Make America Great Again
"Make America Great Again" (often abbreviated as MAGA) is a campaign slogan used in American politics that was popularized by Donald Trump in his successful 2016 presidential campaign. Ronald Reagan used the similar slogan "Let's make America great again" in his successful 1980 presidential campaign. Bill Clinton also used the phrase in speeches during his successful 1992 presidential campaign and again in a radio commercial aired for his wife Hillary Clinton's 2008 presidential primary campaign. Democratic pollster Douglas Schoen has called Trump's use of the phrase as "probably the most resonant campaign slogan in recent history," citing large majorities of Americans who believed the country was in decline. The slogan has become a pop culture phenomenon, seeing widespread use and spawning numerous variants in the arts, entertainment, and politics. In the Trump era, Voice of America has called the slogan a loaded phrase because it "doesn't just appeal to people who hear it as racist coded language, but also those who have felt a loss of status as other groups have become more empowered."
Use by Ronald Reagan
"Let's make America great again" was first used in Ronald Reagan's 1980 presidential campaign, when the United States was suffering from a worsening economy at home marked by stagflation. Using the country's economic distress as a springboard for his campaign, Reagan used the slogan to stir a sense of patriotism among the electorate.
Use by Bill Clinton
The phrase was also used in speeches by Bill Clinton during his 1992 presidential campaign; however, it was not a slogan of the campaign. Clinton also used the phrase in a radio commercial aired for Hillary Clinton's 2008 presidential primary campaign.
During the 2016 electoral campaign, Clinton suggested that Trump's version, used as a campaign rallying cry, was a message to white Southerners that Trump was promising to "give you an economy you had 50 years ago, and... move you back up on the social totem pole and other people down."
Use by Donald Trump
On September 16, 2011, Roger Stone, Trump's longtime political advisor and a veteran of Reagan's 1980 campaign, tweeted the slogan: "Make America Great Again --TRUMP HUCKABEE 2012 #nomormons". Two months later, in December 2011, Trump made a statement in which he said he was unwilling to rule out running as a presidential candidate in the future, explaining "I must leave all of my options open because, above all else, we must make America great again". Also in December 2011, he published a book using as a subtitle the similar phrase "Making America #1 Again" — which in a 2015 reissue would be changed to "Make America Great Again!"
Trump himself began using the slogan formally on November 7, 2012, the day after Barack Obama won his reelection against Mitt Romney. By his own account, Trump first considered "We Will Make America Great", but did not feel like it had the right "ring" to it. "Make America Great" was his next slogan idea, but upon further reflection, he felt that it was a slight to America because it implied that America was never great. After selecting "Make America Great Again", Trump immediately had an attorney register it. (Trump later said that he was unaware of Reagan's use in 1980 until 2015, but noted that "he didn't trademark it".) On November 12 he signed an application with the United States Patent and Trademark Office requesting exclusive rights to use the slogan for political purposes. It was registered as a service mark on July 14, 2015, after Trump formally began his 2016 presidential campaign and demonstrated that he was using the slogan for the purpose stated on the application.
During the campaign, Trump often used the slogan, especially by wearing hats emblazoned with the phrase in white letters, which soon became popular among his supporters. The slogan was so important to the campaign that at one point it spent more on making the hats – sold for $25 each on its website – than on polling, consultants, or television commercials. The candidate claimed that "millions" were sold. Following Trump's election, the website of his presidential transition was established at greatagain.gov. President Trump stated in January 2017 that the slogan of his 2020 reelection campaign would be "Keep America Great" and immediately ordered a lawyer to trademark it. Trump tweeted “MAKE AMERICA GREAT AGAIN!” on September 1, 2018, apparently in response to Meghan McCain telling about 3,000 mourners at John McCain’s memorial service “The America of John McCain has no need to be made great again because America was always great.”
Social media usage
Donald Trump took the campaign slogan to social media (primarily Twitter), using the hashtags #makeamericagreatagain and its abbreviation #maga. In response to criticism regarding his frequent and untraditional usage of social media, Trump defended himself by tweeting "My use of social media is not Presidential - it's MODERN DAY PRESIDENTIAL. Make America Great Again!" on July 1, 2017. This comment justified his usage of social media as his main preferred method of communicating to his supporter base.
