|14 August 1941|
|17 May 1943|
The Five Eyes (FVEY) is an intelligence alliance comprising Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. These countries are parties to the multilateral UKUSA Agreement, a treaty for joint cooperation in signals intelligence.
The origins of the FVEY can be traced to informal secret meetings during World War II between British and American code-breakers, which started before the U.S. formally entered the war, followed by the Allies' 1941 Atlantic Charter that established their vision of the post-war world. Canadian academic Srdjan Vucetic argues the alliance emerged from Winston Churchill's Iron Curtain speech in 1946, which warned of open conflict with the Soviet bloc unless the English-speaking democracies learned to cooperate:
Neither the sure prevention of war, nor the continuous rise of world organisation will be gained without what I have called the fraternal association of the English-speaking peoples. This means a special relationship between the British Commonwealth and Empire and the United States... the continuance of the intimate relationship between our military advisers, leading to common study of potential dangers..."
As the Cold War deepened, the intelligence sharing arrangement became formalised under the ECHELON surveillance system in the 1960s. This was initially developed by the FVEY to monitor the communications of the former Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc, although it is now used to monitor communications worldwide.
In the late 1990s, the existence of ECHELON was disclosed to the public, triggering a major debate in the European Parliament and, to a lesser extent, the United States Congress. The FVEY further expanded their surveillance capabilities during the course of the "war on terror", with much emphasis placed on monitoring the World Wide Web. Former NSA contractor Edward Snowden described the Five Eyes as a "supra-national intelligence organisation that does not answer to the known laws of its own countries". Documents leaked by Snowden in 2013 revealed that the FVEY has been spying on one another's citizens and sharing the collected information with each other in order to circumvent restrictive domestic regulations on surveillance of citizens.
In spite of continued controversy over its methods, the Five Eyes relationship remains one of the most comprehensive known espionage alliances in history.
Since processed intelligence is gathered from multiple sources, the intelligence shared is not restricted to signals intelligence (SIGINT) and often involves defence intelligence as well as human intelligence (HUMINT) and geospatial intelligence (GEOINT).
The following table provides an overview of most of the FVEY agencies involved in such forms of data sharing.
The earliest origins of the Five Eyes alliance are secret meetings between British and US code-breakers at the British code-breaking establishment at Bletchley Park in February 1941 (before the US entry into the war). A February 1941 entry in the diary of Alastair Denniston, head of Bletchley Park, reading "The Ys are coming!" ("Ys" referring to "Yanks") is the first record, followed by "Ys arrive" on 10 February. The British and US agencies shared extremely confidential information, including the British breaking of the German Enigma code, and the US breaking of the Japanese Purple code. From then key figures travelled back and forth across the Atlantic, including Denniston and code-breaking expert Alan Turing. The practical relationship established for wartime signals intelligence developed into a formal signed agreement at the start of the post-war Cold War.
The formal Five Eyes alliance can be traced back to the Atlantic Charter, which was issued in August 1941 to lay out the Allied goals for the post-war world. On 17 May 1943, the British–U.S. Communication Intelligence Agreement, also known as the BRUSA Agreement, was signed by the UK and U.S. governments to facilitate co-operation between the U.S. War Department and the British Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS). On 5 March 1946, the secret treaty was formalized as the UKUSA Agreement, which forms the basis for all signal intelligence cooperation between the NSA and GCHQ to this day.
In 1948, the treaty was extended to include Canada, followed by Norway (1952), Denmark (1954), West Germany (1955), Australia (1956), and New Zealand (1956). These countries participated in the alliance as "third parties". By 1955, the formal status of the remaining Five Eyes countries was officially acknowledged in a newer version of the UKUSA Agreement that contained the following statement:
During the Cold War (generally accepted to be approximately the period 1947–1991), GCHQ and the NSA shared intelligence on the Soviet Union, the People's Republic of China, and several eastern European countries (known as Exotics). Over the course of several decades, the ECHELON surveillance network was developed to monitor the military and diplomatic communications of the Soviet Union and its Eastern Bloc allies.
