Page semi-protected

Clinton Foundation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Clinton Global Initiative)
Jump to: navigation, search
Clinton Foundation
Clinton Foundation logo.png
Founded 1997; 19 years ago (1997)[1]
2001 (2001) (as William J. Clinton Foundation)[2]
2013 (2013) (as Bill, Hillary & Chelsea Clinton Foundation)
Founder Bill Clinton, former President of the United States
Purpose Humanitarian
Location
  • New York City
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Bill Clinton (2001–present)
Hillary Clinton (2013–15)
Chelsea Clinton (2011–present)
Donna Shalala (president, 2015–present)
Eric Braverman (president, 2013–2015)
Bruce Lindsey (president, 2004–2011)
Ira Magaziner (head of Clinton Health Access Initiative)
Doug Band (originator of Clinton Global Initiative)
Revenue
$214 million in 2012;[2]
$262 million in 2013[3]
$223 million in 2015[1]
Employees
350 in 2013[2]
2,000 in 2015[1]
Mission "To bring people together to take on the biggest challenges of the 21st century"
Website www.clintonfoundation.org

The Clinton Foundation (founded in 1997 as the William J. Clinton Foundation,[4] and called during 2013–15 the Bill, Hillary & Chelsea Clinton Foundation[5]) is a nonprofit corporation under section 501(c)(3) of the U.S. tax code. It was established by former President of the United States Bill Clinton with the stated mission to "strengthen the capacity of people throughout the world to meet the challenges of global interdependence." Its offices are located in New York City and Little Rock, Arkansas.

Through 2016 the foundation had raised an estimated $2 billion from U.S. corporations, foreign governments and corporations, political donors, and various other groups and individuals,"[3] and the acceptance of funds from wealthy donors has been controversial at times.[3][6] The foundation "has won accolades from philanthropy experts and has drawn bipartisan support, with members of the George W. Bush administration often participating in its programs."[3]

Charitable grants are not a major focus of the Clinton Foundation, which instead keeps most of its money in house and hires staff to carry out its own humanitarian programs.[7] Because of this unusual structure for a foundation, Charity Navigator, a charity watchdog, has said it does not have a methodology to rate the Clinton Foundation.[7] Consequently, they added the foundation to their charity "watch list" in April 2015; it was removed from the "watch list" in December 2015 after the charity posted amended tax returns and a public memo on its website.[8] A different charity monitor, CharityWatch, says that 88% of the foundation's money goes toward its charitable mission and gave the foundation an A rating for 2016.[9]

History

The origins of the foundation go back to 1997, when then president Bill Clinton was focused mostly on fundraising for the future Clinton Presidential Center in Little Rock, Arkansas.[1]

Bill Clinton founded the William J. Clinton Foundation in 2001 following the completion of his presidency.[2] Longtime Clinton advisor, Bruce Lindsey, became the CEO in 2004.[10][11] Later, Lindsey moved from being CEO to being chair, largely for health reasons.[10] Other Clinton hands who played an important early role included Doug Band,[12] and Ira Magaziner. Additional Clinton associates who have had senior positions at the foundation include John Podesta and Laura Graham.[2]

Most of the foundation's successes came from Bill Clinton's worldwide fame and his ability to bring together corporate executives, celebrities, and government officials.[2] Similarly, the foundation areas of involvement have often corresponded to whatever Bill Clinton suddenly felt an interest in.[2]

Preceding Barack Obama's 2009 nomination of Hillary Clinton as U.S. Secretary of State, Bill Clinton agreed to accept a number of conditions and restrictions regarding his ongoing activities and fundraising efforts for the Clinton Presidential Center and the Clinton Global Initiative.[13] Accordingly, a list of donors was released in December 2008.[14]

By 2011, Chelsea Clinton was taking a dominant role in the foundation and had a seat on its board.[2][15] To raise money for the Foundation, she gave paid speeches, such as her $65,000 2014 address at the University of Missouri in Kansas City for the opening of the Starr Women's Hall of Fame.[16]