In the first half of 2017 alone, Trump repeated his slogan on Twitter 33 times. In an article for Bloomberg, Mark Whitehouse noted "A regression analysis suggests the phrase adds (very roughly) 51,000 to a post's retweet-and-favorite count, which is important given that the average Trump tweet attracts a total of 107,000."
Trump attributed his victory to social media when he said "I won the 2016 election with interviews, speeches, and social media." According to RiteTag, the estimated hourly statistics for #maga on Twitter alone include: 1,304 unique tweets, 5,820,000 hashtag exposure, and 3,424 retweets with 14% of #maga tweets including images, 55% including links, and 51% including mentions.
Donald Trump created his Twitter account in March 2009. His follower count increased significantly following his announcement to run for president in the 2016 presidential election, with particularly notable spikes occurring after both securing the Republican party nomination and winning the presidency.
Use by others
After Donald Trump popularized the use of the phrase, the phrase and modifications of it became widely used to refer to his election campaign and his politics. Trump's primary opponents, Ted Cruz and Scott Walker, began using "Make America Great Again" in speeches, inciting Trump to send cease-and-desist letters to them. Trump claimed after the election that the hats "were copied, unfortunately. It was knocked off by 10 to one [...] but it was a slogan, and every time somebody buys one, that's an advertisement". Cruz later sold hats featuring, "Make Trump Debate Again", in response to Trump's boycotting the Iowa January 28, 2016, debate.
In June 2017, Emmanuel Macron, President of France, rebuked Trump over withdrawing from the Paris Climate Agreement. The last sentence of the speech delivered by him was "make our planet great again".
In October 2018, during his campaign for the 2019 Indonesian presidential election, opposition leader Prabowo Subianto used the phrase "make Indonesia great again", though he denied having copied Trump.
President Elect Jimmy Carter repeatedly used the collocation of words - "Make America Great Again" - in the course of his victory speech given at his campaign headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia, on the morning following election night 1976.
In art, entertainment, and media
The most widespread uses of the phrase and its variants were in media, especially television comedies. For example:
- In the South Park episode "Where My Country Gone?" (2015), supporters of Mr. Garrison, who runs a campaign that is a parody of Trump's, are seen holding signs bearing the slogan.
- In episode 20 (Purity) of season 4 of NCIS: Los Angeles, the group behind the attacks used the phrase "Make America Great Again" as part of their campaign.
- Fall Out Boy released a remix of their album American Beauty/American Psycho titled Make America Psycho Again.
- John Oliver spoofed the slogan in a segment of his show, urging viewers to "Make Donald Drumpf Again" in reference to the original name of Trump's ancestors. The segment broke HBO viewership records, garnering 85 million views.
- Make Everything Great Again is a street art mural by artist Mindaugas Bonanu in Vilnius, Lithuania.
- Comedian David Cross's 2016 stand-up tour was titled "Making America Great Again".
- Snoop Dogg released a song titled "Make America Crip Again".
- Make America Rock Again was a rock concert tour.
- WWE star Darren Young and former star Bob Backlund began appearing on WWE TV in May 2016 with Backlund acting as Young's life coach, promising to "Make Darren Young Great Again".
- The tagline for the film The Purge: Election Year was "Keep America Great" (later announced as the slogan for Trump's 2020 reelection campaign); one of the TV spots for the film featured Americans who explained why they support the Purge, with one stating he does so "to keep my country [America] great." The next film in the franchise, The First Purge, was subsequently advertised with a poster featuring its title stylized on a MAGA hat.
- The 2017 Syfy film Sharknado 5: Global Swarming was released with the tagline "Make America Bait Again".
- A Dunk-a-roos marketing campaign used the slogan "Make America Dunk Again".
- Singer Joy Villa produced a single 'Make America Great Again' a few months after appearing at the 2017 Grammy Awards in a 'MAGA' dress.