During the Vietnam War, Australian and New Zealand operators in the Asia-Pacific region worked directly to support the United States, while GCHQ operators stationed in the (then) British colony of Hong Kong were tasked with monitoring North Vietnamese air defence networks. During the Falklands War, the British received intelligence data from its FVEY allies such as Australia, as well as from third parties such as Norway and France. In the aftermath of the Gulf War, a technician of the ASIS was used by SIS to bug Kuwaiti government offices.
In the 1950s, SIS and the CIA jointly orchestrated the overthrow of Iran's Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh. In the 1960s, SIS and the CIA jointly orchestrated the assassination of the Congolese independence leader Patrice Lumumba. In the 1970s, the ASIS and the CIA jointly orchestrated the overthrow of Chile's President Salvador Allende. During the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, SIS and the CIA took part in Operation Yellowbird to rescue dissidents from the Chinese regime.
ECHELON network disclosures (1972–2000)
By the end of the 20th century, the ECHELON surveillance network had evolved into a global system capable of sweeping up massive amounts of private and commercial communications, including telephone calls, fax, e-mail and other data traffic. This was done through the interception of communication bearers such as satellite transmission and public switched telephone networks.
The Five Eyes has two types of information collection methods: the PRISM program and the Upstream collection system. The PRISM program gathers user information from technology firms such as Google, Apple and Microsoft, while the Upstream system gathers information directly from the communications of civilians via fiber cables and infrastructure as data flows past. The program's first disclosure to the public came in 1972 when a former NSA communications analyst reported to Ramparts Magazine that the NSA had developed technology that "could crack all Soviet codes". In 1988, Duncan Campbell revealed in the New Statesman the existence of ECHELON, an extension of the UKUSA Agreement on global signals intelligence [Sigint]. The story, 'Somebody's listening,' detailed how the eavesdropping operations were not only being employed in the interests of 'national security,' but were regularly abused for corporate espionage in the service of US business interests. The piece passed largely unnoticed outside of journalism circles. In 1996, a detailed description of ECHELON was provided by New Zealand journalist Nicky Hager in a book titled "Secret Power – New Zealand's Role in the International Spy Network", which was cited by the European Parliament in a 1998 report titled "An Appraisal of the Technology of Political Control" (PE 168.184). On 16 March 2000, the Parliament called for a resolution on the Five Eyes and their ECHELON surveillance network, which, if passed, would have called for the "complete dismantling of ECHELON".
Three months later, the Temporary Committee on ECHELON was set up by the European Parliament to investigate the ECHELON surveillance network. However, according to a number of European politicians such as Esko Seppänen of Finland, these investigations were hindered by the European Commission.
In the United States, congressional legislators warned that the ECHELON system could be used to monitor U.S. citizens. On 14 May 2001, the U.S. government cancelled all meetings with the Temporary Committee on ECHELON.
War on Terror (since 2001)
During the run-up to the Iraq War, the communications of UN weapons inspector Hans Blix were monitored by the Five Eyes. The office of UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan was bugged by British agents. An NSA memo detailed plans of the Five Eyes to boost eavesdropping on UN delegations of six countries as part of a "dirty tricks" campaign to apply pressure on these six countries to vote in favour of using force against Iraq.
SIS and the CIA forged a surveillance partnership with Libya's ruler Muammar Gaddafi to spy on Libyan dissidents in the West, in exchange for permission to use Libya as a base for extraordinary renditions.
In 2013, documents leaked by the former NSA contractor Edward Snowden revealed the existence of numerous surveillance programs jointly operated by the Five Eyes. The following list includes several notable examples reported in the media:
- PRISM – Operated by the NSA together with GCHQ and the ASD
- XKeyscore – Operated by the NSA with contributions from the ASD and the GCSB
- Tempora – Operated by GCHQ with contributions from the NSA
- MUSCULAR – Operated by GCHQ and the NSA
- STATEROOM – Operated by the ASD, CIA, CSE, GCHQ, and NSA
In November 2020, the Five Eyes alliance criticised China's rules which disqualified elected legislators in Hong Kong.
