Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani

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Not to be confused with Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani. ‹See Tfd›
This is an Arabic name; the family name is Al Thani.
Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
حمد بن خليفة آل ثاني
Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani (cropped).jpg
Emir of Qatar
Reign 27 June 1995 – 25 June 2013
Predecessor Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani
Successor Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani
Prime Ministers
Prime Minister of Qatar
Reign 27 June 1995 – 29 October 1996
Predecessor Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani
Successor Abdullah bin Khalifa Al Thani
Spouse Mariam bint Muhammad
Mozah bint Nasser
Noora bint Khalid
Issue See link
House House of Thani
Father Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani
Mother Sheikha Al-Atiyyah
Born (1952-01-01) 1 January 1952 (age 62)
Doha, Qatar
Religion Sunni Islam
Sheikh Hamad at the Metropolitan Museum (New York).
From left to right: Sheikha Mozah, second wife of the emir, Michelle Obama, First Lady of the United States, the Emir, and Barack Obama, U.S. President.

Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani (Arabic: الشيخ حمد بن خليفة آل ثاني‎, born 1952) is a member of the ruling Al Thani Qatari royal family. He was the ruling Emir of Qatar from 1995 to 2013.[1]

Hamad seized power in a bloodless palace Coup d'état in 1995. During his 18-year rule, Qatar's natural gas production reached 77 million tonnes, making Qatar the richest country in the world with the average income in the country US$86,440 a year per person. During his reign several sports and diplomatic events took place in Qatar, including 2006 Asian Games, 2012 UN Climate Change Conference, Doha Agreement, Hamas–Fatah Doha agreement and it was decided that the 2022 FIFA World Cup was to be held in the country. He established the Qatar Investment Authority; by 2013 it had invested over $100 billion around the world, most prominently in The Shard, Barclays Bank, Heathrow Airport, Harrods, Paris Saint-Germain F.C., Volkswagen, Siemens and Royal Dutch Shell.[2]

During Hamad 's rule, Qatar hosted two US military bases. It also remained close with Hamas and Iran. He supported and funded rebel movements, particularly in Libya and Syria during the Arab Spring while maintaining political stability at home. The Sheikh founded news media group Al Jazeera, through which he maintained his influence over the Arab World. He also played a part in negotiations between US and the Taliban.[3][4] In June 2013 Hamad in his brief televised address announced that he would hand power to his 33-year-old son, Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani.[5]

Early years and education[edit]

Hamad was born 1952. His mother died soon after the birth and he was raised by his uncle.[6]

He graduated from the British Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst in 1971 and commissioned as a lieutenant colonel.[7] After graduation he was made commander of a mobile brigade, which later became a force called "Hamad Brigade".[7] In 1972 Hamad had the rank of general, and became army chief of staff.[7] Next he was appointed commander-in-chief of Qatar's armed forces with the rank of major general.[7] In 1977 he was named minister of defense.[7]

Hamad was appointed Heir Apparent of Qatar in 1977 and held the post until 1995.[8] In the early 1980s, he led the Supreme Planning Council, which sets Qatar's basic economic and social policies. From 1992 Hamad had a growing responsibility for the day-to-day running of the country,[9] including the development of Qatar's oil and natural gas resources. On 27 June 1995, after deposing his father in a palace coup, Hamad became Emir of Qatar and was crowned on 20 June 2000.[9]

Reign[edit]

In the early 1980s, Hamad led the Supreme Planning Council, which sets Qatar's basic economic and social policies. Starting in 1992, Hamad's father handed over responsibility for the day-to-day running of the country,[9] including the development of Qatar's oil and natural gas resources. With the support of his family, Hamad took control of the country in 1995 while his father was on vacation abroad.[9] While his father Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani was in Geneva, Switzerland, Hamad bin Khalifa deposed him in a bloodless coup d'état.[10] Hamad bin Khalifa engaged an American law firm to freeze his father's bank accounts abroad, thereby defeating a possible countercoup.[9] Thereafter, his father lived in exile in France and Abu Dhabi[10] until he returned to Qatar in 2004.

In a break with the traditional role, his second wife Sheikha Mozah bint Nasser Al Missned has been a visible advocate for education and children's causes.[9]

A sportsman[11] and an accomplished diver, Hamad has played an active role in promoting and developing athletics in Qatar.[citation needed] His activism has enhanced the country's involvement and performance in a number of international competitions, including: winning an Olympic medal in track and field; hosting a wide variety of international sporting events such as the 15th Asian Games, GCC, Asian and World Youth soccer championships; and initiating the Qatar Open Tennis Championship which has grown to become one of two premier tennis competitions in the Middle East.