- In 2016, two Dragon Con cosplayers, claiming an association with Adult Swim and Cartoon Network dressed as the World Trade Center during the September 11 attacks, wore "Make FishCenter Great Again" hats.
- The 2017 video game Wolfenstein: The New Colossus used "Make America Nazi-Free Again" in its marketing campaign.
- The 2018 video game Assassin's Creed Odyssey Cleon used to say: "Make Athens Great Again", during his campaign against Pericles.
- Octavia E. Butler's 1998 novel Parable of the Talents features an autocrat dictator who encourages others to join his movement and "...make America great again."
- Frank Turner released a song called "Make America Great Again" on his 2018 album Be More Kind.
- Schoen, Douglas (April 8, 2016). "Donald Trump saw what politicians ignored. And then he disrupted American politics". Fox News. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
- Edwards-Levy, Ariel (November 18, 2015). "Americans Aren't Sure Anything In America Works Anymore". Huff Post. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
- "Is 'Make America Great Again' Racist?". www.voanews.com. Retrieved 2019-02-25.
- "Ronald Reagan's Classic 1980 Campaign Poster Challenges Voters, "Let's Make America Great Again"". Iagreetosee.com. Retrieved August 25, 2015.
- Taibbi, Matt (March 25, 2015). "Donald Trump Claims Authorship of Legendary Reagan Slogan; Has Never Heard of Google". Rolling Stone. Retrieved January 27, 2016.
- "Trump: The Last Time America Was Great Was During the Reagan Administration [VIDEO]". Daily Caller.com. Retrieved August 25, 2015.
- "Presidential Politics, 20th Century Style: Reagan-Carter". MHHE.com. Retrieved August 25, 2015.
- "Ronald Reagan's 1980 Campaign Poster, "Let's Make America Great Again"". I Agree to See. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- "Make America Great Again a Retrospective". Retrieved July 21, 2017.
- Margolin, Emma (September 9, 2016). "Who really first came up with the phrase 'Make America Great Again'?". NBC News. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
- "2008 Clinton Campaign Ad: Bill Clinton: Hillary Will "Make America Great Again"". Retrieved July 21, 2017.
- "Bill Clinton suggests Trump slogan racist – but he used the same one". Fox News. September 9, 2016. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
- Roger Stone [@RogerJStoneJr] (September 16, 2011). "Make America Great Again -- TRUMP HUCKABEE 2012" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Kaczynski, Andrew (January 18, 2017). "Trump was saying 'Make America Great Again' long before he claims he thought it up". CNN.com. Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
- Lozada, Carlos (August 31, 2015). "Book Party: Donald Trump's 'Time to Get Tough' is out in paperback. You'll never guess the new subtitle". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 17, 2017.
- Tumulty, Karen (January 18, 2017). "How Donald Trump came up with 'Make America Great Again'". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
- "U.S. Service Mark 4,773,272". United States Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved November 18, 2016.
- "USPTO TSDR Case Viewer". tsdr.uspto.gov. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- Bump, Philip (January 25, 2016). "Why Donald Trump has given up on the hat". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
- Smith, Allan (November 10, 2016). "'Great again': Donald Trump's .gov website is now live". Business Insider. Retrieved November 12, 2016.
- "@realDonaldTrump". Retrieved September 2, 2017.
- Kane, Paul; Pogrund, Gabriel; Itkowitz, Colby (September 1, 2017). "'America was always great': Meghan McCain rebukes Trump". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
- Graham, Chris (July 2, 2017). "'Modern day presidential': Donald Trump defends use of social media in Twitter storm". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved November 3, 2017.
- Whitehouse, Mark (August 21, 2017). "'Great Again' Is Trump's Magic Twitter Mantra". Bloomberg News. Retrieved November 3, 2017.
- Rosen, Christopher (July 2, 2017). "Donald Trump Defends Twitter Use as 'MODERN DAY PRESIDENTIAL'". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved November 8, 2017.
- "#maga Hashtag Analytics | RiteTag: Find the best hashtags". ritetag.com. RiteKit is a SaaS (Software as a Service) Company for which RiteTag is a subscription-based product. p. https://ritetag.com/best-hashtags-for/donaldtrump. Retrieved 2018-07-18.
