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Closed city

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Central entry checkpoint to the closed city of Seversk, Tomsk Oblast, Russia.

A closed city or town is a settlement where travel or residency restrictions are applied so that specific authorization is required to visit or remain overnight. Such places may be sensitive military establishments or secret research installations that require much more space or internal freedom than is available in a conventional military base.[citation needed] There may also be a wider variety of permanent residents, including close family members of workers or trusted traders who are not directly connected with clandestine purposes.

Many closed cities existed in the Soviet Union during the Cold War.[1] Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, a number of them continue to exist in the post-Soviet states, especially in Russia. In modern Russia, such places are officially known as "closed administrative-territorial formations" (Russian: закрытые административно-территориальные образования (ЗАТО), romanizedzakrytye administrativno-territorial'nye obrazovaniya (ZATO)).[2]

Structure and operations

A checkpoint in the closed city of Zheleznogorsk, in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia

Closed cities are sometimes represented only on classified maps that are not available to the general public.[1] In some cases, there may be no road signs or directions to closed cities, and they are usually omitted from railroad timetables and bus routes.

Sometimes, closed cities are indicated obliquely as a nearby insignificant village, with the name of the stop serving the closed city made equivocal or misleading. For mail delivery, a closed city is usually named as the nearest large city and a special postcode, for example, Arzamas‑16, Chelyabinsk‑65. The actual settlement can be rather distant from its namesakes; for instance, Sarov, designated Arzamas-16, is in the federal republic of Mordovia, whereas Arzamas is in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (roughly 75 kilometres (47 mi) away). People not living in a closed city were subject to document checks and security checkpoints, and explicit permission was required for them to visit.[3] To relocate to a closed city, one would need security clearance by the organization running it, such as the KGB in Soviet closed cities.

Closed cities were sometimes guarded by a security perimeter with barbed wire and towers. The very fact of such a city's existence was often classified, and residents were expected not to divulge their place of residence to outsiders. This lack of freedom was often compensated by better housing conditions and a better choice of goods in retail trade than elsewhere in the country.[1] Also, in the Soviet Union, people working with classified information received a salary bonus.[citation needed]


Map indicating federal subjects containing closed cities used for nuclear research and development

Closed cities were established in the Soviet Union from the late 1940s onwards under the euphemistic name of "post boxes", referring to the practice of addressing post to them via mailboxes in other cities. They fell into two distinct categories.

  1. The first category comprised relatively small communities with sensitive military, industrial, or scientific facilities, such as arms plants or nuclear research sites.[4] Examples are the modern towns of Ozyorsk (Chelyabinsk-65) with a plutonium production plant, and Sillamäe, the site of a uranium enrichment facility. Even Soviet citizens were not allowed access to these places without proper authorization. In addition to this, some bigger cities were closed for unauthorized access to foreigners, while they were freely accessible to Soviet citizens. These included cities like Perm, a center for Soviet artillery, munitions, and also aircraft engines production, and Vladivostok, the headquarters and primary base of the Soviet Pacific Fleet.
  2. The second category consisted of border cities (and some whole border areas, such as the Kaliningrad Oblast,[citation needed] Saaremaa, and Hiiumaa), which were closed for security purposes. Comparable closed areas existed elsewhere in the Eastern bloc; a substantial area along the inner German border and the border between West Germany and Czechoslovakia was placed under similar restrictions (although by the 1970s foreigners could cross the latter by train). Citizens were required to have special permits to enter such areas.

The locations of the first category of closed cities were chosen for their geographical characteristics. They were often established in remote places deep in the Urals and Siberia, out of reach of enemy bombers. They were built close to rivers and lakes that were used to provide the large amounts of water needed for heavy industry and nuclear technology. Existing civilian settlements in the vicinity were often used as sources of construction labour. Although the closure of cities originated as a strictly temporary measure that was to be normalized under more favorable conditions, in practice the closed cities took on a life of their own and became a notable institutional feature of the Soviet system.[5]

Any movement to and from closed areas was tightly controlled. Foreigners were prohibited from entering them and local citizens were under stringent restrictions. They had to have special permission to travel there or leave, and anyone seeking residency was required to undergo vetting by the NKVD and its successor agencies. Access to some closed cities was physically enforced by surrounding them with barbed wire fences monitored by armed guards.



"Mailbox" (Russian: Почтовый ящик, romanizedPochtovyy yashchik) was the unofficial name of a secret Soviet facility much like the closed city, but smaller, usually the size of a factory. The name of such a facility was usually secret, as were the activities there. Incoming mail was addressed to "Mailbox #XXXX", thus the name of "mailbox". Most Soviet design bureaus (OKB) for weapons, aircraft, space technology, military electronics, etc., were "mailboxes".[citation needed]




A view of Severomorsk, Murmansk Oblast, Russia, which is home to the Northern Fleet.