Under his rule the Qatari government helped to fund the Al Jazeera news network by an emiri decree.[12] In an analysis of Al Jazeera, Hugh Miles said that diplomats from other countries know that the Emir is the real power behind Al Jazeera but he also quotes a network spokesman denying 'countless times' this accusation, adding that many independent news sources also have subsidies from their respective governments without this implying editorial dabbling and explaining that trying to coerce the kind of journalists Al Jazeera has would be like trying to 'herd cats'.[13] Sheik Hamad is a distant cousin of the network chairman, Hamad bin Thamer Al Thani, who was previously Minister of Information in the Emir Al-Thani government. Following the initial US$137 million grant from Emir Al-Thani, Al Jazeera had aimed to become self-sufficient through advertising by 2001, but when this failed to occur, the Emir agreed to several consecutive loans[13] on a year-by-year basis (US$30 million in 2004,[14] according to Arnaud de Borchgrave). At an 3 October 2001 press conference, Colin Powell tried to persuade Sheik Hamad to shut down Al Jazeera while the New York based organization Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting commented that in those efforts, "Powell and other U.S. officials were reportedly upset by the channel re-airing old interviews with bin Laden and the inclusion of guests that are too critical of the United States on its programs."[15][16] The Washington Post reported in 2005 that Sheik Hamad was under pressure to privatize the network.[17]

On 25 June 2013 Hamad handed over power to his son Tamim in a televised speech.[18] In regards to the shift in power, Hamad said: "The time has come to open a new page in the journey of our nation that would have a new generation carry the responsibilities."[19]

Achievements[edit]

Under his reign, the country won the right to stage the 2022 FIFA World Cup in Doha, the first event of its kind to occur in the Middle East.[20] Under the patronage of Hamad and his wife Sheikha Mozah bint Nasser Al-Misnad, several world-class academic institutions have opened campuses in Doha, including Carnegie Mellon University, Georgetown University, Northwestern University, Texas A&M University and Weill Cornell Medical College.[1]

Arts[edit]

In the arts, Hamad established the Qatar Museums Authority in 2005 which built the I. M. Pei designed Museum of Islamic Art Doha. Since opening, Qatar has become the world's biggest contemporary art buyer,[21] famously purchasing Cézanne's The Card Players in 2012 for over US$250 million.[22] The Museum Authority sponsored Takashi Murakami's EGO exhibit in Doha which ran from 9 February to 24 June 2012,[23] Damien Hirst's retrospective at Tate Modern in Spring and Summer 2012[24] and his upcoming exhibition Relic, slated to open in Doha in October 2013.[25] In July 2013, in conjunction with Miuccia Prada and the Prada Foundation, QMA launched CURATE, a global search for curatorial talent.[26] Additionally, the Doha Film Institute was established in 2009 which in partnership with the Tribeca Film Festival (founded by Robert De Niro), created the Doha Tribeca Film Festival that ran from 2009 – 2012.[27] The Doha Film Institute is producing Salma Hayek's upcoming animated adaptation of Khalil Gibran's classic novel The Prophet, with "Lion King" director Roger Allers co-ordinating the process.[28] DFI is also credited as a production company on several other films, including Just Like a Woman starring Sienna Miller,[29] The Reluctant Fundamentalist directed by Mira Nair which opened 69th Venice International Film Festival,[30] and Kanye West's Cruel Summer – a short film which shot in Doha and premiered during the 2012 Cannes Film Festival.[31] In February 2013, they announced a $100 million feature film fund with Participant Media, a production company founded by billionaire Jeffrey Skoll, who was the first employee and also first president of internet auction firm eBay.[32]

Economy[edit]

