Combat in film
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Cinematic Fight Choreography or Staged fights in cinema include performances of classical fencing, historical fencing, martial arts, close combat, and duels in general, as well as choreography of full-scale battles.
Asian martial arts
The 1970s in Hong Kong saw the rise and sudden death of international superstar Bruce Lee, who is known for popularizing Hong Kong action cinema. He was succeeded in the 1980s in Hong Kong by Jackie Chan, who popularized the use of comedy and dangerous stunts in action films.
Hong Kong based fight choreographer Yuen Wo-ping is famed for his work on Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon and the Matrix trilogy, in which the often unrealistic fighting techniques are complemented by directorial techniques such as bullet time. Ching Siu-tung is particularly noted in the field of Hong Kong action cinema for his use of graceful wire fu techniques.
Famous Asian martial arts choreographers:
- Yoshio Sugino of the Tenshin Shoden Katori Shinto-ryu— Seven Samurai etc
- Richard Ma
- Bruce Lee
- Ching Siu-tung
- Jackie Chan
- Yuen Wo-ping
- Donnie Yen
- Sammo Hung
- Panna Rittikrai
- Tony Jaa
- Dan Inosanto
- Yayan Ruhian
- Iko Uwais
Famous Asian martial arts actors:
With the possibilities of cutting and of filming outdoors, films have a much wider palette of possibilities to depict violence, including single combat, brawls and melees as well as full-blown battles. From the 2000s, computer animation has come to play an important part in cinematic visualisation of battle scenes, pioneered from 2001 by The Lord of the Ring trilogy (c.f. Massive (software), crowd simulation).
Movies with notable battle scenes:
- ancient or antiquity-inspired
- early modern to 19th century
- Elizabeth: The Golden Age (2007) Battle of Gravelines
- The Patriot (2000) Battle of Cowpens
- The Alamo (2004) Battle of the Alamo
- War and Peace (1968) Battle of Borodino
- Charge of the Light Brigade (1968) Battle of Balaklava
- Waterloo (film) (1970) Battle of Waterloo
- Gettysburg (1993) Battle of Gettysburg
- Zulu (1964) Battle of Rorke's Drift
- The Last Samurai (2003) Satsuma Rebellion
- Alatriste (2006) Battle of Rocroi
- The Sovereign's Servant (2007) Battle of Poltava
- 20th century war movies
- The Longest Day (1962) Invasion of Normandy
- Battle of the Bulge (1965) Battle of the Bulge
- Liberation, Oszvobozdeniye (1969) Battle of Kursk, Battle of Berlin
- Tora! Tora! Tora! (1970) Attack on Pearl Harbor
- March on the Drina (1964) Battle of Cer
- Battle of Neretva (1969) Battle of Neretva
- Cross of Iron (1977) Eastern Front (World War II)
- A Bridge too Far (1977) Battle of Arnhem
- Full Metal Jacket (1987) Battle of Hue
- Hamburger Hill (1987) Battle of Hamburger Hill
- Border (1997) Battle of Longewala
- Stalingrad (1993) Battle of Stalingrad
- Saving Private Ryan (1998) Omaha Beach (Dog Green sector) - Normandy landings, Invasion of Normandy
- The Thin Red Line (1998) Battle of Guadalcanal
- When Trumpets Fade (1998) Battle of Hurtgen Forest
- Enemy at the Gates (2001) Battle of Stalingrad
- Pearl Harbor (2001) Attack on Pearl Harbor, Doolittle Raid
- Black Hawk Down (2001) Battle of Mogadishu
- We Were Soldiers (2002) Battle of Ia Drang
- Windtalkers (2002) Battle of Saipan
- Tango Charlie (2005) Various aspects of Naxalite-Maoist insurgency and Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir
- Lakshya (2004) Kargil War
- Flags of our Fathers, Letters from Iwo Jima (2006) Battle of Iwo Jima
- fantastical and science fiction
- Star Wars (1977–2019)
- Starship Troopers (1997)
- The Lord of the Rings film trilogy (2001–2003) Battle of the Hornburg, Battle of the Pelennor Fields, Battle of the Morannon
- The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (2006) First Battle of Beruna
