processing: high-linoleic, high-oleic, mid-oleic, and high-stearic combined with high-oleic.[2][8]

  • High-linoleic, 69% linoleic acid
  • High-oleic, 82% oleic acid
  • Mid-oleic, 65% oleic acid
  • High-stearic with high-oleic, 18% stearic acid and 72% oleic acid[8]

In an analysis of the sunflower genome to reveal plant metabolism producing its oil, phytosterols were identified,[3] as confirmed in another analysis of sunflower oil components, including polyphenols, squalene, and terpenoids.[9]

Production and trade[edit]

In 2014, world production of sunflower oil was 15.8 million tonnes, led by Ukraine (4.4 million tonnes), Russia (4.1 million tonnes), Argentina (0.9 million tonnes), and Turkey (0.7 million tonnes).[1]

Nutrition[edit]

Sunflower oil, high oleic (70% and over)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy3,699 kJ (884 kcal)
0 g
100 g
Saturated9.748 g
Monounsaturated83.594 g
Polyunsaturated3.798 g
0 g
VitaminsQuantity %DV
Vitamin E
274%
41.08 mg
Vitamin K
5%
5.4 μg
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Sunflower oil, standard
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy3,699 kJ (884 kcal)
0 g
100 g
Saturated10.3 g
Monounsaturated19.5 g
Polyunsaturated65.7 g
0 g
VitaminsQuantity %DV
Vitamin E
274%
41.08 mg
Vitamin K
5%
5.4 μg
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Sunflower oil (NuSun), mid oleic
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy3,699 kJ (884 kcal)
0 g
100 g
Saturated9.009 g
Monounsaturated57.344 g
Polyunsaturated28.962 g
0 g
VitaminsQuantity %DV
Vitamin E
274%
41.08 mg
Vitamin K
5%
5.4 μg
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Several varieties of sunflower oilseeds have been developed by standard plant breeding methods, mainly to vary the amounts of oleic acid and linoleic acid which, respectively, are the predominant monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats in sunflower oil.[10] Sunflower oil is a rich source of vitamin E (tables).

Physical properties[edit]

Sunflower oil is liquid at room temperature. The refined oil is clear and slightly amber-colored with a slightly fatty odour.

Smoke point (refined) 232 °C 450 °F[11]
Smoke point (unrefined) 107 °C 225 °F[11]
Density (25 °C) 918.8 kg/m3[12]
Refractive index (25 °C) ≈1.4735[12]
Saponification value 188-194
Iodine value 120-145
Unsaponifiable matter 1.5-2.0%
Viscosity (25 °C), unrefined 0.04914 

kg/(m*s)[13]

Preparation and storage[edit]

Because sunflower oil is primarily composed of less-stable polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, it can be particularly susceptible to degradation by heat, air, and light, which trigger and accelerate oxidation. Keeping sunflower oil at low temperatures during manufacture and storage can help minimize rancidity and nutrient loss—as can storage in bottles that are made of either darkly-colored glass, or, plastic that has been treated with an ultraviolet light protectant.[citation needed]

Methods of extraction[edit]

Sunflower oil can be extracted using chemical solvents (e.g., hexane), or expeller pressing (i.e., squeezed directly from sunflower seeds by crushing them).[14] "Cold-pressing" (or expeller pressing) sunflower seeds under low-temperature conditions is a method that does not use chemical solvents to derive sunflower seed oil.[citation needed]

Refined versus unrefined[edit]

Refining sunflower oil through solvent extraction, de-gumming, neutralization, and bleaching can make it more stable and suitable for high-temperature cooking; but, will also remove some of the oil's nutrients; flavor; color (resulting in a pale-yellow); free fatty acids; phospholipids; polyphenols; and, phytosterols. Unrefined sunflower oil is less heat-stable (and therefore well-suited to dishes that are either raw or cooked at low temperatures); but, will retain more of its original nutrient content, flavor, and color (light-amber).

