Central Board of Film Certification
|Shravan Kumar IRS|
|Ministry of Information and Broadcasting|
|₹69 million (US$1.0 million) (2011)|
The Central Board of Film Certification (often referred to as the Censor Board) is a statutory censorship and classification body under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. It is tasked with "regulating the public exhibition of films under the provisions of the Cinematograph Act 1952". It assigns certifications to films, television shows, television ads, and publications for exhibition, sale or hire in India. Films can be publicly exhibited in India only after they are certified by the Board.
Though the first film in India (Raja Harishchandra) was produced in 1913 by Dadasaheb Phalke, the Indian Cinematograph Act was passed and came into effect only in 1920. Censor Boards (as they were called then) were placed under police chiefs in cities of Madras (now Chennai), Bombay (now Mumbai), Calcutta (now Kolkata), Lahore (now in Pakistan) and Rangoon (now Yangon in Burma). Regional censors were independent. After Independence autonomy of regional censors was abolished and they were brought under the Bombay Board of Film Censors. With implementation of Cinematograph Act, 1952, the board was unified and reconstituted, as the Central Board of Film Censors. Cinematograph (Certification) Rules were revised in 1983 and since then the Central Board of Film Censors became known as the Central Board of Film Certification.
- U (Unrestricted Public Exhibition)
Films with the U certification are fit for public exhibition, and are often family friendly. These films can contain universal themes like education, family, drama, romance, sci - fi, and action etc. Now, these films can also contain some violence, but it should not be excessively detailed. Examples include Taare Zameen Par, Back to the Future, Home Alone, Home Alone 2: Lost in New York, and Finding Nemo, .
- UA (Unrestricted Public Exhibition - But With Parental Guidance)
Films with the UA certification can contain universal to adult themes, that are not strong in nature and can by watched with a 14 year old child under parental guidance. These films can contain some strong violence, sex references, brief sex or nudity, mild language etc. Examples include Pearl Harbor, Bulletproof Monk, Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, and Casino Royale.
- A (Adults Only)
Films with the A certification are available for public exhibition, but with restriction to adults. These films can contain heavily strong violence, strong sex, glamorized nudity, language (not permitted nowadays) and even some controversial and adult themes considered unsuitable for young viewers. Such films are often recertified for TV and video viewing, which doesn't happen in case of U and UA certified movies. Examples include Kya Kool Hai Hum, Henry & June, Pulp Fiction and Trisha Illana Nayanthara.
- V/U (Universal Video)
Films with V/U certification are also fit for unrestricted public exhibition. In fact, the U and V/U ratings are the same, only difference is that they are released on different platforms, i.e, U certified films can be shown in theatres and video, but V/U certified films are shown mostly on video platforms excluding theatres. However, V/U certified films can now be screened in theatres as well.
- V/UA (Parental Guidance Video)
Films with V/UA certification are the same as UA,i,e, they are for video and theatrical release (now) with parental guidance.
Composition and leadership
The Board consist of 25 other non-official members and a Chairperson (all of whom are appointed by Central Government). Pahlaj Nihalani presently presides the Board after Leela Samson who resigned after the CBFC's rejection of a certifate for the film MSG: Messenger of God was overturned by an appellate tribunal. Earlier, Leela Samson had succeeded Sharmila Tagore, who was the longest continuous running Chairperson in the history. Nihalani is now the 27th Chairperson after the Board's establishment.
The Board functions with its headquarters at Mumbai. It has nine Regional offices each at:
The Regional Offices are assisted in the examination of films by Advisory Panels. The members of the panels are nominated by Central Government by drawing people from different walks of life for a period of two years.
Chairpersons of the CBFC
|1||C S Aggarwal||15 January 1951||14 June 1954|
|2||B D Mirchandani||15 June 1954||9 June 1955|
|3||M D Bhatt||10 June 1955||21 November 1959|
|4||D L Kothari||22 November 1959||24 March 1960|
|5||B D Mirchandani||25 March 1960||1 November 1960|
|6||D L Kothari||2 November 1960||22 April 1965|
|7||B P Bhatt||23 April 1965||22 April 1968|
|8||R P Nayak||31 April 1968||15 November 1969|
|9||M V Desai||12 December 1969||19 October 1970|
|10||R Srinivasan||20 October 1970||15 November 1971|
|11||Virendra Vyas||11 February 1972||30 June 1976|
|12||K L Khandpur||1 July 1976||31 January 1981|
|13||Hrishikesh Mukherjee||1 February 1981||10 August 1982|
|14||Aparna Mohile||11 August 1982||14 March 1983|
|15||Sharad Upasani||15 March 1983||9 May 1983|
|16||Surresh Mathur||10 May 1983||7 July 1983|
|17||Vikram Singh||8 July 1983||19 February 1989|
|18||Moreshwar Vanmali||20 February 1989||25 April 1990|
|19||B P Singhal||25 April 1990||1 April 1991|
|20||Shakti Samanta||1 April 1991||25 June 1998|
|21||Asha Parekh||25 June 1998||25 September 2001|
|22||Vijay Anand||26 September 2001||19 July 2002|
|23||Arvind Trivedi||20 July 2002||16 October 2003|
|24||Anupam Kher||16 October 2003||13 October 2004|
|25||Sharmila Tagore||13 October 2004||31 March 2011|
|26||Leela Samson||1 April 2011||16 January 2015|
|27||Pahlaj Nihalani||19 January 2015||19 January 2017|
- "Background". CBFC Website. Central Board of Film Certification. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
- Ashreena, Tanya (16 Jan 2015). "Censor board chief Leela Samson quits over Dera Sacha Sauda leader's Bollywood dreams". Retrieved 22 January 2015.
- Dhwan, Himanshi (29 March 2011). "Danseuse Leela Samson is new Censor Board chief". Times of India. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
- IndiaTimes Movies staff reporter (22 July 2002). timesofindia. indiatimes. com/2002 July 22/news-interviews/27308006_1_vijay-anand-cbfc-chairman-films "Vijay Anand Quits Censor Board" Check
|url=scheme (help). Times of India. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
- rediff. com Entertainment Bureau Staff reporter (8 October 2003). com/movies/2003/oct/08kher. htm "Anupam Kher is new chief of censors" Check
|url=scheme (help). Rediff Movies. rediff. com. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
- Indo-Asian News Service (16 October 2004). com/channels/hindi/article/10963. html "Sharmila Tagore replaces Kher" Check
|url=scheme (help). IndiaGlitz. Retrieved 9 January 2012.