- The Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian (2008) Second Battle of Beruna
- Further information: Boxing films
Cinema inherited the concept of choreographed fights directly from the theatrical fight. Movies that feature notable classical fencing scenes include:
- Douglas Fairbanks:
- Captain Blood (1935)
- The Prisoner of Zenda (1937)
- The Adventures of Robin Hood (1938)
- The Sea Hawk (1940)
- The Mark of Zorro (1940)
- The Corsican Brothers (1941)
- The Black Swan (1942)
- Adventures of Don Juan (1948)
- Cyrano de Bergerac (1950)
- Scaramouche (1952)
- At Sword's Point (1952)
- The Court Jester (1956)
- Jean Marais
- The Great Race (1965)
- The Three Musketeers (1973)
- The Four Musketeers (1974)
- The Duellists (1977)
- The Princess Bride (1987)
- Cyrano de Bergerac (1990)
- Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves (1991)
- By the Sword (1991)
- The Fencing Master (1992)
- Rob Roy (1995)
- On Guard (1997)
- The Mask of Zorro (1998)
- Die Another Day (2002)
- Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl (2003)
Douglas Fairbanks in 1920 was the first film director to ask a fencing master to assist the production of a fencing scene in cinema. A second wave of swashbuckling films was triggered with Errol Flynn from 1935. Also notable in the early period were Ramon Novarro, Rudolph Valentino and John Barrymore
Renewed interest in swashbuckling films arose in the 1970s, in the wake of The Three Musketeers (1973). Directors at this stage aimed for a certain amount of historical accuracy, although, as the 2007 Encyclopædia Britannica puts it, "movie fencing remains a poor representation of actual fencing technique". A notable fight arranger of this period is William Hobbs.
Knife fights, as well as knife-throwing stunts, are staged for dramatic effect in action films. In Under Siege, Commando, and Gangs of New York, knife fights are shown as climactic battles. A common theme in such films is for the hero to discard a gun or similarly superior weapon, in order to engage the otherwise unarmed villain in "fair" knife-to-knife combat. In the 2002 film version of The Count of Monte Cristo, the main character, Dantes, agrees to engage in a knife fight against Jacopo, a member of a smuggler's crew (the captain of which calls Jacopo "the best knife fighter I have ever seen"). Dantes defeats Jacopo but spares his life, gaining a pivotal ally in his future endeavors. In the 2012 A.J. Shapiro film The Death of a Rose-White Prussian, Captain Tom Goldman, a U.S. Special Forces operative, runs out of ammo for his guns and resorts to a knife fight in which he is bayoneted through the stomach by German henchman Kassel, but stabs Kassel through the throat with his own knife.
One of the most famous cinematic knife fights occurs in From Here to Eternity. The scene—occurring in a back alley—is stark and realistic, lacks background music and uses pitch black shadow.
In the movie Force 10 from Navarone, a knife fight appeared between Sgt. Weaver, an African-American medic Soldier, played by Carl Weathers, and Capt. Drazak, an officer of the Chetniks, allies to Nazi Germany, played by Richard Kiel. The fight ended with Drazak's death.
In the film Commando, starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, there is a knife fight at the end of the movie between John Matrix (Arnold Schwarzenegger) and Bennett played by Vernon Wells. They begin with the knife, and then end up in a No-holds-barred CQC.
In the film Cobra, starring Sylvester Stallone as a city cop who must stop a knife using serial killer and cult member the Night Slasher played by Brian Thompson. There is a fight scene at the end involving a knife fight between Stallone's character Cobra and the Night Slasher. The menacing looking knife used by the Night Slasher is a brass knuckles or more like a spiked knuckles, modern version of a trench knife.