In 2005, under the direction of Hamad and the former Prime minister of QatarSheikh Hamad bin Jassim bin Jaber Al Thani, the Qatar Investment Authority was established, a sovereign wealth fund to manage the country's oil and natural gas surpluses.[33] The Qatar Investment Authority and its subsidiaries have acquired many businesses abroad, including London's iconic department store Harrods from entrepreneur Mohammed Al-Fayed,[34] Paris based department store Printemps,[35] French football club Paris Saint-Germain F.C.,[36] a former 10% stake in Porsche,[37] a 75% stake in film studio Miramax which they acquired from Disney,[38] a 2% stake in media conglomerate and Universal Music Group parent company Vivendi,[39] a $100 million USD investment in Chernin Group – whose founder Peter Chernin was COO of News Corp and President of Fox,[40] a 1% stake in luxury goods manufacturer Louis Vuitton Moët Hennessy,[41] a 6% stake in Credit Suisse,[42] a 12.6% stake in Barclays[43] and several other major companies. They also backed Glencore's $31 billion USD takeover bid for Xstrata.[44] Qatar is the largest property owner in London with their holdings including Europe's tallest building The Shard, Olympic Village and Park Lane's InterContinental Hotel.[45] They also own several hotels in Cannes including the Majestic Hotel, Grand Hyatt Cannes Hôtel Martinez and Carlton Hotel.[46] QIA was considered to have one of the leading bids in the sales of both Anschutz Entertainment Group[47] and Hulu.[48] As of May 2013, it was reported the Investment Authority is in talks to purchase Neiman Marcus and Bergdorf Goodman.[49]

Sheikh Hamad is famous for helping to establish the first Arab international news network, Al Jazeera, when he provided a loan of QAR 500 million ($137 million) to sustain Al Jazeera through its first five years.

In October 2012, Hamad made a historic visit to Gaza and pledged US$400 million in humanitarian aid to Hamas, to build infrastructure projects and hospitals.[50] Despite Qatar's ties to Hamas, they maintain diplomatic and business relations with Israel.[51] Sheikh Hamad provided financial and material support to opposition rebels in both the Libyan civil war, which led to the overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi, and the ongoing Syrian civil war which seeks to oust President Bashar al-Assad. It has been reported that he has also provided support to jihadist organizations such as Ansar Dine[52] and the Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa,[52] who are fighting for independence in the Northern Mali conflict, as well as the Al-Nusra Front in Syria.[53]

On 25 June 2013, Hamad announced he would be handing over power to his 33-year old son Sheikh Tamim. The move was seen as groundbreaking for the Middle East, where leaders typically stay in office until their death.[54]

Foreign relations[edit]

The Emir made a $100 million donation for the relief of New Orleans following the 2005 Hurricane Katrina.[55] He was a key person in the cease fire during the 2006 Lebanon War and contributed majorly in the relief of damaged areas. In 2012, the Emir proposed deploying Arab troops to reduce killings in the Syrian civil war.[56] He provided two military bases for foreign troops, Al Udeid Air Base and Camp As Sayliyah.

Despite the prevalence of anti-Israel sentiment within the Arab world, he had previously maintained friendly relations with Israel.[10] He met Foreign Minister of Israel Tzipi Livni (25 September 2007) in New York City. This marked the first real attempt by any leader in the Persian Gulf to pursue dialogue with Israel.[57][58] However, Qatar severed diplomatic ties with Israel in 2009 in response to Israel's actions during the Gaza War.[59] The emir has also expressed his objection to Israeli settlement policy, especially the Judaization of Jerusalem.[60]

Visit to Gaza[edit]

In October 2012, the Emir made a landmark visit to Gaza by being the first head of state to go there since the 2006 election of Hamas and the imposition of a blockade by Israel.[61] He took a flight to Egypt before being driven into Gaza. While there, the emir was thought to be launching a $254 million reconstruction project in the territory, and giving an address to the Palestinian people. Palestine's interior ministry was said to have a "well-prepared plan" to provide security for the emir during his stay.[62] Incidents nevertheless continued.[63]

Criticism and allegations of support to US designated terrorist organizations[edit]

In December 2012, The New York Times accused the Qatari government of funding the Al-Nusra Front, a U.S. government designated terrorist organization.[53] Others[who?] have noted the Emir's visit to Gaza and meeting with Hamas, which houses a militant wing, Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades.[64] In January 2013, French politicians again accused the Emir's government of giving material support to Islamist groups in Mali and the French newspaper Le Canard enchaîné quoted an unnamed source in French military intelligence saying that "The MNLA, al Qaeda-linked Ansar Dine and MUJAO have all received cash from Doha."[52]

Marriages and children[edit]

Sheikh Hamad with Vladimir Putin, Russian president

Sheikh Hamad has three wives and twenty-four children, eleven sons and thirteen daughters:

  • He married his first wife Sheikha Mariam bint Muhammad Al Thani, who is the daughter of his first cousin, Sheikh Muhammad bin Hamad bin Abdullah Al Thani.[65] Hamad and his first wife have two sons and six daughters:
    • Sheikh Mishaal bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani (born 1972)
    • Sheikh Fahd bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani
    • Sheikha Aisha bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani
    • Sheikha Mashael bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani
    • Sheikha Fatima bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani
    • Sheikha Rawdah bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani
    • Sheikha Hussah bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani
    • Sheikha Sara bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani – Program Coordinator for Reach Out to Asia-Qatar (ROTAQ)