In 2013, Hillary Clinton joined the foundation following her tenure as Secretary of State. She planned to focus her work on issues regarding women and children,[17][18] as well as economic development.[10] Accordingly, at that point, it was renamed the "Bill, Hillary & Chelsea Clinton Foundation".[2] Extra attention was paid to the foundation due to the United States presidential election, 2016.[2][10]

In July 2013, Eric Braverman was named CEO of the foundation.[11] He is a friend and former colleague of Chelsea Clinton from McKinsey & Company.[2][10] At the same time, Chelsea Clinton was named vice chair of the foundation's board.[2][11] The foundation was also in the midst of a move to two floors of the Time-Life Building in Midtown Manhattan.[2]

Chelsea Clinton moved the organization to an outside review, conducted by the firm of Simpson Thacher & Bartlett. Its conclusions were made public in mid-2013.[10] The main focus was to determine how the foundation could achieve firm financial footing that was not dependent upon the former president's fundraising abilities, how it could operate more like a permanent entity rather than a start-up organization, and thus how it could survive and prosper beyond Bill Clinton's lifetime.[2][10] Dennis Cheng, a former Hillary Clinton campaign official and State Department deputy chief, was named to oversee a $250 million endowment drive.[2] The review also found the management and structure of the foundation needed improvements, including an increase in the size of its board of directors that would have a more direct involvement in planning and budget activities.[10] Additionally, the review said that all employees needed to understand the foundation's conflict of interest policies and that expense reports needed a more formal review process.[10]

In January 2015, Braverman announced his resignation. Politico attributed the move to being "partly from a power struggle inside the foundation between and among the coterie of Clinton loyalists who have surrounded the former president for decades and who helped start and run the foundation."[19] He was succeeded at first in an acting capacity by former deputy assistant secretary, Maura Pally.[20]

On February 18, 2015, The Washington Post reported that, "the foundation has won accolades from philanthropy experts and has drawn bipartisan support, with members of the George W. Bush administration often participating in its programs."[3]

In March 2015, former Secretary of Health and Human Services in the Clinton administration, Donna Shalala, was selected to run the Clinton Foundation going forward.[21]

In August 2016 The Boston Globe's editorial board suggested that the Clinton Foundation cease accepting donations. The Globe's editorial board offered praise for the foundation's work but added that "as long as either of the Clintons are in public office, or actively seeking it, they should not operate a charity, too" because it represents a conflict of interest and a political distraction.[22]

In 2016, the Reuters wire news service reported that the Clinton Foundation suspected that it had been the target of a cyber security breach. As a consequence of the suspected cyber security breach, Clinton Foundations officials retained a security firm to evaluate its data systems. The cyber security breach has been described as sharing similarities with cyberattacks that targeted other institutions, such as the Democratic National Committee.[23]

Programs and Initiatives

Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI)

As of January 1, 2010, the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative, an initiative of the Clinton Foundation, became a separate nonprofit organization called the Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI). [2] [24] Organizations such as the Clinton Foundation continue to supply anti-malarial drugs to Africa and other affected areas; according to director Inder Singh, in 2011 more than 12 million individuals will be supplied with subsidized anti-malarial drugs.[25]

CHAI launched the Pediatric and Rural Initiatives in 2005 to focus on bringing AIDS care and treatment to those most often marginalized— children and those living in rural areas. CHAI also negotiated agreements that reduce the prices of second-line drugs and rapid diagnostic tests. In May 2007, CHAI and UNITAID announced agreements that help middle-income and low-income countries save money on second-line drugs. The partnership also reduced the price of a once-daily first-line treatment to less than $1 per day.[26]

In addition to drug access programs, CHAI also focuses on country operations, with programs that help governments with pediatric care and treatment, improving rural health care and human resources for health and the prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT). In 2008, approximately 185,000 children benefited from increased access to infant diagnosis aided by the training of 8,500 health care workers who offered pediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART). 2008 also saw six PMTCT country programs launched which ensured that every HIV-positive pregnant woman in the program catchment area was provided with prevention, care and treatment services including counseling, testing and feeding recommendations.[6]

In the Summer of 2008, CHAI's Executive Vice President, Inder Singh, announced the closing of cost-reduction agreements with several suppliers of malaria medication, which will be extended to CHAI partners as part of its care and treatment program.