Competition with China (since 2018)
On 1 December 2018, Meng Wanzhou, a Huawei executive, was arrested by Canadian authorities at Vancouver International Airport, in order to face charges of fraud and conspiracy in the United States. China responded by arresting two Canadian nationals. According to the South China Morning Post this conflict was seen by analysts as the beginning of a direct clash between the CCPs leadership of China and members of the Five Eyes alliance. In the months that followed, the United States placed restrictions on technology exchanges with China. Following prompting by parliamentarians in Australia and by US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, the UK Government announced it would reduce the presence of Huawei technology in its 5G network to zero. The newspaper reported that these events were seen by Beijing as political warfare "waged with the world’s oldest intelligence alliance, the Five Eyes."
In mid-April 2021, the New Zealand Foreign Minister Nanaia Mahuta issued a statement that New Zealand would not let the Five Eyes alliance dictate its bilateral relationship with China and that New Zealand was uncomfortable with expanding the remit of the intelligence grouping. In response, the Australian Government expressed concern that Wellington was undermining collective efforts to combat what it regarded as Chinese aggression. Mahuta's remarks were echoed by New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern who claimed that while New Zealand was still committed to the Five Eyes alliance, it would not use the network as its first point for communicating on non-security matters. While The Telegraph's defence editor Con Coughlin and British Conservative Member of Parliament Bob Seely criticised New Zealand for undermining the Five Eyes' efforts to put a united front against Beijing, the Chinese Global Times praised New Zealand for putting its own national interests over the Five Eyes.
In late April 2021, the Global Times reported that employees of companies and organisations considered to be "at-risk" of foreign infiltration travelling to the Five Eyes countries would be monitored by the Chinese Ministry of State Security. These employees will be required to report their travel destinations, agendas, and meetings with foreign personnel to Chinese authorities. Other security measures include undergoing "pre-departure spying education" and leave their electronic devices at home and bring new ones abroad. These measures came at a time of heightened tensions between China and the Five Eyes countries.
In mid-December 2021, the United States Secretary of State Antony Blinken along with the Foreign Ministers of Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom issued a joint statement criticising the exclusion of opposition candidates, the Hong Kong national security law, and urging China to respect human rights and freedoms in Hong Kong in accordance with the Sino-British Joint Declaration. In response, the Chinese Government claimed the Hong Kong elections were fair and criticised the Five Eyes for interfering in Hong Kong's domestic affairs.
Russian Invasion of Ukraine in 2022
In May 2022, Justice ministers from the Five Eyes intelligence network have pledged their support to Ukraine in the prosecution of Russian war crimes. They would also support the investigations of the International Criminal Court (ICC), they said.
Domestic espionage sharing controversy
The Five Eyes alliance is sort of an artifact of the post World War II era where the Anglophone countries are the major powers banded together to sort of co-operate and share the costs of intelligence gathering infrastructure. … The result of this was over decades and decades some sort of a supra-national intelligence organisation that doesn't answer to the laws of its own countries.
In recent years, documents of the FVEY have shown that they are intentionally spying on one another's citizens and sharing the collected information with each other. Shami Chakrabarti, the director of the advocacy group Liberty, claimed that the FVEY alliance increases the ability of member states to "subcontract their dirty work" to each other. The former NSA contractor Edward Snowden described the FVEY as a "supra-national intelligence organisation that doesn't answer to the laws of its own countries".
As a result of Snowden's disclosures, the FVEY alliance has become the subject of a growing amount of controversy in parts of the world:
- Canada: In late 2013, Canadian federal judge Richard Mosley strongly rebuked the CSIS for outsourcing its surveillance of Canadians to overseas partner agencies. A 51-page court ruling asserts that the CSIS and other Canadian federal agencies have been illegally enlisting FVEY allies in global surveillance dragnets, while keeping domestic federal courts in the dark.
- New Zealand: In 2014, the NZSIS and the GCSB of New Zealand were asked by the New Zealand Parliament to clarify if they had received any monetary contributions from members of the FVEY alliance. Both agencies withheld relevant information and refused to disclose any possible monetary contributions from the FVEY. David Cunliffe, leader of the Labour Party, asserted that the public is entitled to be informed.
- European Union: In early 2014, the European Parliament's Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs released a draft report which confirmed that the intelligence agencies of New Zealand and Canada have cooperated with the NSA under the Five Eyes programme and may have been actively sharing the personal data of EU citizens.
