|CRJ100 / CRJ200|
|Role||Regional jet/Business jet|
|First flight||10 May 1991|
|Status||Out of production, active service|
|Primary users||SkyWest Airlines
US$24-39.7 million (2006)
|Developed from||Bombardier Challenger 600|
The Bombardier CRJ100 and CRJ200 are a family of regional airliners manufactured by Bombardier, and based on the Canadair Challenger business jet. These regional jet models were formerly known as the Canadair CRJ100 and CRJ200.
The aircraft was based on the Canadair Challenger design, which was purchased by Canadair from Bill Lear in 1976.
The wide fuselage of the Challenger which seats 2 passengers on each side of the aisle suggested early on to Canadair officials that it would be straightforward to stretch the aircraft to accommodate more seats, and there was a plan for a Challenger 610E, which would have had seating for 24 passengers. That lengthening did not occur, the effort being canceled in 1981, but the idea did not disappear.
In 1987, studies began for a much more ambitious stretched configuration, leading to the formal launch of the Canadair Regional Jet program in the spring of 1989. The "Canadair" name was retained despite the fact that Bombardier had bought out the company. The first of three development machines for the initial CRJ100 performed its first flight from Montréal–Mirabel International Airport on 10 May 1991, though the first prototype (C-FCRJ) was lost in a spin mishap on July 26, 1993 near the Bombardier test center in Wichita, Kansas. The type obtained certification in late 1992, with initial delivery to customers late in that year.
It flew 1,237 flights with 99% dispatch reliability in its first 100 days in of service and fuel economy is 8% better than originally forecast. A cargo door retrofit extends the useful life of early CRJ100s.
The CL-600 design was stretched 5.92 metres (19 feet 5 inches) to create the CRJ100, with fuselage plugs fore and aft of the wing, two more emergency exit doors, plus a reinforced and modified wing. Typical seating was 50 passengers, the maximum load being 52 passengers. The CRJ100 featured a Collins ProLine 4 avionics suite, Collins weather radar, GE CF34-3A1 turbofans with 41.0 kN (4,180 kgp / 9,220 lbf), new wings with extended span, more fuel capacity, and improved landing gear to handle the higher weights. It was followed by the CRJ100 ER subvariant with 20% more range, and the CRJ100 LR subvariant with 40% more range than the standard CRJ100. The CRJ 100 SE sub-variant was produced to more closely meet the needs of corporate and executive operators.
The CRJ200 is identical to the 100 model except for more efficient engines.
Pinnacle Airlines had operated some with 44 seats, designated as CRJ440, with closets in the forward areas of the passenger cabin though these were converted to 50 seat airplanes. These modifications were designed to allow operations under their major airline contract "scope clause" which restricted major airlines' connection carriers from operating equipment carrying 50 or more passengers to guard against usurpation of Air Line Pilots Association and Allied Pilots Association pilots' union contract; these scope clauses have been since relaxed when union contracts were re-written between unions and the three remaining U.S. legacy carriers. Similarly, Comair's fleet of 40-seat CRJ200s were sold at a discounted price to discourage Comair from purchasing the less expensive and smaller Embraer 135.
Several models of the CRJ have been produced, ranging in capacity from 40 to 50 passengers. The Regional Jet designations are marketing names and the official designation is CL-600-2B19.
- The CRJ100 is the original 50-seat version. It is equipped with General Electric CF34-3A1 engines. Operators include Air Georgian and RwandAir, among others.
- Passenger-to-freighter conversion of CRJ100.
- The CRJ200 is identical to the CRJ100 except for its engines, which were upgraded to the CF34-3B1 model, offering improved efficiency.
- Package freighter version of CRJ200.
- Passenger-to-freighter conversion of CRJ200.
- Certified up to 44-seat, this version was designed with fewer seats in order to meet the needs of some major United States airlines.