The Clinton Foundation HIV/AIDS Initiative's work on the ground has been subject of some criticism. The American Enterprise Institute, a conservative think tank, wrote that governments and organizations in Africa and Asia that partnered with the Foundation expressed caution and alarm at the Foundation's focus on treating a large number of patients with less regard for the importance of adherence, follow-up and quality of care.[27]

CHAI was spun off into a separate organization in 2010; Ira Magaziner became its CEO (he had been a key figure in the Clinton health care plan of 1993).[2] Chelsea Clinton joined its board in 2011, as did Tachi Yamada, former President of the Global Health Program at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.[2]

Clinton Global Initiative (CGI)

The Clinton Global Initiative (CGI) was founded in 2005 by President Bill Clinton. Doug Band, who was a key architect of Clinton's post-presidency, was heavily involved in the formation as well.[12] Clinton has credited Band with being the originator of CGI and has noted that "Doug had the idea to do this."[28] Band left his paid position at CGI in 2010,[2] preferring to emphasize his Teneo business and family pursuits, but remains on the CGI advisory board.[10] The overlap between CGI and Teneo, which Bill Clinton was a paid advisor with for a while, has drawn criticism at times.[2]

President of Brazil Dilma Rousseff opens Clinton Global Initiative Latin America in Rio de Janeiro, 2013

CGI meetings also include CGI University, an annual conference for college students, and CGI America, an annual event focused on finding solutions that promote economic recovery in the United States. In December 2013, CGI hosted its first CGI Latin America meeting in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

One of its major donors is Norway's government—20 million Norwegian kroner per year as of 2013.[29]

CGI University

In 2007, President Clinton launched CGI U, which expanded the model of CGI to students, universities, and national youth organizations. CGI U includes two days of plenary sessions and hands-on breakout sessions, followed by a day-long service project.

The CGI University inaugural meeting was held in March 2008 at Tulane University in New Orleans and had more than 600 attendees. In 2009, the meeting was held at the University of Texas at Austin, and in 2010 at the University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida, in 2011 at the University of California, San Diego and in 2012, at The George Washington University in Washington, D.C. [30] [30]. 2012 panelists included Jon Stewart, Madeleine Albright, and Vandana Shiva.

Former U.S. President Bill Clinton with Alonzo Mourning during CGI University Day of Service in Miami, Florida.

Washington University in St. Louis hosted CGI U in early April 2013. The event featured Bill and Chelsea Clinton, Stephen Colbert, Jack Dorsey, Salman Khan, and many others.[31] The seventh annual CGI U conference was held at Arizona State University in Tempe, Arizona, which included speakers such as Mayor Greg Stanton and U.S. Rep. Gabrielle Giffords.[32] The University of Miami hosted the 2015 CGI U conference, which featured notable individuals such as Shane Battier.[33] In 2016, the University of California, Berkeley hosted the ninth annual CGI U conference, which featured over 1200 student participants and notable guests such as Salman Khan (founder of Khan Academy) and U.S. Rep. John Lewis.[34]

Clinton Global Citizen Awards

The Clinton Global Citizen Awards are a set of awards which have been given by the Clinton Global Initiative every year since 2007.[35] The awards are given to individuals who, in the opinion of the Clinton Foundation, are "outstanding individuals who exemplify global citizenship through their vision and leadership".[35] Past recipients of the award include Mexican business magnate and philanthropist Carlos Slim,[35] Irish billionaire Denis O'Brien,[36] Moroccan entrepreneur Mohammad Abbad Andaloussi,[37] Rwandan President Paul Kagame,[38] Afghan women's rights activist Suraya Pakzad,[39] Dominican Republic President Leonel Fernández,[40] and Pakistani labour rights activist Syeda Ghulam Fatima.[41]

Clinton Climate Initiative (CCI)

President Clinton started a program to fight climate change, the Clinton Foundation's Climate Initiative (CCI) in August 2006.[42]

On August 1, 2006, the Foundation entered into a partnership with the Large Cities Climate Leadership Group, agreeing to provide resources to allow the participating cities to enter into an energy-saving product purchasing consortium and to provide technical and communications support.[43]

In May 2007, CCI announced its first project which will help some large cities cut greenhouse gas emissions by facilitating retrofitting of existing buildings. Five large banks committed $1 billion each to help cities and building owners make energy-saving improvements aimed at lowering energy use and energy costs.[44]

At the 2007 Clinton Global Initiative, President Clinton announced the 1Sky campaign to accelerate bold federal policy on global warming.[45] The 1Sky campaign supports at least an 80% reduction in climate pollution levels by 2050.