Uses[edit]

In food preparation[edit]

Refined sunflower oil is used for low-to-extremely-high-temperature cooking. As a frying oil, it behaves as a typical vegetable triglyceride. Unrefined sunflower oil is a traditional salad dressing in Eastern European cuisines.[15] Sunflower oil is also an ingredient in sunflower butter.

Methods for cooking snack foods, such as potato chips or French fries, may use sunflower oil.[16][17]

Seed meal[edit]

Extraction of sunflower oil leaves behind the crushed seeds, typically referred to as seed meal, which is rich in protein and dietary fiber and used as an animal feed, fertilizer or fuel.[18]

Supplements[edit]

Taking sunflower oil dietary supplements is not an effective treatment for eczema.[19]

As fuel[edit]

Sunflower oil can be used to run diesel engines when mixed with diesel in the tank. Due to the high levels of unsaturated fats, there is higher viscosity in cold temperatures.[20]

Properties[edit]

Vegetable oils[21][22]
Type Processing
treatment
Saturated
fatty acids
Monounsaturated fatty acids Polyunsaturated fatty acids Smoke point
Total mono[21] Oleic acid
(ω-9)
Total poly[21] linolenic acid
(ω-3)
Linoleic acid
(ω-6)
Avocado[23] 11.6 70.6 13.5 1 12.5 249 °C (480 °F)[24]
Canola[25] 7.4 63.3 61.8 28.1 9.1 18.6 238 °C (460 °F)[26]
Coconut[27] 82.5 6.3 6 1.7 175 °C (347 °F)[26]
Corn[28] 12.9 27.6 27.3 54.7 1 58

232 °C (450 °F)[29]

Cottonseed[30] 25.9 17.8 19 51.9 1 54 216 °C (420 °F)[29]
Flaxseed/Linseed[31] 9.0 18.4 18 67.8 53 13

107 °C (225 °F)

Grape seed   10.5 14.3 14.3   74.7 - 74.7 216 °C (421 °F)[32]
Hemp seed[33] 7.0 9.0 9.0 82.0 22.0 54.0

166 °C (330 °F)[34]

Olive[35] 13.8 73.0 71.3 10.5 0.7 9.8 193 °C (380 °F)[26]
Palm[36] 49.3 37.0 40 9.3 0.2 9.1 235 °C (455 °F)
Peanut[37] 20.3 48.1 46.5 31.5 31.4 232 °C (450 °F)[29]
Safflower[38] 7.5 75.2 75.2 12.8 0 12.8 212 °C (414 °F)[26]
Soybean[39] 15.6 22.8 22.6 57.7 7 51 238 °C (460 °F)[29]
Sunflower (standard, 65% linoleic)[40] 10.3 19.5 19.5 65.7 0 65.7
Sunflower (< 60% linoleic)[41] 10.1 45.4 45.3 40.1 0.2 39.8

227 °C (440 °F)[29]

Sunflower (> 70% oleic)[42] 9.9 83.7 82.6 3.8 0.2 3.6

227 °C (440 °F)[29]