- Challenger 800/850
- A business jet variant of the CRJ200
- Proposed 50-seat version with wing and cabin improvements based on the CRJ700/900. Cancelled in 2001.
Improvements and production
Since the project was terminated and production stopped, no new CRJ-200/100s have been produced, but over the years maintenance and newer technologies have been added to the planes. Some of the larger versions such as the CRJ700 have begun the processes of adding Wi-Fi access on board the aircraft, but no project has begun for the CRJ200/100 to implement Wi-Fi compatibility.
||This section needs to be updated. (April 2016)|
U.S. airlines are accelerating retirement of these 50-seat regional jets because of the number of flight cycles they go through and because rising fuel prices were making them uneconomical to operate. The retirements are also reducing the value of their parts. Airlines are slowly replacing the jet with more modern aircraft like the Embraer E-175 and the Bombardier CRJ-700/900.
1021 CRJ100/200 have been ordered and delivered : 226 CRJ100s, 709 CRJ200s and 86 CRJ440s. In July 2016, 563 CRJ100/200 were in airline service : 442 in America, 66 in Europe, 30 in Africa and 22 in Asia Pacific & Middle East ; the operators with 10 or more were:
- 196 : SkyWest Airlines
- 66 : Air Wisconsin
- 55 : Endeavor Air
- 35 : PSA Airlines
- 26 : Expressjet
- 20 : RusLine
- 16 : Air Georgian
- 15 : Jazz Aviation
- 10 : SA Express
- 10 : Yamal Airlines
Accidents and incidents
- On 16 December 1997, Air Canada Flight 646, a Bombardier CRJ-100, crashed on a go-around at Greater Fredericton Airport in Fredericton, New Brunswick. No fatalities were reported.
- On 22 June 2003, Brit Air Flight 5672 with registration F-GRJS from Nantes to Brest, France, crashed 2.3 miles short and 0.3 miles to the left of the runway when attempting a landing at Brest's airport. The aircraft's captain was the sole fatality.
- On 14 October 2004, Pinnacle Airlines Flight 3701, a Bombardier CRJ-200, crashed on a non revenue, repositioning flight from Little Rock, Arkansas to Minneapolis. The pilots attempted to climb the aircraft to its published service ceiling of 41,000 feet, exceeding the aircraft's capabilities for the existing conditions. This resulted in the flame out and possible core lock of both engines. The aircraft crashed about fifteen minutes later, in sight of the diversion airport, killing both pilots.
- On 21 November 2004, China Eastern Airlines Flight 5210, a Bombardier CRJ-200LR, crashed shortly after takeoff, killing all 53 on board as well as two on the ground.
- On 27 August 2006, Comair Flight 5191, marketed as Delta Connection Flight 5191, a Bombardier CRJ-100ER, crashed during takeoff from the wrong runway at Blue Grass Airport in Lexington, Kentucky. There were 49 fatalities, with only the severely injured first officer surviving.
- On 20 May 2007, an Air Canada Jazz Bombardier CRJ-100 which originated in Moncton, New Brunswick, was substantially damaged when its landing gear collapsed after landing at Toronto-Pearson International Airport, ON (YYZ). There were no injuries to any crew or passengers. Flight AC8911 departed Moncton (YQM) on a domestic flight to Toronto. The aircraft landed on runway 6 right with a 90 degree crosswind from the left, gusting from 13 to 23 knots. The aircraft first contacted the runway in a left-wing-down sideslip. The left main landing gear struck the runway first and the aircraft sustained a sharp lateral side load before bouncing. Once airborne again, the flight and ground spoilers deployed and the aircraft landed hard. Both main landing gear trunnion fittings failed and the landing gear collapsed. The aircraft remained upright, supported by the landing gear struts and wheels. The aircraft slid down the runway and exited via the Delta 3 taxiway, where the passengers deplaned. There was no fire. There were no injuries to the crew; some passengers reported minor injuries as a result of the hard landing.