Titles, styles and honours[edit]

Monarchical styles of
The Emir of Qatar
Emblem of Qatar.svg
Reference style His Highness
Spoken style Your Highness
Alternative style Sheikh

Titles and styles[edit]

  • Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani (1952–1972)
  • His Excellency Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani (1972–1977)
  • His Highness Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, Heir Apparent of Qatar(1977–1995)
  • His Highness Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, Emir of the State of Qatar (1995–2013)
  • His Highness Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, The Father Emir (2013–Present)[66][67]

Honours and awards[edit]

Sheikh Hamad received numerous honours and awards, both during and before his time as Emir:[68]

National orders[69][edit]

Other awards[edit]

Sports investments[edit]

Media sources claimed that Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani made a bid for Manchester United on 11 February 2011. Qatari Holdings offered £1.65 billion to Malcolm Glazer, the current American owner of the club.[79] This follows a series of endeavors by the Emir and other Qataris into the World Football community, following Qatar's successful bid for the 2022 World Cup, and the Qatar Foundation's recent £125m shirt deal with FC Barcelona. In mid-June 2011, rumours resurfaced that Qatari Holdings were preparing a £2 Billion takeover bid and that the funding, that the club had been using for transfers since the start of June, was actually supplied by the Qataris and not the Glazer Family.[80] In 2012 it was rumoured that Sheik Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani was in bid for Rangers F.C..[81] On 30 March 2012 Sheik Al Thani offered to buy KF Tirana, although the details have yet to be published.[82]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b 15 January 2012 CBS 60 Minutes – Qatar: A tiny country asserts powerful influence https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b_ZuXbOtBbo
  2. ^ Qatar Investments in Europe reach 65 billion USD
  3. ^ Windfuhr, Volkhard; Zand, Bernhard (29 March 2009). "SPIEGEL Interview with the Emir of Qatar – 'We Are Coming to Invest'". Spiegel.de. Retrieved 2 March 2012. 
  4. ^ Cohen, Noam (1 January 2009). "Al Jazeera provides an inside look at Gaza conflict". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 March 2012. 
  5. ^ Qatar's Emir, Sheikh Hamad Bin Khalifa Al Thani, Transfers Power To Crown Prince Sheikh Tamim
  6. ^ Dickey, Christopher (25 June 2013). "Qatar's Succession Drama". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 28 June 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c d e "Qatar's Decision Makers – Hamad Background". APS Review. 17 September 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2013. 
  8. ^ "Sheikh Hamad's Biography". Amiri Diwan (State of Qatar). Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f Harman, Danna (5 March 2007). "Backstory: The royal couple that put Qatar on the map". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 10 November 2010. "He was of a new generation, open to the sorts of social, technological, economic, and political ideas from outside that his elders had never known. And, surrounding himself with young, Western-educated advisers, the new emir got right down to the business of remaking the national agenda of this traditional Wahhabi land." 
  10. ^ a b c "Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani, Emir" (fee, via Fairfax County Public Library). Current Leaders of Nations. Gale. 1998. GALE-K1610000166. Retrieved 2 March 2012.  Gale Biography in Context. (subscription required)
  11. ^ **Diplomacy Volume 33. Diplomacy Company. 2007. p. 19. 
  12. ^ Sakr, Naomi (2001). Satellite Realms: Transnational Television, Globalization & the Middle East. London: I.B. Tauris. p. 57. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  13. ^ a b Miles, Hugh (2005). Al-Jazeera: The Inside Story of the Arab News Channel that is Challenging the West. New York: Grove Press. p. 346. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  14. ^ de Borchgrave, Arnaud (6 May 2004). "Tutwiler's mission impossible". Washington Times. Archived from the original on 27 April 2006. Retrieved 2 March 2012. 
  15. ^ Colin Powell, news conference with Sheik Hamad bin Khalifa Thani, 3 October 2001, Washington D.C.
  16. ^ Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (December 2001). "Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting". 