Other international cooperatives
Beginning with its founding by the United States and United Kingdom in 1946, the alliance expanded twice, inducting Canada in 1948 and Australia and New Zealand in 1956, establishing the Five Eyes as it remains to this day. Further, there are nations termed "Third Party Partners" that share their intelligence with the Five Eyes despite not being formal members. While the Five Eyes is rooted in a particular agreement with specific operations amongst the five nations, similar sharing agreements have been set up independently and for specific purposes; for example, according to Edward Snowden, the NSA has a "massive body" called the Foreign Affairs Directorate dedicated to partnering with foreign countries beyond the alliance.
Six Eyes (proposed)
Several countries have been prospective members of the Five Eyes. Israel, Singapore, South Korea, and Japan have or continue to collaborate with the alliance, though none are formally members. According to French news magazine L'Obs, in 2009, the United States propositioned France to join the treaty and form a subsequent "Six Eyes" alliance. French President Nicolas Sarkozy required that France have the same status as the other members, including the signing of a "no-spy agreement". This proposal was approved by the director of the NSA, but rejected by the director of the CIA and by President Barack Obama, resulting in a refusal from France.
In 2013 it was reported that Germany was interested in joining the Five Eyes alliance. At that time, several members of the United States Congress, including Tim Ryan and Charles Dent, were pushing for Germany's entrance to the Five Eyes alliance.
Five Eyes Plus
Since 2018, through an initiative sometimes termed "Five Eyes Plus 3", Five Eyes formed associations with France, Germany and Japan to introduce an information-sharing framework to counter threats arising from foreign activities of China as well as Russia. Five Eyes plus France, Japan and South Korea share information about North Korea's military activities including ballistic missiles, in an arrangement sometimes dubbed "Five Eyes Plus".
According to a document leaked by Edward Snowden, there is another working agreement amongst 14 nations officially known as SIGINT Seniors Europe, or "SSEUR". These "14 Eyes" consist of the same members of Nine Eyes plus Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain and Sweden.
Further intelligence sharing collaborations
- An area specific sharing amongst the 41 nations that formed the allied coalition in Afghanistan;
- A shared effort of the Five Eyes nations in "focused cooperation" on computer network exploitation with Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey;
- Club of Berne: 17 members including primarily European States; the US is not a member;
- Maximator: an intelligence alliance between Denmark, Germany, France, the Netherlands and Sweden
- The Counterterrorist Group: a wider membership than the 17 European states that make up the Club of Berne, and includes the US;
- NATO Special Committee: made up of the heads of the security services of NATO's 30 member countries
- ABCANZ Armies
- AUSCANNZUKUS (navies)
- Air and Space Interoperability Council (air forces)
- Border Five
- Five Country Conference (immigration)
- Five Nations Passport Group
- The Technical Cooperation Program (technology and science)
- Combined Communications-Electronics Board (communication-electronics)
- Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD) Strategic dialogue among Australia, India, Japan and US
- AUKUS Trilateral security pact between Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States
- ANZUS Trilateral security pact between Australia, New Zealand, and the United States
- "Five Eyes Intelligence Oversight and Review Council (FIORC)". www.dni.gov.
- Cox, James (December 2012). "Canada and the Five Eyes Intelligence Community" (PDF). Canadian Defence and Foreign Affairs Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 September 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
- "Five Eyes". United States Army Combined Arms Center. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- "PKI Interoperability with FVEY Partner Nations on the NIPRNet". United States Department of the Navy. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- "CANZUK anyone? : Diplomat Magazine". Retrieved 8 March 2021.