On May 19, 2009, CCI announced the global Climate Positive Development Program where it will work with the U.S. Green Building Council to promote "climate positive" city growth.[46]

Clinton Development Initiative (CDI)

The Clinton Development Initiative, originally the Clinton Hunter Development Initiative, was formed in 2006 as a partnership between Scottish philanthropist Sir Tom Hunter's Hunter Foundation and former President Bill Clinton's Clinton Foundation to target the root causes of poverty in Africa and promote sustainable economic growth.[47]

The Alliance for a Healthier Generation

The Alliance for a Healthier Generation is a partnership between the Clinton Foundation and the American Heart Association that is working to end the childhood obesity epidemic in the United States by 2010.

The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, which provided an initial $8 million to start the Healthy Schools Program, awarded a $20 million grant to expand the program to over 8,000 schools in states with the highest obesity rates.[48]

At the industry level, the Alliance struck agreements with major food and beverage manufacturers to provide kids with nutritional options, and established nutrition guidelines for school vending machines, stores and cafeterias to promote healthy eating. Some of the companies involved in these efforts are Coca-Cola, Cadbury plc, Campbell Soup Company, Groupe Danone, Kraft Foods, Mars and PepsiCo.[49][50]

Clinton Economic Opportunity Initiative

President Clinton established the Clinton Economic Opportunity Initiative to help individuals and families succeed and business grow. The Foundation's domestic efforts began in 2002 with the Harlem Small Business Initiative, which provided local business with pro bono consulting services. In 2007, CEO initiated the Financial Mainstream Program, which increases the access of unbanked populations to starter bank accounts and the Entrepreneur Mentoring Program, which pairs inner city entrepreneurs with successful business mentors. These new initiatives broadened CEO's focus by promoting financial stability and money management skills and helping to develop sound business knowledge. As part of the Harlem Small Business Initiative, in August 2009 the foundation released a Harlem guide with Zagat Survey highlighting hundreds of local businesses in an effort to promote them to a wider audience and to attract additional economic development.[51] International Initiatives:

Significant along the path to economic opportunity is also the countdown towards Brazil's involvement in the 2015 Pan Am Games in Toronto.[52]

Clinton Giustra Sustainable Growth Initiative

Frank Giustra is a Canadian business executive sitting on the board of the Clinton Foundation. Launched in 2007, CGSGI describes itself as working with local communities, the private sector, governments and other non-governmental organizations to develop models for businesses to spur social and economic development as part of their operations in the developing world. CGSGI says it is focusing on market-driven development that creates jobs and increases incomes, and on enabling factors such as health and education.[citation needed]

CGSGI says it will focus on Latin America in its early phases, and anticipates expanding its work to additional countries to Latin America, Africa and beyond.

CGSGI says it has engaged in social and economic improvement including projects in health, education and business entrepreneurship and development. In 2008, CGSGI described itself as working to deliver health care and job training to people in rural areas.