- On 16 December 2007, Air Wisconsin flight 758A, a Bombardier CRJ-200LR, overran the runway during landing at T. F. Green Airport in Providence, Rhode Island. No injuries or fatalities were reported.
- On 13 February 2008, Belavia Flight 1834, a Bombardier CRJ-100LR, crashed and flipped-over during takeoff at Zvartnots International Airport in Yerevan, Armenia. Most passengers suffered some burns, and four were taken to the hospital. No fatalities were reported.
- On 12 November 2009, RwandAir Flight 205, a Bombardier CRJ-100, crashed into a VIP terminal shortly after an emergency landing at Kigali International Airport, Rwanda; out of the ten passengers and five crew members, one passenger died.
- On 19 January 2010, PSA Airlines Canadair CRJ-200 N246PS overran the runway at Yeager Airport, Charleston, West Virginia following an aborted take-off. The aircraft was stopped by the EMAS at the end of the runway, sustaining minor damage to its undercarriage. The information in the referenced article regarding "substantial" damage was premature and inaccurate. The aircraft was flown away within days of the incident after removal of a damaged landing gear cover.
- On 17 March 2011, Jetlink Express Bombardier CRJ 100, flight JO 752 from Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta International Airport veered off the runway at Kisumu Airport while attempting to land in light rain and misty weather. The aircraft stopped safely a few metres from the shores of Lake Victoria. There were no fatalities.
- On 4 April 2011, a Georgian Airways Canadair CRJ-100ER 4L-GAE operating under an UN mission as flight 834 from Bangoka International Airport, Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo to N'djili Airport missed the runway on landing at Kinshasa. The aircraft subsequently broke into pieces and caught fire. Only one survivor is reported out of 29 passengers and 4 crew. The airport was experiencing torrential rain, thunderstorms and low visibility at the time.
- On 6 June 2011, a SkyWest Airlines Canadair CRJ-200, flight OO 4443 (code share DL 443) from Cincinnati to Milwaukee couldn't extend right main landing gear; however, left main landing gear was extended and locked. After several failed attempts to extend the right main landing and running low on reserved fuel, airplane landed with right main gear up on runway 19R. Emergency service was on scene and no fire broke out. No injuries occurred. Runway was closed for two hours as the result.
- On 2 September 2011, Atlantic Southeast Airlines Flight 5058, operated by Canadair CRJ-200 N875AS landed at Baton Rouge Metropolitan Airport with the left main undercarriage retracted. There were no injuries amongst the 50 passengers and three crew on board.
- On 5 May 2012 an Akbars Aero CRJ-200, flying from St. Petersburg to Astrakhan, Russia, made a forced landing at Voronezh airport, due to cracking of the pilot's windshield.
- On 17 July 2012, a suspended SkyWest employee attempted to steal a CRJ-200 from a Utah airport. Although his security access cards had been de-activated, the employee was able to enter the jet, start it, and attempt to taxi it toward a runway. The jet hit a jetway and a building, plowed into a parking lot and came to rest when its nose gear collapsed. After crashing the plane in the parking lot, the employee shot himself in the head and died at the scene.
- On 29 January 2013, SCAT Airlines Flight 760 crashed 5 km short of Almaty International airport in Kazakhstan near the village of Kyzyltu while attempting to land in bad weather conditions. 16 passengers and 5 crew died.
- On 8 January 2016, West Air Sweden Flight 294 between Oslo (Gardermoen) and Tromsø (Langenes) crashed, after incorrect attitude information was displayed to one pilot, in northern Sweden near Ritsem, Padjelanta National Park. The plane was carrying 4.5 tonnes of mail on behalf of Norway Post. The two crew members died.