Russia has the largest number of closed cities. The policy of closing cities underwent major changes in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The adoption of a new constitution for the Russian Federation in 1993 prompted significant reforms to the status of closed cities, which were renamed "closed administrative-territorial formations" (or ZATO, after the Russian acronym). Municipally, all such entities have a status of urban okrugs, as mandated by the federal law.

There are currently[as of?] 44 publicly acknowledged closed cities in Russia with a total population of about 1.5 million people. Seventy-five percent are administered by the Russian Ministry of Defense, with the rest being administered by Rosatom.[6] Another 15 or so closed cities are believed to exist, but their names and locations have not been publicly disclosed by the Russian government.[7]

Some Russian closed cities are open for foreign investment, but foreigners may enter only with a permit. An example is the Nuclear Cities Initiative (NCI), a joint effort of the United States National Nuclear Security Administration and Minatom, which involves in part the cities of Sarov, Snezhinsk, and Zheleznogorsk.

The number of closed cities has been significantly reduced since the mid-1990s. However, on 30 October 2001, foreign travel (without any exceptions) was restricted in the northern cities of Norilsk, Talnakh, Kayerkan, Dudinka, and Igarka. Russian and Belarusian citizens visiting these cities are not required to have any permits; however, local courts are known to deport Belarusian citizens.[8]

The number of closed cities in Russia is defined by government decree (see links further). They include the following cities. Reasons for restrictions are denoted in the descriptions below.

Altai Krai

Amur Oblast

  • Uglegorsk – formerly known as Svobodny-18 (Свободный-18), site of the second Russian trial cosmodrome of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, also called Svobodny Cosmodrome.

Arkhangelsk Oblast

Astrakhan Oblast

Republic of Bashkortostan

  • Mezhgorye – formerly known as Ufa-105 (Уфа-105) and Beloretsk-15 (Белорецк-15), home to the 129th Directorate of strategic subjects' technical supply and maintenance.

Chelyabinsk Oblast

A street in Snezhinsk, Russia
  • Lokomotivny
  • Ozyorsk – formerly known as Chelyabinsk-65 (Челябинск-65) and Chelyabinsk-40 (Челябинск-40), nuclear material processing and recycling plant.[10][11]
  • Snezhinsk – formerly known as Chelyabinsk-70 (Челябинск-70), site of one of the two major Russian Federal Nuclear Centers.[10]
  • Tryokhgorny – formerly known as Zlatoust-36 (Златоуст-36), site of development of parts and machinery for atomic stations and weaponry.[10]

Kamchatka Krai

  • Vilyuchinsk – formerly known as Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky-50 (Петропавловск-Камчатский-50), base of a squadron of submarines from the Russian Pacific Fleet, also involved in the production of nuclear submarines.[citation needed]

Kirov Oblast

  • Pervomaysky – formerly known as Yurya-2 (Юрья-2).

Krasnoyarsk Krai

Moscow Oblast

  • Krasnoznamensk – formerly known as Golitsyno-2 (Голицыно-2).
  • Molodyozhny – formerly known as Naro-Fominsk-5 (Наро-Фоминск-5).
  • Vlasikha – formerly known as Gorky-2 (Горький-2).
  • Voskhod – formerly known as Novopetrovsk-2 (Новопетровск-2).
  • Zvyozdny gorodok – formerly known as Shchyolkovo-14 (Щёлково-14).

Murmansk Oblast

A view of Snezhnogorsk, Russia

Nizhny Novgorod Oblast

Sarov Monastery in Sarov, Russia (1904)

Orenburg Oblast

Penza Oblast

Perm Krai

The cultural center in Zvyozdny, Russia
  • Zvyozdny – formerly known as Perm-76 (Пермь-76).

Primorsky Krai

  • Fokino – formerly known as Shkotovo-17 (Шкотово-17).[17]

Pskov Oblast

Saratov Oblast

Sverdlovsk Oblast

Tomsk Oblast

A view of Seversk, Russia

Tver Oblast

Vladimir Oblast

Zabaykalsky Krai

  • Gorny – formerly known as Chita-46 (Чита-46).