Frank Giustra's involvement with the Clinton Foundation has been criticized by the International Business Times.[53]

Clinton Health Matters Initiative (CHMI)

In November 2012, Bill Clinton announced the launch of the Clinton Health Matters Initiative (CHMI). CHMI is a national initiative, building on the Clinton Foundation's work on global health and childhood obesity, that works to improve the health and well-being of people across the United States by activating individuals, communities, and organizations to make meaningful contributions to the health of others. CHMI holds an annual Health Matters conference every January in the Coachella Valley. [54]

Disaster relief

The Foundation has funded extensive disaster relief programs following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Shortly after Hurricane Katrina hit, President George W. Bush asked former Presidents George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton to raise funds to help rebuild the Gulf Coast region. The two Presidents, having worked together to assist victims of the Indian Ocean tsunami, established the Bush-Clinton Katrina Fund to identify and meet the unmet needs in the region, foster economic opportunity, and to improve the quality of life of those affected.[55] In the first month after the hurricane, the Fund collected over 42,000 online donations alone; approximately $128.4 million has been received to date from all 50 states and $30.9 million from foreign countries. The foundation was again involved following the 2010 Haiti earthquake.[2]

No Ceilings project

In 2013, Hillary Clinton launched a partnership between the foundation and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to gather and study data on the progress of women and girls around the world since the United Nations Fourth World Conference On Women in Beijing in 1995.[56][57] This is called "No Ceilings: The Full Participation Project." [56][57] The Project released a report in March 2015.[58]

Transparency

Around 2007, the Clinton Foundation was criticized for a lack of transparency. Although U.S. law did not require nonprofit charities — including presidential foundations — to disclose the identities of their contributors, critics said that the names of donors should be disclosed because Hillary Clinton was running to be the Democratic nominee for President of the United States. Commentator Matthew Yglesias wrote in a Los Angeles Times op-ed that the Clintons should make public the names of foundation donors to avoid any appearance of impropriety.[59]

A lengthy donors list was then released by the Foundation in December 2008,[14] which included several politically sensitive donors, such as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Blackwater Worldwide.[60] The Foundation stated that the disclosures would ensure that "not even the appearance of a conflict of interest" would exist once Hillary Clinton was Secretary of State.[60]

The ethics agreement between the State Department and the Clinton Foundation that was put into force at the beginning of the Secretary of State Clinton's tenure came under scrutiny from the news media during February 2015. A Wall Street Journal report found that the Clinton Foundation had resumed accepting donations from foreign governments once Secretary Clinton's tenure had ended.[61] Contributions from foreign donors who are prohibited by law from contributing to political candidates in the U.S. constitute a major portion of the foundation's income. The foundation's chief communications officer Craig Minassian explained that it is a "false choice to suggest that people who may be interested in supporting political causes wouldn’t also support philanthropic work."[3] A Washington Post inquiry into donations by foreign governments to the Clinton Foundation during the secretary's tenure found six cases where such governments continued making donations at the same level they had before Clinton became secretary, which was permissible under the agreement, but also one instance of a new donation, $500,000 from Algeria for earthquake relief in Haiti, that was outside the bounds of the continuation provision and should have received a special ethics review, but did not.[62] Foundation officials said that if the former secretary decided to run for president in 2016, they would again consider what steps to take in reference to foreign donations.[62] But in general, they stressed that, "As with other global charities, we rely on the support of individuals, organizations, corporations and governments who have the shared goal of addressing critical global challenges in a meaningful way. When anyone contributes to the Clinton Foundation, it goes towards foundation programs that help save lives."[62] State Department spokesperson Jen Psaki attested that the foundation's commitment to the ethics agreement in question "has been over and above the letter of the law".[63] August 2016, with less than 90 days before the upcoming presidential election, the Clinton Foundation announced that it will stop accepting foreign donations if Clinton is elected.[64]

In March 2015, Reuters reported that the Clinton Foundation had broken its promise to publish all of its donors, as well as its promise to let the State Department review all of its donations from foreign governments.[65] In April 2015, the New York Times reported that when Hillary Clinton was Secretary of State, the State Department had approved a deal to sell American uranium to a Russian state-owned enterprise Uranium One whose chairman had donated to the Clinton Foundation, and that Clinton had broken her promise to publicly identify such donations.[66] The State Department "was one of nine government agencies, not to mention independent federal and state nuclear regulators, that had to sign off on the deal."[67] FactCheck.org notes that there is "no evidence" that the donations influenced Clinton’s official actions or that she was involved in the State Department's decision to approve the deal,[68] and PolitiFact concluded that any "suggestion of a quid pro quo is unsubstantiated."[67]