  17. ^ Vedantam, Shankar (31 January 2005). "Qatar Advances Plans To Privatize Al-Jazeera". The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  18. ^ "Qatari emir Hamad hands power to son Tamim". BBC. 25 June 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013. 
  19. ^ Maierbrugger, Arno (25 June 2013). "Qatar emir resigns, hands over power to son". Inside Investor. Retrieved 25 June 2013. 
  20. ^ 2 December 2010 The Guardian – Qatar win 2022 World Cup bid http://www.guardian.co.uk/football/2010/dec/02/qatar-win-2022-world-cup-bid
  21. ^ 7 July 2011 Forbes – Qatar revealed as the world's biggest contemporary art buyer http://www.forbes.com/sites/abigailesman/2011/07/07/qatar-revealed-as-the-worlds-biggest-contemporary-art-buyer-the-art-newspaper/
  22. ^ February 2012 Vanity Fair – Qatar Purchases Cézanne's The Card Playersfor More Than $250 Million, Highest Price Ever for a Work of Art http://www.vanityfair.com/culture/2012/02/qatar-buys-cezanne-card-players-201202
  23. ^ 9 February 2012 Huffington Post – Takashi Murakami's "Ego" Exhibition at Al Riwaq Exhibition Hall in Doha, Qatar http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/02/08/takashi-murakamis-ego_n_1263888.html
  24. ^ 5 April 2012 The National – Qatari royal family sponsors Damien Hirst retrospective at Tate Modern http://www.thenational.ae/arts-culture/art/qatari-royal-family-sponsors-damien-hirst-retrospective-at-tate-modern
  25. ^ 7 July 2013 Saffron Art – Relic by Damien Hirst lands in Doha http://blog.saffronart.com/2013/07/07/relic-by-damien-hirst-lands-in-doha/
  26. ^ 12 July 2013 Gallerist NY – Qatar and Prada Announce 'Curate' Prize http://galleristny.com/2013/07/qatar-and-prada-announce-curate-prize/
  27. ^ 30 April 2013 The Hollywood Reporter – Tribeca Enterprises, Qatar's Doha Film Institute End Cultural, Festival Partnership http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/tribeca-enterprises-qatars-doha-film-448915
  28. ^ 23 February 2012 The Hollywood Reporter – Salma Hayek and Doha Film Institute to Adapt Khalil Gibran's 'The Prophet' into Animated Movie http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/salma-hayek-doha-film-institute-Khalil-Gibran-prophet-294555
  29. ^ 17 July 2013 IMDB – Just Like a Woman http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1855236/
  30. ^ 30 August 2013 BBC News – The Reluctant Fundamentalist http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-19421160
  31. ^ 23 May 2012 The Hollywood Reporter – Cannes 2012: Kanye West Debuts Groundbreaking Film With Kim Kardashian, Jay-Z in Attendance http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/kanye-west-kim-kardashian-cannes-jay-z-premiere-328795
  32. ^ 13 February 2013 Deadline – Berlin: Participant Media, Doha Film Institute Launch Five-Year $100M Feature Film Fund www.deadline.com/2013/02/participant-media-doha-film-institute-launch-five-year-100m-feature-film-fund/
  33. ^ 17 July 2013 – Qatar Investment Authority http://www.qia.qa
  34. ^ 8 May 2010 Reuters – Qatar investor buys UK department store Harrods http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/05/08/us-harrods-idUSTRE6470V520100508
  35. ^ 8 April 2013 The Wall Street Journal – Qatari Investors to Buy Printemps http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324050304578410763931853602.html
  36. ^ 24 May 2013 NY Times – Qatari Hopes for Paris Saint-Germain Meet Reality http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/25/world/europe/25iht-letter25.html
  37. ^ 17 June 2013 Reuters – Qatar sells back 10 percent Porsche stake to founding families http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/06/17/us-qatar-porsche-volkswagen-idUSBRE95G08E20130617
  38. ^ 21 January 2013 The Hollywood Reporter – Ron Tutor Sells His Miramax Stake http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/ron-tutor-sells-his-miramax-414171
  39. ^ 21 March 2012 Bloomberg - Vivendi Says Shareholder Qatar Holding Raised its Stake to 2%tp://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-03-21/vivendi-says-shareholder-qatar-holding-raised-its-stake-to-2-.html
  40. ^ 8 November 2012 LA Times – Chernin Group receives $100-million investment from Qatar Holding http://articles.latimes.com/2012/nov/08/entertainment/la-et-ct-chernin-investment-qatar-holdings-20121108
  41. ^ 16 March 2012 Vogue – Slice of LVMH http://www.vogue.co.uk/news/2012/03/16/qatar-holdings-buys-lvmh-stake