|Crew||3-4 : 2 Flight Crew + 1-2 cabin crew|
|Cabin height||6 ft 1 in / 1.85 m|
|Cabin width||8 ft 3 in / 2.53 m|
|Length||87 ft 10 in / 26.77 m|
|Wing span||69 ft 7 in / 21.21 m|
|Height||20 ft 5 in / 6.22 m|
|Wing area||520.4 ft² / 48.35 m²|
|Fuselage diameter||8 ft 10 in / 2.69 m|
|Operating empty||30,500 lb / 13,835 kg|
|Max payload||13,500 lb / 6,124 kg|
|Max fuel||2,135 US Gal / 8,081 L
14,305 lb (6,489 kg)
|Max Take Off||ER : 51,000 lb / 23,133 kg
LR : 53,000 lb / 24,041 kg
|Engines (2x)||GE CF34-3A1||GE CF34-3B1|
|Takeoff thrust (2x)||8,729 lbf / 38.84 kN|
|50 pax range||ER : 1,305 nm / 2,417 km
LR : 1,650 nm / 3,056 km
|ER : 1,345 nm / 2,491 km
LR: 1,700 nm /3,148 km
|Normal cruise||M0.74 : 785 km/h (424 kn)|
|Hi speed cruise||M0.81 : 860 km/h (460 kn)|
|Flight ceiling||41,000 ft / 12,496 m|
|Takeoff (SL, ISA, MTOW)||ER : 5,800 ft / 1,770 m
LR: 6,290 ft / 1,920 m
|Landing (SL, MLW)||4,850 ft / 1,480 m|
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- "CRJ Series Program Status Report" (PDF). Bombardier. 30 June 2015.
- "The History of Canadair Regional Jet MSN 7001". Winglets. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- Harro Ranter (26 July 1993). "ASN Aircraft accident Canadair CL-600-2B19 Regional Jet CRJ-100 C-FCRJ Byers, KS". Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- Bombardier (June 20, 2017). "The Rise and Rise of Regional Aircraft". FlightGlobal.
- "West Air launches cargo CRJ as Cascade aims for kit deal". Flightglobal.
- "Bombardier - CRJ - 200". AirTeamImages.com. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "Hemisphere Magazine". December 2016 – via magazine. Check date values in:
- Compart, Andrew, Young at part, Aviation Week and Space Technology, April 15, 2013, pp. 44-46
- "World Airliner Census" (PDF). Flight International. July 2016.
- Harro Ranter (20 May 2007). "ASN Aircraft accident Canadair CL-600-2B19 Regional Jet CRJ-100ER C-FRIL Toronto-Pearson International Airport, ON (YYZ)". Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "Probable Cause, DCA08FA018". Ntsb.gov. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "Accident: PSA Airlines CRJ2 at Charleston on Jan 19th 2010, overran runway on takeoff". The Aviation Herald. Retrieved 20 January 2010.
- "Georgian Airways CRJ1 at Kinshasa on Apr 4th 2011, missed the runway and broke up". The Aviation herald. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- "Airport closed after emergency landing". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Jun 6, 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
- Hradecky, Simon. "Accident: Atlantic Southeast CRJ2 at Baton Rouge on Sep 1st 2011, left main gear up landing". The Aviation Herald. Retrieved 2 September 2011.
- "-". Interfax.ru. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "Man takes control of SkyWest jet at Utah airport". USATODAY.COM. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "21 Dead in Kazakhstan Plane Crash". The Gazette of Central Asia. Satrapia. 29 January 2013.
- "Air Sweden CRJ200 Freighter Downed: Failed IRU called key to upset". Aviation Week. Retrieved 2017-03-01.
- "FlightRadar24 report on PT294 crash". FlightRadar24. Retrieved 2016-01-08.
- "Police source to SVT: -The plane crashed straight to the ground". Retrieved 2016-01-08.
- "CRJ airport planning manual" (PDF). Bombardier. Jan 10, 2016.
- "CRJ200 Fact sheet" (PDF). Bombardier. June 2006.
- "CRJ Specifications". Bombardier.
- Jackson, Paul. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2003–2004. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Information Group, 2003. ISBN 0-7106-2537-5.
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