In The Bourne Identity (2002 film), Jason Bourne (played by Matt Damon) had a knife-fight encounter with Castel, an assassin sent to kill him. In the struggle, Jason Bourne equalizes his unarmed position against the assassin's knife by arming himself with a pen.
In Kill Bill, a knife-fight occurs between the Bride and Vernita Green, during which the pair severely damage Green's living room, only to abruptly halt when Green's daughter is dropped off by the school bus and seen walking towards the house. Shortly thereafter, Green sneakily pulls a gun, and the Bride responds by throwing her knife, to deadly effect.
The Hunted (2003, William Friedkin) was a unique film that put an emphasis on showing knife combat. Starring Benicio del Toro and Tommy Lee Jones, each character has a special affinity for knives, due to participating in various special operations missions under military service, which required use of a knife as a primary weapon. Also Friedkin's Bug (2007) features a knife-fight.
A Grande Arte (1991) along with the above-mentioned The Hunted, is one of the rare films to focus on knife combat and features training scenes as well.
Dune (1984, David Lynch) and the 2000 Dune miniseries, based on Frank Herbert´s bestselling science fiction novel Dune, show a world where a corporeal shield (a force-field projector) makes laser and projectile weapons useless. Because of that, wars and duels are settled by knife-fighting, which is altered by the presence of the shield: a fast-moving knife bounces off the shield; a slow-moving knife can penetrate the shield to reach a vital organ. The climactic duel, between Paul Muad´dib and Feyd-Rautha, used only knives (no shields) and martial-arts abilities.
Michael Jackson's music video Beat it features a highly stylized depiction of two men knife-fighting using switchblade knives, with their wrists tied. This is reminiscent of a similar depiction in West Side Story.
In Quantum of Solace (2008) James Bond (Daniel Craig) enters the apartment of Edmund Slate, the man he was sent to investigate. Slate comes out of nowhere and tries to kill him with a switchblade. They struggle, Bond arms himself with scissors, disarms Slate by bending his wrist forward, and stabs him in the neck and femoral artery, causing Slate to bleed to death.
In The Expendables, Lee Christmas (played by Jason Statham) frequently makes use of combat knives when he is not in possession of a firearm and uses them both as projectiles and in hand-to-hand combat. Gunner (Dolph Lundgren) also uses a large bowie knife but gives it to Lee at the beginning of the film.
In The Man From Nowhere, Cha Tae-Shik (played by Won Bin) makes use of a switchblade and the art form kali to combat gangsters in a large condominium towards the finale of the film. After defeating the gangsters, he fights their hired assassin who also wields a karambit. Both fighters fight close quarters until Cha Tae-Shik gains the upperhand and stabs the hired assassin in the heart.
In The Birth of a Nation (2016 film), the film provided various hand-to-hand close combat and knife combat techniques in a climactic “last stand” battle scene, showing Nat Turner (played by Nate Parker) and his group of slave rebels facing the militia and plantation defenders at an armory.
Historical martial arts
Historical martial arts reconstruction developed in the later 20th century and became influential in cinema only from ca. the 1990s. Earlier sequences of combat with pre-Renaissance weaponry were typically based on classical fencing techniques, or choreographed as ad-hoc "blade whacking".
Influential movie heralding renewed interest in pre-modern swordsmanship were Excalibur (1981) and Highlander (1986). Lightsaber combat in the Star Wars films takes some elements from kendo, and The Lord of the Rings employs some elements of historical fencing.
Unarmed or improvised combat
Films such as The Duellists, fight directed by William Hobbs, Once Were Warriors, fight directed by Robert Bruce and Troy, fight directed by Richard Ryan are widely famed for including gritty, realistic combat scenes.
- 2007 Britannica, s.v. fencing.
- the term used by the 2007 Encyclopædia Britannica, s.v. fencing