  42. ^ 14 February 2011 Bloomberg – Credit Suisse Raises $6.2 Billion From Qatar Holding, Olayan http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-02-14/credit-suisse-places-sf6-billion-in-tier-1-buffer-capital-notes.html
  43. ^ 5 February 2013 Reuters – Barclays ducks Qatar questions, takes $1.6 billion mis-selling hit http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/02/05/us-barclays-idUSBRE91408O20130205
  44. ^ 15 November 2012 NY Times – Qatar Wealth Fund Backs Glencore's Bid for Xstrata http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2012/11/15/qatar-holding-supports-glencore-xstrata-deal/
  45. ^ 21 June 2013 The Independent – Sheikh Hamad bin Jassim bin Jaber al-Thani: Meet the man who bought London http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/sheikh-hamad-bin-jassim-bin-jaber-althani-meet-the-man-who-bought-london-8669134.html
  46. ^ 15 December 2011 Pie Mag – Cannes Carlton hotel sold to Qatar investor for €450m http://www.pie-mag.com/articles/2360/cannes-carlton-hotel-sold-to-qatar-investor-for-euro-450m/
  47. ^ 13 November 2012 NY Post – AEG shoots for stars with up to $10B sale http://www.nypost.com/p/news/business/aeg_shoots_for_stars_with_up_to_lN4j5RKTq7mu7X8S2vRqPM
  48. ^ 9 June 2013 Arabian Business – Qatar among bidders for US online TV fir http://www.arabianbusiness.com/qatar-among-bidders-for-us-online-tv-firm-504486.html
  49. ^ 31 May 2013 NY Post – Qatar Investment Authority in talks to buy Neiman Marcus http://www.nypost.com/p/news/business/neiman_plays_qatar_Sh8F0MnsFr9LmwdXylsupM
  50. ^ 23 October 2012 NY Times – Qatar's Emir Visits Gaza, Pledging $400 Million to Hamas http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/24/world/middleeast/pledging-400-million-qatari-emir-makes-historic-visit-to-gaza-strip.html?_r=0
  51. ^ 2 May 2013 Wall Street Journal – Qatari Sheikh Said to Want to Visit Israel on Business http://blogs.wsj.com/middleeast/2013/05/02/qatari-sheikh-said-to-want-to-visit-israel-on-business/
  52. ^ a b c Is Qatar fuelling the crisis in north Mali? , France 24, Latest update: 23 January 2013 , http://www.france24.com/en/20130121-qatar-mali-france-ansar-dine-mnla-al-qaeda-sunni-islam-doha
  53. ^ a b Editorial, Al Qaeda in Syria, 10 December 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/11/opinion/al-qaeda-in-syria.html?_r=0
  54. ^ 25 June 2013 NY Times – In Surprise, Emir of Qatar Plans to Abdicate, Handing Power to Son http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/25/world/middleeast/qatar-transfer-of-power.html?pagewanted=all
  55. ^ Nossiter, Adam (30 April 2008). "Emir of Qatar Tours New Orleans to See Fruit of His $100 Million Donation". New York Times. Retrieved 1 March 2012. 
  56. ^ "Emir of Qatar favors Arab troops in Syria". CBS News. 13 January 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2012. 
  57. ^ Israel Foreign Minister and the Emir of Qatar (ENGLISH). IsraelConsulate. 26 September 2007. Retrieved 2 March 2012. "Israel Foreign Minister meets with the emir of Qatar in New York City. The interview is translated to English." 
  58. ^ Benhorin, Yitzhak (25 September 2007). "Livni has surprise meeting with Qatari emir". Ynetnews. Retrieved 1 March 2012. "Foreign Minister Tzipi Livni met with the Emir of Qatar Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani Tuesday, in the highest-ranking meeting between Qatari and Israeli officials. The two met during a United Nations General Assembly summit in New York after the emir invited Livni and the Israeli delegation to join him in an unscheduled meeting outside of the UN headquarters. Officials said the meeting was "extremely positive." Livni discussed with the emir the importance of moderate Islamic nations – like Qatar – supporting the Palestinians in advancing the diplomatic process." 
  59. ^ Qatar, Mauritania cut Israel ties Al Jazeera. Date: Friday, 16 January 2009
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  69. ^ Royal Ark
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External links[edit]

Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
Born: 1952
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani
Emir of Qatar
1995–2013
Succeeded by
Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani
Political offices
Preceded by
Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani
Prime Minister of Qatar
1995–1996
Succeeded by
Abdullah bin Khalifa Al Thani