Restricted territories


There is a list of territories within Russia that do not have closed-city status but require special permits for foreigners to visit.[18] The largest locality within such territory is the city of Norilsk.[19]





There were two closed cities in Estonia: Sillamäe and Paldiski. As with all the other industrial cities, their population was mainly Russian-speaking. Sillamäe was the site for a chemical factory that produced fuel rods and nuclear materials for the Soviet nuclear power plants and nuclear weapon facilities, while Paldiski was home to a Soviet Navy nuclear submarine training centre. Sillamäe was closed until Estonia regained its independence in 1991; Paldiski remained closed until 1994, when the last Russian warship left.[20]

Tartu, home to Raadi Airfield, was partially closed. Foreign academics could visit the University of Tartu, but had to sleep elsewhere.


An aerial view of Baikonur, Kazakhstan
  • Baikonur, a town close to the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, which is rented and administered by Russia. Non-resident visitors will need pre-approval from the Russian authorities to visit both the town of Baikonur itself and the Cosmodrome. Note that said approval is completely separate from just having a Russian visa. Some tourism organisations in Kazakhstan provide services in organising trips to visit Baikonur and the museums contained there.
  • Priozersk, Kazakhstan[21]
  • Kurchatov, Kazakhstan[22] – a former closed city that known by its postal code, Semipalatinsk-21.[23]




  • Karosta, a former Russian and Soviet naval base.
  • Skrunda-1, a former Soviet communications base. Currently used by the Latvian Armed Forces as of 2022.



Moldova has one partially closed city: the village of Cobasna (Rîbnița District), which is under the control of the unrecognized state of Transnistria internationally recognized as part of Moldova. The village, on the left bank of the Dniester river, contains a large Soviet-era ammunition depot guarded by Russian troops.[25][26] Only the Transnistrian and Russian authorities have detailed information about this depot.[27]



Ukraine had eighteen closed cities, including:

Other countries




During the period of communist rule in Albania, the towns of Çorovodë and Qyteti Stalin (now Kuçovë) were closed cities with a military airport, military industry and other critical war infrastructure.






  • Riems, Germany, an island in the Bay of Greifswald, is home to the oldest virological research institution in the world and is closed to the public. Quarantine stables and laboratories have a high level of security. This means employees and visitors to the complex must change their clothes and shower when entering and exiting.

Hong Kong

A signboard for the Frontier Closed Area in Hong Kong

The Frontier Closed Area (FCA) is a fenced stretch of land along the northern border of Hong Kong, which serves as a buffer between the closed border and the rest of the territory. For anyone to enter the area, a Closed Area Permit is required. Between 1951 and 2012, it contained dozens of villages over an area of 28 square kilometres. Upon several stages of reduction, by 2016, the border town of Sha Tau Kok remains as the only settlement within the FCA.

South Korea


Within the Korean Demilitarized Zone between North Korea and South Korea are two "peace villages" (one maintained by each nation): Daeseong-dong (South) and (possibly) Kijŏng-dong (North). Access by non-residents to Daeseong-dong requires a military escort, while Kijŏng-dong is not accessible to visitors.

North Korea


The Yongbyon Nuclear Scientific Research Center sits within a closed city that occupies 24.8 square kilometers (9.6 sq mi).[35] The classification of a city being closed or not closed is dubious in a North Korean context, as North Korean citizens generally need a permit if they wish to travel outside of their county,[citation needed] and further permits required for entry to Pyongyang,[citation needed] thus the whole nation could be considered closed.



Saudi Arabia

  • Mecca is strictly closed to non-Muslims. Similar restrictions are in place for the city center of Medina.[39][40]

South Africa

  • Alexander Bay, Northern Cape. After diamonds were discovered along this coast in 1925 by Hans Merensky, Alexander Bay became known for its mining activities. The town was a high-security area and permits were needed when entered. Today, it is no longer a high-security area and no permits are needed.


  • Fårö and the northernmost parts of Gotland were closed to foreign citizens until 1998.[41]

United Kingdom

  • Imber, England, has been closed since 1943 when its residents were evicted by the British Army, who continue to use the village as a training ground for urban warfare. While most of the village's buildings have been demolished and replaced for training purposes, the village church (St Giles') was kept intact and the village is occasionally opened to the public during holidays.
  • Foulness Island contains two villages with permanent residences, but public right of way is limited to certain paths and access controlled by the Ministry of Defence. The site contains an active live firing range, as well as several inactive firing ranges and other structures as well as the site of the development and testing of the UK's first atomic weapons.