- "The Sinews of Peace ('Iron Curtain Speech')". International Churchill Society. 5 March 1946. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
- "Five Eyes and the Perils of an Asymmetric Alliance – AIIA". Australian Institute of International Affairs. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
- Asser, Martin (6 July 2000). "Echelon: Big brother without a cause?". BBC. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- "Q&A: What you need to know about Echelon". BBC News. 29 May 2001. Archived from the original on 18 December 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- "Snowden-Interview: Transcript". Norddeutscher Rundfunk. 26 January 2014. Archived from the original on 28 January 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- Ball, James (20 November 2013). "US and UK struck secret deal to allow NSA to 'unmask' Britons' personal data". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 January 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- MacAskill, Ewen (2 December 2013). "Revealed: Australian spy agency offered to share data about ordinary citizens". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 18 January 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- Watt, Nicholas (10 June 2013). "NSA 'offers intelligence to British counterparts to skirt UK law'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 29 December 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
- British spy agency taps cables, shares with U.S. NSA – Guardian Archived 2014-01-25 at the Wayback Machine, Reuters, 21 June 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- Perry, Nick (16 July 2013). "Experts say US spy alliance will survive Snowden". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 27 June 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
- Corera, Gordon (5 March 2021). "Diary reveals birth of secret UK-US spy pact that grew into Five Eyes". BBC News.
- Farrell, Paul (2 December 2013). "History of 5-Eyes – explainer". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- Norton-Taylor, Richard (25 June 2010). "Not so secret: deal at the heart of UK-US intelligence". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 5 December 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- Cox, James (December 2012). "Canada and the Five Eyes Intelligence Community" (PDF). Canadian Defence and Foreign Affairs Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 December 2013.
- Aldrich, Richard (24 June 2010). "Allied code-breakers co-operate – but not always". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 15 September 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
- "Q&A: What you need to know about Echelon". BBC. 29 May 2001. Archived from the original on 18 December 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- Norton-Taylor, Richard (19 June 2010). "GCHQ by Richard Aldrich, Securing the State by David Omand". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
The US was especially keen on GCHQ's station in Hong Kong, particularly during the Vietnam war
- Campbell, Duncan (25 July 2000). "Inside Echelon". Heise Online. Archived from the original on 26 January 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- Jones, George (13 March 2002). "How France helped us win Falklands war". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 7 April 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- Milliken, Robert (23 February 1994). "Canberra spy link to MI6 alleged". The Independent. Archived from the original on 8 January 2018. Retrieved 27 August 2017.
- "Norsk lyttestasjon viktig brikke i Falklandskrigen" (in Norwegian). Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation. 21 May 2002. Archived from the original on 29 June 2009.
- Sanchez, Raf (19 August 2013). "British diplomats tried to suppress details of SIS role in Iran coup". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 28 August 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- Risen, James (16 April 2000). "Secrets Of History: The C.I.A. in Iran—A special report. How a Plot Convulsed Iran in '53 (and in '79)". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 25 September 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Declassified Documents Reveal CIA Role In 1953 Iranian Coup". NPR. 1 September 2013. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- Merica, Dan (20 August 2013). "In declassified document, CIA acknowledges role in '53 Iran coup". CNN. Archived from the original on 17 January 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- Corera, Gordon (2 April 2013). "MI6 and the death of Patrice Lumumba". BBC. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- DeYoung, Karen; Walter Pincus (27 June 2007). "CIA Releases Files On Past Misdeeds". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 21 January 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
A one-paragraph memo recounts planning for a "project involving the assassination of Patrice Lumumba, then premier of the Republic of Congo.
- "CIA details Cold War skulduggery". BBC. 26 June 2007. Archived from the original on 19 February 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- McDonald, Hamish (12 December 2006). "Canberra's furtive aid in overthrowing Allende". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 9 June 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- Suich, Max (20 March 2010). "Spymaster stirs spectre of covert foreign activities". The Australian. Archived from the original on 2 April 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- Herbert, David. "Questions over Australian involvement in Chile coup". Special Broadcasting Service. Archived from the original on 4 February 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- "The Other 9/11". Special Broadcasting Service. Archived from the original on 4 February 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- Anderlini, Jamil (1 June 2014). "Tiananmen Square: the long shadow". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 6 June 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
The extraction missions, aided by MI6, the UK’s Secret Intelligence Service, and the CIA, according to many accounts, had scrambler devices, infrared signallers, night-vision goggles and weapons.
- Schmid, Gerhard (11 July 2001). "On the existence of a global system for the interception of private and commercial communications (ECHELON interception system), (2001/2098(INI))" (pdf – 194 pages). European Parliament: Temporary Committee on the ECHELON Interception System. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- "NSA slides explain the PRISM data-collection program". The Washington Post. 10 July 2013.