After her January 2009 appointment as Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton proposed hiring long-time Clinton friend and confidant Sidney Blumenthal as an advisor, however, Obama's chief of staff, Rahm Emanuel, blocked Blumenthal's appointment at the State Department.[69] Blumenthal was subsequently hired by the Clinton Foundation and after the 2011 uprising in Libya against Muammar Gaddafi, Blumenthal prepared, from public and other sources, about 25 memos which he sent as emails to Clinton in 2011 and 2012 with advice regarding Libyan matters.[70][71]

2015 State Department Subpoena

In February 2016, The Washington Post reported that the United States Department of State issued a subpoena to the foundation in fall of 2015. According to the report, the subpoena focused on "documents about the charity's projects that may have required approval from federal government during Hillary Clinton's term as secretary of state" and "also asked for records related to Huma Abedin, longtime Clinton aide who for six months in 2012 was employed simultaneously by the State Department, the foundation, Clinton's personal office, and a private consulting firm with ties to the Clintons."[72]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Fahrenthold, David A.; Hamburger, Tom; Helderman, Rosalind S. (June 2, 2015). "The inside story of how the Clintons built a $2 billion global empire". The Washington Post. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Confessore, Nicholas; Chozick, Amy (August 14, 2013). "Unease at Clinton Foundation Over Finances and Ambitions". The New York Times. p. A1. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Helderman, Rosalind S.; Hamburger, Tom; Rich, Steven (February 18, 2015). "Clintons' foundation has raised nearly $2 billion – and some key questions". The Washington Post. 
  4. ^ "The William J Clinton Foundation". Open Endowment. Retrieved June 14, 2016. 
  5. ^ Haberman, Maggie (April 8, 2013). "Foundation renamed for all three Clintons". Politico. Retrieved 2013-06-13. 
  6. ^ a b Hunt, Albert (22 May 2016). "Possible Conflict at Heart of Clinton Foundation". The New York Times. New York City. Retrieved 14 July 2016. 
  7. ^ a b Jacobson, Louis (April 29, 2015). "Rush Limbaugh says Clinton Foundation spends just 15 percent on charity, 85 percent on overhead". PolitiFact. 
  8. ^ Helderman, Rosalind S. (December 22, 2015). "Charity watchdog removes Clinton Foundation from its watch list". The Washington Post. 
  9. ^ Charity Ratings | Bill, Hillary & Chelsea Clinton Foundation
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Haberman, Maggie (August 13, 2013). "Hillary Clinton's next act: The family foundation". Politico. 
  11. ^ a b c "Eric Braverman Named Chief Executive Officer of the Clinton Foundation" (Press release). Clinton Foundation. July 2, 2013. 
  12. ^ a b Alisson Clark. "The Gator Behind Bill Clinton", The Gainesville Sun, February 4, 2009.
  13. ^ Baker, Peter (November 29, 2008). "Bill Clinton to Name Donors as Part of Obama Deal". The New York Times. Retrieved December 1, 2008. 
  14. ^ a b Philip Rucker, Eclectic bunch of donors – near, far, left, even right – gave to Clinton group, The Washington Post, January 2, 2010
  15. ^ Haberman, Maggie (April 8, 2013). "Foundation renamed for all three Clintons". Politico. Retrieved 2013-06-13. 
  16. ^ "Chelsea Clinton Made $65,000 for 1-Hour Appearance", AOL News, July 1, 2015.[1] Retrieved 2015-07-02
  17. ^ Rutenberg, Jim (May 30, 2013). "Clinton Hires Ex-State Dept. Aide and Joins Husband's Foundation". The New York Times. 
  18. ^ "Hillary Clinton initiative will focus on kids". CNN. June 14, 2013. 
  19. ^ Vogel, Kenneth P. (March 1, 2015). "Eric Braverman Tried to Change the Clinton Foundation. Then He Quit.". Politico. 