- "#maga Hashtag Analytics | RiteTag: Find the best hashtags". ritetag.com. Retrieved November 8, 2017.
- Trackalytics. "Donald J. Trump Twitter Followers Statistics - Trackalytics". www.trackalytics.com. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
- "Christine O'Donnell promotes memoir". Politico. June 21, 2011. Retrieved September 24, 2017.
- Bradford Richardson (January 27, 2016). "Cruz sells 'Make Trump Debate Again' hats". TheHill.com. Retrieved January 27, 2016.
- "Macron: 'Make our planet great again'". BBC News. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
- Massola, James (20 October 2018). "Prabowo wants to 'make Indonesia great again'". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
- Stern, Marlow (September 25, 2015). "'South Park' Depicts the Brutal Rape of Donald Trump". The Daily Beast. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
- "NCIS: Los Angeles (season 4)", Wikipedia, 2018-12-01, retrieved 2019-01-07
- "AllMusic Review by Stephen Thomas Erlewine". AllMusic. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
- Koblin, John (March 9, 2016). "John Oliver Sells Out of 'Make Donald Drumpf Again' Caps". The New York Times. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
- Zorthian, Julia (March 31, 2016). "John Oliver's 'Donald Drumpf' Segment Broke HBO Viewing Records". TIME. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
- Taylor, Adam (May 16, 2016), "This artist's interpretation of Putin and Trump kissing cannot be unseen", The Independent, retrieved June 12, 2017
- Snierson, Dan (January 5, 2016). "David Cross announces 'Making America Great Again!' nationwide stand-up tour". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved January 28, 2016.
- Legaspi, Althea (October 19, 2017). "Snoop Dogg Previews New EP With 'Make America Crip Again' Song". Rolling Stone. Retrieved November 13, 2017.
- Holmes, Dave (May 31, 2017). "Five Things We Expect to See At the Make America Rock Again Tour". Esquire. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
- Andre Vergara (May 6, 2016). "Bob Backlund returns to WWE to 'make Darren Young great again'". FoxSports.com. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
- Gray, Richard (May 4, 2016). "Bob Backlund To Make Darren Young Great Again (Smackdown Spoiler)". Wrestling News World. Gray Internet Technologies. Retrieved July 13, 2016.
The gimmick includes the obvious play on Donald Trump's campaign slogan of "Make America Great Again."
- Chichizola, Corey (February 26, 2016). "The Purge: Election Year Wants You To Purge For America". CinemaBlend. Retrieved October 28, 2016.
- Rosenberg, Adam (30 January 2018). "The next 'Purge' movie is a prequel and its first poster is an obvious MAGA shout-out". Mashable. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
- de Moraes, Lisa (June 1, 2017). "'Sharknado 5' Gets Topical Title, Adds Cast & Vows To "Make America Bait Again"". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved August 6, 2017.
- Krashinsky, Susan (October 26, 2016). "General Mills hopes to hit sweet spot with new 'Smugglaroos' campaign". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved November 6, 2016.
- Izadi, Elahe (February 13, 2017). "Joy Villa wears a 'Make America Great Again' dress to Grammys". Retrieved October 10, 2017.
- Boult, Adam (September 5, 2016). "Anger over 'Twin Towers' cosplayers". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
- Johnston, Rich (September 6, 2016). "Cosplay Controversy At Dragon*Con – 9/11 Or Rampage?". Bleeding Cool. Avatar Press. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
- Sandle, Tim (September 5, 2016). "Dragon Con sci-fi fans trigger 9/11 controversy". Digital Journal. digitaljournal.com. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
- Jr, Cleve R. Wootson (October 7, 2017). "Even a video game's 'Make America Nazi-free Again' slogan ticked some people off". Washington Post. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
- Jones, Jones. "Octavia Butler's 1998 Dystopian Novel Features a Fascistic Presidential Candidate Who Promises to "Make America Great Again"". Open Culture. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
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