- "Ex‐Code Analyst Explains His Aim". The New York Times. 19 July 1972. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 8 December 2019. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
- Campbell, Duncan. "duncancampbell.org". Duncan Campbell.org. Archived from the original on 28 September 2015. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- "An Appraisal of the Technology of Political Control". European Parliament. Archived from the original on 17 April 1999. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- "European Parliament resolution on Echelon". European Parliament. 16 March 2000. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- "Echelon and the European Parliament". European Parliament. Archived from the original on 9 December 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- McKay, Niall (27 May 1999). "Lawmakers Raise Questions About International Spy Network". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 30 January 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- Campbell, Duncan (1 June 2001). "Echelon Chronology". Heise Online. Archived from the original on 21 December 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- Kim Sengupta; Kathy Marks (29 February 2004). "Blix secrets shared with NZ – reports". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
- Tom Allard; Andrew Darby; Marian Wilkinson (28 February 2004). "Australian spy circle tied to UN bugging". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
- "UK bugged Annan's office, says former minister". The Sydney Morning Herald. 27 February 2004. Archived from the original on 23 May 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- "UK 'spied on UN's Kofi Annan'". BBC. February 2004. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- "Revealed: US dirty tricks to win vote on Iraq war". The Observer. 2 March 2003. Archived from the original on 11 January 2018. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- Bright, Martin (3 March 2013). "Katharine Gun: Ten years on what happened to the woman who revealed dirty tricks on the UN Iraq war vote?". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- Wedeman, Ben (3 September 2011). "Documents shed light on CIA, Gadhafi spy ties". CNN. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- "Libya: Gaddafi regime's US-UK spy links revealed". BBC. 4 September 2011. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- Abigail Hauslohner (2 September 2011). "How Libya Seems to Have Helped the CIA with Rendition of Terrorism Suspects". Time. Archived from the original on 21 December 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- "Files show MI6, CIA ties to Libya: reports". The Sydney Morning Herald. 4 September 2011. Archived from the original on 3 November 2011. Retrieved 4 September 2011.
- Spencer, Richard (3 September 2011). "Libya: secret dossier reveals Gaddafi's UK spy links". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 4 September 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- Field, Michael (2 December 2010). "NZ way down the WikiLeaks queue". Fairfax New Zealand. Archived from the original on 5 December 2010. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
- Nick Hopkins (7 June 2013). "UK gathering secret intelligence via covert NSA operation". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2 March 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2013.
- Philip Dorling (13 June 2013). "Australia gets 'deluge' of US secret data, prompting a new data facility". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 23 November 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2013.
- Philip Dorling (8 July 2013). "Snowden reveals Australia's links to US spy web". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 10 August 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- Nick Hopkins and Julian Borger (1 August 2013). "Exclusive: NSA pays £100m in secret funding for GCHQ". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 22 December 2013.
- Williams, Rob (2 August 2013). "Americans pay GCHQ £100m to spy for them, leaked NSA papers from Edward Snowden claim". The Independent. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
- Gellman, Barton; Soltani, Ashkan; Peterson, Andrea (4 November 2013). "How we know the NSA had access to internal Google and Yahoo cloud data". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "Photo Gallery: Spies in the Embassy". Der Spiegel. Archived from the original on 24 February 2014. Retrieved 22 December 2013.
- Allard, Tom (4 March 2014). "Australia ordered to cease spying on East Timor by International Court of Justice". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 3 March 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- "Hong Kong: 'Five Eyes could be blinded,' China warns West". BBC News. 19 November 2020. Retrieved 20 November 2020.
