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In the field of counterintelligence, a double agent is an employee of a secret intelligence service for one country, whose primary purpose is to spy on a target organization of another country, but who is now spying on their own country's organization for the target organization.
Double agentry may be practised by spies of the target organization who infiltrate the controlling organization or may result from the turning (switching sides) of previously loyal agents of the controlling organization by the target. The threat of execution is the most common method of turning a captured agent (working for an intelligence service) into a double agent (working for a foreign intelligence service) or a double agent into a re-doubled agent. It is unlike a defector, who is not considered an agent as agents are in place to function for an intelligence service and defectors are not, but some consider that defectors in place are agents until they have defected.
Double agents are often used to transmit disinformation or to identify other agents as part of counter-espionage operations. They are often very trusted by the controlling organization since the target organization will give them true, but useless or even counterproductive, information to pass along.
|Context||Agent / Code name||Nationality||Loyal to||Spying on||Comments||References|
|Wars of the Three Kingdoms
1639 – 1651
|Samuel Morland||English||Restoration||Commonwealth of England|
|Richard Willis||English||Commonwealth of England||Restoration|
|World War I
1914 – 1918
|Mata Hari||Dutch||German Empire||French Third Republic|
|World War II
1939 – 1945
|Mathilde Carré "La Chatte"||French||Double-Cross System|
|Roman Czerniawski "Brutus"||Polish||Double-Cross System|
|Eddie Chapman "ZigZag"||English||Double-Cross System||Infiltrated the German Abwehr during World War II whilst feeding intelligence to MI5. He was so trusted by the Germans that he is reportedly the only British citizen to have ever been awarded the Iron Cross.|
|Walter Dicketts "Celery"||English||Double-Cross System (1940-1943)||Ex-RNAS officer sent to Lisbon and Germany to infiltrate the Abwehr, report on invasion plans for Britain, and establish the bona fides of Snow (subsequently imprisoned until the end of war). Subjected to an intensive five-day interrogation in Hamburg and survived. Later sent back to Lisbon to persuade Abwehr officer, George Sessler, to defect and worked undercover in Brazil.|
|Roger Grosjean "Fido"||French||Double-Cross System||French Air Force pilot who worked for the British|
|Christiaan Lindemans "King Kong"||Dutch||Abwehr (1944)|| SOE (1940-1944)
Dutch resistance (1941-1944)
|Arthur Owens "Snow"||Welsh||Double-Cross System|
|Johann-Nielsen Jebsen "Jonny" "Artist"||German|| Abwehr (1939-1941)
|Abwehr (1941-1945)||Anti-Nazi German intelligence officer and British double agent. Jebsen recruited Dušan Popov.|
|Ivan Popov "LaLa" "Aesculap" "Dreadnought" "Hans"||Serbian|| VOA (1939-1945)
|Abwehr (1941-1945)||Worked for the Yugoslavian agency VOA, as well as the British MI6 and the German Abwehr. Held the rank of Obersturmbannführer in the Gestapo. Brother of Dušan Popov.|
|Dušan Popov "Duško" "Tricycle" "Ivan"||Serbian|| VOA (1939-1945)
|Abwehr (1941-1945)||Worked for the Yugoslavian agency VOA, as well as the British MI6 and the German Abwehr. Held the rank of colonel in the British Army. Brother of Ivan Popov.|
|John Herbert Neal Moe "Mutt and Jeff"||Norwegian||Double-Cross System|
|Tor Glad "Mutt and Jeff"||Norwegian||Double-Cross System|
|Juan Pujol García "Garbo"||Spanish||Double-Cross System||British double agent in German spy service; awarded both an MBE and an Iron Cross|
||Member of Red Orchestra spy ring who, after being unmasked by the Gestapo in 1942, fed false information to the Soviet Union from August until his escape in November. Later joined the Belgian Resistance.|
|William Sebold "Tramp"|| German
|FBI (1939)||Abwehr (1939)||Coerced by the Abwehr into becoming a spy, exposed the Duquesne Spy Ring to the FBI.|
1947 – 1991
|Aldrich Ames||American||KGB||CIA (1957-1994)|
|John Cairncross "Liszt"||Scottish|| MGB
| MI5 (1941-1944)
|Anthony Blunt "Johnson"||English|| NKVD