United States

Gold Coast Historic District, in Richland, Washington, US

Between 1957 and 1962, approximately one-third of the United States was closed to Soviet citizens.[49] Only eight states were accessible in their entirety: Oregon, Wyoming, Utah, North Carolina, Arkansas, Vermont, Missouri, and Mississippi.[49][50]


The 2020 film Tenet prominently features a fictional Soviet-era closed city in Siberia called Stalsk-12.[51]

See also



  1. ^ a b c Sergeeva, Kristina. "Mailbox44". Point.51. Archived from the original on 2023-03-27. Retrieved 2022-08-26.
  2. ^ "New Opportunities for Russia's Closed Cities". Retrieved 25 February 2024.
  3. ^ "City border". Photoarchives. FOTOESCAPE. Archived from the original on 2013-11-15. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
  4. ^ "Secret Cities". GlobalSecurity.org. Accessed August 2011.
  5. ^ Victor Zaslavsky, "Ethnic group divided: social stratification and nationality policy in the Soviet Union", p. 224, in Peter Joseph Potichnyj, The Soviet Union: Party and Society, Cambridge University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-521-34460-3.
  6. ^ Nadezhda Kutepova & Olga Tsepilova, "A short history of the ZATO", pp. 148–149, in Cultures of Contamination, Volume 14: Legacies of Pollution in Russia and the US (Research in Social Problems and Public Policy), editors Michael Edelstein, Maria Tysiachniouk, Lyudmila V. Smirnova. JAI Press, 2007. ISBN 0-7623-1371-4
  7. ^ Greg Kaser, "Motivation and Redirection: Rationale and Achievements in the Russian Closed Nuclear Cities", p. 3, in Countering Nuclear and Radiological Terrorism, editors David J. Diamond, Samuel Apikyan, Greg Kaser. Springer, 2006. ISBN 1-4020-4897-1
  8. ^ "Вопреки распространённому мнению, Норильск закрыт и для граждан Беларуси - Визовые новости по странам бывшего СССР". Archived from the original on 2017-06-13. Retrieved 2017-03-31.
  9. ^ Nemtsova, Anna. "Secret Cities Revealed". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Sokova, Elena (June 1, 2002). "Russia's Ten Nuclear Cities". Nuclear Threat Initiative. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  11. ^ "Russian village evacuation as rocket blast sparks radiation fears: Nyonoksa residents asked to leave within a day after last week's explosion that spiked radiation levels up to 16 times". Al Jazeera. 13 August 2019. Retrieved 17 October 2019. See 25 minute video of Felicity Barr's interview of Nadezhda Kutepova.
  12. ^ Official website of Solnechny. About the Settlement (in Russian)
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Kassenova, Togzhan (2007). From Antagonism to Partnership: The Uneasy Path of the U.S.-Russian Cooperative Threat Reduction. Columbia University Press. p. 244. ISBN 978-3898217071.
  14. ^ Gray, Nathan (April 15, 2013). "Investment questions for Russia's closed cities". The Moscow News. Archived from the original on 5 July 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  15. ^ Zhigulsky, Anton (October 25, 1995). "Former Closed Cities Host International Fair". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  16. ^ Mangione, Giulia (June 16, 2014). "Zarechny: a rare glimpse into one of Russia's last closed cities". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  17. ^ Chuen, Cristina Hansell (May 24, 2007). "Russian Nuclear-Powered Submarine Dismantlement and Related Activities: A Critique". James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. Archived from the original on 24 February 2010. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  18. ^ "Постановление Правительства РФ от 4 июля 1992 г. N 470 "Об утверждении Перечня территорий Российской Федерации с регламентированным посещением для иностранных граждан" (с изменениями и дополнениями)". GARANT.
  19. ^ "Norilsk: A Closed City in Siberia". TheProtoCity.com. 2012-04-27. Retrieved 2020-02-10.
  20. ^ Ramirez-de-la-Piscina Armendariz, Eneko (2014). "FORMER CLOSED CITIES IN THE SOVIET BALTIC SEA REGION / LANDSCAPE" (PDF). Estonian University of Life Sciences.
  21. ^ Wofford, Taylor (September 28, 2014). "A Look Inside the 'Closed Cities,' the Radioactive Ruins on Russia's Border With Kazakhstan". Newsweek. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  22. ^ Slobig, Zaxhary (October 15, 2014). "Photos: The Ruins of the USSR's Secret Nuclear Cities". Wired. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  23. ^ "UN News Special Report: 'Ground Zero' at the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan". UN News. 29 August 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  24. ^ Afifi, Tamer; Jäger, editors, Jill (5 August 2010). Environment, Forced Migration and Social Vulnerability. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 241. ISBN 9783642124167. Retrieved 30 December 2017. {{cite book}}: |last2= has generic name (help)