  20. ^ Shepard, Steven (March 9, 2015). "Clinton Foundation CEO steps down". Politico. 
  21. ^ Nicolas, Peter; Reinhard, Beth (March 6, 2015). "Donna Shalala to Lead Clinton Foundation". 
  22. ^ Pager, Tyler. "Boston Globe calls for freeze on Clinton Foundation donations". Politico. Retrieved 17 August 2016. 
  23. ^ Hosenball, Mark; Volz, Dustin; Walcott, John (2016-08-17). "Clinton Foundation hired cyber firm after suspected hacking: sources". Reuters. Retrieved 2016-08-18. 
  24. ^ Smith, Pohla (August 20, 2008). "Expertise in economics and social issues at Clinton Foundation for resident Inder Singh". Post Gazette. Retrieved 2011-07-21. 
  25. ^ Harvard-MIT Health Sciences. "BEP grad Inder Singh orchestrates affordable malaria drug development". Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  26. ^ Dugger, Celia W. (September 19, 2006). "Five Nations To Tax Airfare To Raise Funds For AIDS Drugs". NY Times. Retrieved 2007-10-02. 
  27. ^ "American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research". Retrieved 2009-01-17. 
  28. ^ Jeremy Wallace. "Clinton Heaps Praise on Band Family", Sarasota Herald-Tribune, October 1, 2009.
  29. ^ "Norge bruker 20 millioner på Clinton". Aftenposten. 
  30. ^ a b "Clinton Global Initiative University to Bring Students, Nonprofit Leaders, Social Entrepreneurs, and Celebrities to Campus in April".This Week @ UCSD, November 22, 2010.
  31. ^ "CGIU 2013 Washington University in St. Louis". Retrieved 2013-04-01. 
  32. ^ "CGI University 2014 - About". Clinton Foundation. Retrieved 2016-04-03. 
  33. ^ "CGI University 2015 - About". Clinton Foundation. Retrieved 2016-04-03. 
  34. ^ "CGI University 2016". Clinton Foundation. Retrieved 2016-04-03. 
  35. ^ a b c Clinton Global Initiative (2012). "2012 Clinton Global Citizen Awards". Retrieved 2013-03-06. 
  36. ^ "Bill Clinton visit cements close working relationship with Denis O'Brien: Irish billionaire helps to cover cost of trip". The Irish Times. 10 October 2013. Archived from the original on 1 June 2015. Mr Clinton [...] last year [...] named [Denis O'Brien] a Clinton Global Citizen under an awards scheme linked to the former president's think tank the Clinton Global Initiative. 
  37. ^ Clinton Global Initiative (2012). "2011 Clinton Global Citizen Awards". Retrieved 2013-03-06. 
  38. ^ Nambi, Irene V (2009-09-25). "Rwanda: Kagame Honoured With Global Citizen Award". The New Times. Retrieved 2013-03-05. 
  39. ^ "Voice of Women Organization - VWO". 
  40. ^ Clinton Global Initiative (2012). "2010 Clinton Global Citizen Awards". Retrieved 2013-03-06. 
  41. ^ "Pakistani activist Syeda Ghulam Fatima receives Global Citizen award in NY". Geo News. 28 September 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2015. 
  42. ^ "Press Release: President Clinton Announces Landmark Program to Reduce Energy Use in Buildings Worldwide". 
  43. ^ "Former President Clinton launches climate change initiative". Retrieved 2007-10-02. 
  44. ^ "President Clinton Announces Landmark Program to Reduce Energy Use in Buildings Worldwide". Archived from the original on July 4, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-02. 
  45. ^ Rockefeller Brothers Fund: News & Resources: Multimedia: President Clinton Recognizes 1Sky Campaign on Global Warming
  46. ^ "Press Release: Clinton Climate Initiative To Demonstrate Model For Sustainable Urban Growth With Projects In 10 Countries On Six Continents". Retrieved 2009-06-16. [dead link]
  47. ^ Cowell, Alan (December 10, 2005). "A Scotsman Wields a Not-So-Invisible Hand in Africa – NY Times". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-10-02. 
  48. ^ "Healthy Schools Program". Archived from the original on May 18, 2008. Retrieved 2007-10-02. 
  49. ^ Burros, Marian (October 7, 2006). "Producers Agree to Send Healthier Foods to Schools – NY Times". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-10-02. 