|Guy Burgess "Hicks"||English|| MGB
| MI5 (1939-1941)
Foreign Office (1944-1956)
|Donald Maclean "Homer"||English|| MGB
|Kim Philby "Stanley"|| English
Born in India
|Oleg Gordievsky "Sunbeam" "Nocton" "Pimlico" "Ovation"||Russian||MI6 (1968-2008)||KGB (1963-1985)||Abducted in Moscow in 1985; escaped to the United Kingdom two months later.|
|Matei Pavel Haiducu||Romanian||DST (1981)||DIE (1975-1982)||Defected to France in 1981.|
|Dmitri Polyakov||Ukrainian|| FBI
|GRU||Executed in 1988.|
|Robert Hanssen||American||GRU||FBI||Worked for the FBI and sold information to the Soviet Union as a mole.|
|Oleg Penkovskiy "Hero"||Russian|| NSA
|GRU||A colonel with GRU informed the U.K. and the U.S. about the Soviet emplacement of missiles in Cuba; executed by the Soviets in 1963.|
|Stig Bergling||Swedish||GRU||SÄPO||Among other things, handed over the entire Swedish "FO-code", a top secret list of Sweden's defence establishments, coastal artillery fortifications and mobilization stores. Convicted in 1979 and sentenced to life imprisonment for treason.|
|Ashraf Marwan||Egyptian||Mossad||Egypt||Egyptian businessman and an alleged spy for Israel, or possibly an Egyptian double agent; managed to become celebrated as a hero in each country for his alleged work against the other.|
1959 – 2011
|Mikel Lejarza "El Lobo"||Basque||CESID||ETA|
|Northern Ireland conflict
1968 – 1998
|Denis Donaldson||Northern Irish|| MI5
| Provisional IRA
|Assassinated at his cottage in County Donegal after being exposed by a Northern Ireland newspaper, The Derry Journal.|
|"Kevin Fulton"||Northern Irish|| Royal Irish Rangers
|Freddie Scappaticci "Stakeknife"||Irish||FRU|| Provisional IRA
|Robert Nairac|| English
born in Mauritius
|British Army||Provisional IRA||Murdered by the Provisional IRA in County Louth in 1977.|
|South African espionage in Zimbabwe and the Gukurahundi
1980 – 1987
|Philip Conjwayo|| Zimbabwean
South African citizen
|Michael Smith|| Zimbabwean
South African citizen
|Kevin Woods|| Zimbabwean
South African citizen
|Global War on Terrorism
|"April Fool"||American||United States||Iraq||Allegedly, an American officer who provided false information to Saddam Hussein|
|Iyman Faris||U.S. citizen||al-Qaeda||FBI|
A re-doubled agent is an agent who gets caught as a double agent and is forced to mislead the foreign intelligence service. F.M. Begoum describes the re-doubled agent as "one whose duplicity in doubling for another service has been detected by his original sponsor and who has been persuaded to reverse his affections again".
A triple agent is a spy who pretends to be a double agent for one side, while they are truthfully a double agent for the other side. Unlike a re-doubled agent, who changes allegiance due to being compromised, a triple agent is usually considered to have been always loyal to their original side. It may also refer to a spy who works for three opposing sides, such that each side thinks the spy works for them alone.
Notable triple agents include:
Events in which double agents played an important role
- Babington plot
- Battle of Lexington
- Battle of Normandy
- Camp Chapman attack
- Cold War
- Duquesne Spy Ring
- Vietnam War
- War on Terrorism
- Yom Kippur War
- ^ "Definition of DOUBLE AGENT". merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
- ^ a b Begoum, F.M. "Observations on the Double Agent". Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on January 9, 2008. Retrieved January 5, 2010.
- ^ Witt, Carolinda (November 2017). Double Agent Celery. Barnsley, UK: Pen & Sword Books. ISBN 9781526716149. pp. 182-186
- ^ García, Juan Pujol; West, Nigel (2011). "Childhood". Operation Garbo: The Personal Story of the Most Successful Spy of World War II. Biteback Publishing. ISBN 9781849546256.
- ^ a b c Berkeley, Bill (1989-10-22). "Apartheid's Spies". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2018-10-18.
- ^ a b c Dube, Benson (2014-02-21). "Philip Conjwayo dies". Southern Eye. Retrieved 2018-10-22.
- Naveed Jamali; Ellis Henican (2015). How to Catch a Russian Spy: The True Story of an American Civilian Turned Double Agent. Scribner. ISBN 978-1476788821.
- Masterson, J.C. (1972). The Double-Cross System in the War of 1939 to 1945. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-01496-1.