Cottonseed[43] Hydrogenated 93.6 1.5 0.6 0.3
Palm[44] Hydrogenated 88.2 5.7 0
Soybean[45] Partially hydrogenated 14.9 43.0 42.5 37.6 2.6 34.9
Values as percent (%) by weight of total fat.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Sunflower oil production in 2014; Crops processed/Regions/Production quantity (pick list)". United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
  2. ^ a b "Four types of sunflower oil". National Sunflower Association. 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  3. ^ a b Badouin, H; Gouzy, J; Grassa, C. J; Murat, F; Staton, S. E; Cottret, L; Lelandais-Brière, C; Owens, G. L; Carrère, S; Mayjonade, B; Legrand, L; Gill, N; Kane, N. C; Bowers, J. E; Hubner, S; Bellec, A; Bérard, A; Bergès, H; Blanchet, N; Boniface, M. C; Brunel, D; Catrice, O; Chaidir, N; Claudel, C; Donnadieu, C; Faraut, T; Fievet, G; Helmstetter, N; King, M; et al. (2017). "The sunflower genome provides insights into oil metabolism, flowering and Asterid evolution". Nature. 546 (7656): 148–152. Bibcode:2017Natur.546..148B. doi:10.1038/nature22380. PMID 28538728.
  4. ^ Rauf S, Jamil N, Tariq SA, Khan M, Kausar M, Kaya Y (2017). "Progress in modification of sunflower oil to expand its industrial value". J Sci Food Agric. 97 (7): 1997–2006. doi:10.1002/jsfa.8214. PMID 28093767.
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  7. ^ British Pharmacopoeia Commission. "Ph Eur monograph 1371". British Pharmacopoeia 2005. Norwich, England: The Stationery Office. ISBN 0-11-322682-9.
  8. ^ a b "Sunflower oil fatty acid profile" (PDF). National Sunflower Association. 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  9. ^ Alicia Ayerdi Gotor; Larbi Rhazi (2016). "Effects of refining process on sunflower oil minor components: a review". Oilseeds and Fats, Crops and Lipids. 23 (2): D207. doi:10.1051/ocl/2016007.
  10. ^ Skorić D, Jocić S, Sakac Z, Lecić N (2008). "Genetic possibilities for altering sunflower oil quality to obtain novel oils". Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 86 (4): 215–21. doi:10.1139/Y08-008. PMID 18418432.
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  16. ^ "How we make Lays Classic potato chips". Frito-Lay North America, Inc. 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
  17. ^ "The best chips you have ever tasted". BBC Food Recipes. 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
  18. ^ Lomascolo, A; Uzan-Boukhris, E; Sigoillot, J. C.; Fine, F (2012). "Rapeseed and sunflower meal: A review on biotechnology status and challenges". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 95 (5): 1105–14. doi:10.1007/s00253-012-4250-6. PMID 22752367.
  19. ^ Bath-Hextall FJ, Jenkinson C, Humphreys R, Williams HC (2012). "Dietary supplements for established atopic eczema". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (Systematic review). 2 (2): CD005205. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005205.pub3. PMID 22336810.
  20. ^ Johnson, JJ. Meyer, RF. Krall, JM. Shroyer, JP. Schlegel, AJ. Falk, JS and Lee, CD. 2005. Agronomic Practices. In High Plains Sunflower Production Handbook. Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS [accessed 2014 October 22].
  21. ^ a b c "US National Nutrient Database, Release 28". United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. All values in this column are from the USDA Nutrient database unless otherwise cited.
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  24. ^ What is unrefined, extra virgin cold-pressed avocado oil?, The American Oil Chemists’ Society
  25. ^ "Canola oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
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  27. ^ "Coconut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  28. ^ "Corn oil, industrial and retail, all purpose salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  29. ^ a b c d e f Wolke, Robert L. (May 16, 2007). "Where There's Smoke, There's a Fryer". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 5, 2011.
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  31. ^ "Linseed/Flaxseed oil, cold pressed, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  32. ^ Garavaglia J, Markoski MM, Oliveira A, Marcadenti A (2016). "Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health". Nutr Metab Insights. 9: 59–64. doi:10.4137/NMI.S32910. PMC 4988453. PMID 27559299.
  33. ^ "Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis". Journal of Dermatological Treatment. 2005. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  34. ^ https://www.veghealth.com/nutrition-tables/Smoke-Points-of-Oils-table.pdf
  35. ^ "Olive oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  36. ^ "Palm oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  37. ^ Vegetable Oils in Food Technology (2011), p. 61.
  38. ^ "Safflower oil, salad or cooking, high oleic, primary commerce, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  39. ^ "Soybean oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  40. ^ "Sunflower oil, 65% linoleic, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  41. ^ "Sunflower oil, less than 60% of total fats as linoleic acid, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
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  44. ^ "Palm oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, filling fat, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  45. ^ "Soybean oil, salad or cooking, (partially hydrogenated), fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.