  50. ^ "How Bill Put the Fizz in the Fight Against Fat – TIME Magazine". Time. May 7, 2006. Retrieved 2007-10-02. 
  51. ^ Squires, Kathleen (August 12, 2009). Shining a Spotlight on Harlem. Zagat.com. 
  52. ^ "Pan Am Games: Toronto Latin-American, Caribbean communities feel left out". 
  53. ^ As Colombian Oil Money Flowed To Clintons, State Department Took No Action To Prevent Labor Violations (April 2015), International Business Times
  54. ^ http://www.kesq.com/news/valley-organizations-pleased-clinton-foundation-keeping-health-matters-initiative/41359084
  55. ^ Strom, Stephanie (October 5, 2005). "Clinton Lends His Expertise and an Ear in Louisiana – NY Times". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-10-02. 
  56. ^ a b "Hillary Clinton launches global data project on women and girls". Washington Post. 
  57. ^ a b Foundation Center. "Wyss, Clinton Foundations Partner on Full Participation by Women and Girls". Philanthropy News Digest (PND). 
  58. ^ "'No Ceilings' Report Shows There's Still A Long Way To Go In Achieving Women's Equality". Huffington Post. 2015-03-17. Retrieved 2015-05-02. 
  59. ^ Yglesias, Matthew (October 4, 2007). "Who's Giving Money to Bill Clinton? – LA Times". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2008-02-24. 
  60. ^ a b Baker, Peter; Savage, Charlie (December 19, 2008). "In Clinton List, a Veil Is Lifted on Foundation". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-04-30. 
  61. ^ Grimaldi, James V.; Ballhaus, Rebecca (February 17, 2015). "Foreign Government Gifts to Clinton Foundation on the Rise". The Wall Street Journal. 
  62. ^ a b c Helderman, Rosalind S.; Hamburger, Tom (February 25, 2015). "Foreign governments gave millions to foundation while Clinton was at State Dept.". The Washington Post. 
  63. ^ Seitz-Wald, Alex (26 February 2015). "State Department acknowledges issue with Clinton Foundation donation". MSNBC. Retrieved 29 April 2015. 
  64. ^ Merica, Dan; Bradner, Eric (19 August 2016). "Clinton Foundation says it will limit donations if Clinton is elected". edition.cnn.com. CNN. Retrieved 19 August 2016. 
  65. ^ Jonathan Allen, Despite Hillary Clinton promise, charity did not disclose donors, Reuters (March 19, 2015).
  66. ^ Cash Flowed to Clinton Foundation Amid Russian Uranium Deal, New York Times, April 23, 2015
  67. ^ a b Linda Qiu. "Did Clinton help Russia obtain uranium for donations? Nope". Retrieved 2016-07-03. 
  68. ^ Eugene Kiely. "No 'Veto Power' for Clinton on Uranium Deal". FactCheck.org. Annenberg Public Policy Center. Retrieved 2016-07-03. 
  69. ^ Baker, Peter (August 15, 2009). "Emanuel Wields Power Freely, and Faces the Risks". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-08-28. 
  70. ^ Michael S. Schmidt (May 18, 2015). "What Sidney Blumenthal's Memos to Hillary Clinton Said, and How They Were Handled". The New York Times. Retrieved May 19, 2015. In 2011 and 2012, Hillary Rodham Clinton received at least 25 memos about Libya from Sidney Blumenthal, a friend and confidant who at the time was employed by the Clinton Foundation. 
  71. ^ Nicholas Confessore and Michael S. Schmidt (May 18, 2015). "Clinton Friend's Memos on Libya Draw Scrutiny to Politics and Business". The New York Times. Retrieved May 19, 2015. Mrs. Clinton, who was secretary of state at the time, took Mr. Blumenthal's advice seriously, forwarding his memos to senior diplomatic officials in Libya and Washington and at times asking them to respond. Mrs. Clinton continued to pass around his memos even after other senior diplomats concluded that Mr. Blumenthal's assessments were often unreliable. 
  72. ^ Hamburger, Tom. Helderman, Rosalind S. 2016. "Clinton Campaign received subpoena from State Department investigators". The Washington Post. February 11, 2016.

External links