  25. ^ Dulgher, Maria (9 August 2020). "The Russian ammunition depot from Cobasna discussed against the backdrop of the Beirut explosion". Moldova.org.
  26. ^ Ciochină, Simion; Schwartz, Robert (1 December 2015). "Transnistria's explosive inheritance from the Soviet era". Deutsche Welle.
  27. ^ Ciochină, Simion (27 November 2015). "Cel mai mare depozit ilegal de arme din Europa de Est". Deutsche Welle (in Romanian).
  28. ^ "Grappling with environmental risks in the fog of war". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. March 10, 2022.
  29. ^ "East Arnhem Land Access Permits". eastarnhemland.com.au. 9 March 2023.
  30. ^ "China Boasts Breakthrough In Nuclear Technology". The Weekly Voice. 7 January 2011. Archived from the original on 10 January 2016. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
  31. ^ 李杨 (3 February 2015). "404:与世隔绝的核城往事". GEO杂志. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
  32. ^ 吴廷桢,郭厚安主编 (1996). 河西开发史研究. 甘肃教育出版社. pp. 617–619. ISBN 7-5423-0675-8.
  33. ^ 环保部西北核与辐射安全监督站驻四〇四厂监督点调研团. "静静地守候 默默地奉献". No. 25 September 2013. 中央国家机关团工委2013年“根在基层·中国梦”(美丽中国)调研实践活动. Archived from the original on 2 May 2019. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
  34. ^ 施翔、苏丽 (5 August 2013). "未办手续进入限制区域 6名外国人被责令离开". 青海法制报. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
  35. ^ Bogle, Jacob (20 March 2020). "More Underground Facilities Near Yongbyon: A Potential Challenge for Future Denuclearization Deals". 38 North. The Henry L. Stimson Center. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  36. ^ http://islas.org.mx/index.php?mod=proy&op=islagua Islas.org.mx. Conservación de Islas. Isla Guadalupe. Retrieved August 17, 2018.
  37. ^ http://sdsharkdiving.com/isla-guadalupe/ Sdsharkdiving.com/isla-guadalupe. San Diego Shark Diving. Isla Guadalupe White Shark Trip - FAQs. Retrieved August 17, 2018.
  38. ^ http://www.squalodivers.com/guadalupe-island-giants-fortress/ Squalo Divers. Guadalupe Island, Giant Fortress. March 27, 2017. Retrieved August 17, 2018.
  39. ^ Peters, Francis E. (1994). The Hajj: The Muslim Pilgrimage to Mecca and the Holy Places. Princeton University Press. p. 206. ISBN 0-691-02619-X.
  40. ^ Esposito, John L. (2011). What everyone needs to know about Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 25. ISBN 9780199794133. Mecca, like Medina, is closed to non-Muslims
  41. ^ Ihreskog, Magnus (25 May 2022). "Fårö och norra Gotland var förbjudet för utlänningar" [Fårö and northern Gotland were forbidden for foreigners]. Helagotland (in Swedish). Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  42. ^ "Tighter Security Checks for Visitors". Dugway Proving Ground/United States Army. March 2, 2016. Archived from the original on November 12, 2017. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  43. ^ "DPG Visitors Guide" (PDF). United States Army, Dugway Proving Ground. p. 9. Archived from the original (pdf) on November 12, 2017. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  44. ^ Conant, Jennet (2005). 109 East Palace: Robert Oppenheimer and the Secret City of Los Alamos (2005 paperback ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 112. ISBN 9781416585428. Retrieved August 3, 2023.
  45. ^ Slotnik, Daniel (March 25, 2021). "Up to a tenth of New York City's coronavirus dead may be buried in a potter's field: An analysis found that more than 2,334 adults were buried on Hart Island last year, up from 846 in 2019". The New York Times. New York. Retrieved Oct 10, 2023.
  46. ^ Hart Island Project, The (2021). "COVID-19 Initiative". website. New York. Retrieved Oct 10, 2023.
  47. ^ Hennigan, W.J. (Nov 18, 2020). "Lost in the Pandemic: Inside New York City's Mass Graveyard on Hart Island". Time magazine. New York. Retrieved Oct 29, 2023.
  48. ^ Hart Island; Melinda Hunt and Joel Sternfeld; ISBN 3-931141-90-X
  49. ^ a b Russians Were Once Banned From a Third of the U.S. National Geographic.
  50. ^ Restricting Soviet Travel in the U.S. During the Cold War Library of Congress
  51. ^ Pym, Olivia (29 August 2020). "The Closed Cities Of 'Tenet' Are A Real Relic Of The Soviet Union And Beyond". Esquire. Retrieved 15 October 2022.

Further reading