- "Meng Wanzhou: Questions over Huawei executive's arrest as legal battle continues". BBC News. 31 October 2020. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
- "China in brace position as Five Eyes form united front". South China Morning Post. 14 June 2020. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
- Swanson, Ana (23 October 2019). "Trump Officials Battle Over Plan to Keep Technology Out of Chinese Hands (Published 2019)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
- Bourke, Latika (7 February 2020). "Australian MP delivers stunning rebuke to UK's Dominic Raab on Huawei". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
- Heather Stewart Political (21 July 2020). "Mike Pompeo praises UK decision to remove Huawei from 5G network". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
- "Why is the Five Eyes intelligence alliance in China's cross hairs?". South China Morning Post. 20 June 2020. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
- "New Zealand says it will set China policy, not US-led Five Eyes". Al Jazeera. 19 April 2021. Archived from the original on 21 April 2021. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
- Galloway, Anthony (22 April 2021). "Australia was blindsided when Five Eyes ally New Zealand backed away from China criticism". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 21 April 2021. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
- Young, Audrey (21 April 2021). "NZ-China relations: Jacinda Ardern faces bitter attack by UK writer over Five Eyes commitment". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 21 April 2021. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
- Bourke, Latika (23 April 2021). "Jacinda Ardern savaged as British Parliament declares treatment of Uyghurs 'genocide'". Stuff. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
- Ensor, Jamie (21 April 2021). "China heaps praise on Nanaia Mahuta's 'remarkable' Five Eyes comments". Newshub. Archived from the original on 21 April 2021. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
- "China announces measures to prevent foreign spying in companies". The Straits Times. 27 April 2021. Archived from the original on 27 April 2021. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
- Small, Zane (27 April 2021). "China imposes strict anti-espionage measures on staff visiting New Zealand, Five Eyes nations". Newshub. Archived from the original on 27 April 2021. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
- "Joint Statement on Hong Kong Legislative Council Elections". United States Department of State. 20 December 2021. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
- "Hong Kong elections spark G7, EU, Five Eyes condemnation". South China Morning Post. 21 December 2021. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
- "China accuses New Zealand and Five Eyes of interference over criticism of Hong Kong legislative elections". Radio New Zealand. 22 December 2021. Archived from the original on 22 December 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
- Hurst, Daniel; Ni, Vincent (21 December 2021). "China accuses Australia of 'violent' interference in Five Eyes response to Hong Kong election". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
- "Five Eyes justice chiefs endorse Ukraine war crime prosecutions". anews. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
- Davidson, Helen (16 October 2013). "NSA files: Australian spies scooped up thousands of email accounts to help US". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 16 October 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- Beaumont, Peter (22 June 2013). "NSA leaks: US and Britain team up on mass surveillance". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 31 December 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- Colin Freeze (20 December 2013). "Canada's spy agencies chastised for duping courts". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 25 December 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- Ian MacLeod (20 December 2013). "CSIS asked foreign agencies to spy on Canadians, kept court in dark, judge says". Ottawa Citizen. Archived from the original on 22 December 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
- Stewart Bell (25 November 2013). "Court rebukes CSIS for secretly asking international allies to spy on Canadian terror suspects travelling abroad". National Post. Archived from the original on 27 December 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- "Spy agencies silent over funding". Radio New Zealand. 24 February 2014. Archived from the original on 4 March 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- MacLeod, Ian (9 January 2014). "European report calls for review of data sharing with Canada over spy concerns". Ottawa Citizen. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- "DRAFT REPORT on the US NSA surveillance programme, surveillance bodies in various Member States and impact on EU citizens' fundamental rights and on transatlantic cooperation in Justice and Home Affairs" (PDF). European Parliament. 8 January 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 January 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- Kelion, Leo (27 January 2014). "NSA-GCHQ Snowden leaks: A glossary of the key terms". BBC. Archived from the original on 27 January 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- Cremer, Justin. "Denmark is one of the NSA's '9-Eyes'". The Copenhagen Post. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- "Edward Snowden Interview: The NSA and Its Willing Helpers". Der Spiegel. 8 July 2013. Archived from the original on 6 July 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
- יוסי מלמן, קירבה יוצאת דופן: על שיתוף הפעולה המודיעיני בין ישראל לארצות הברית, מעריב השבוע, 11 בספטמבר 2013 (Google translates as "Yossi Melman, an unusual closeness: about the intelligence cooperation between Israel and the United States, Maariv this week, September 11, 2013")
- Dorling, Philip. "Singapore, South Korea revealed as Five Eyes spying partners". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 31 January 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- "Japan lends its vision to 'Five Eyes' intelligence alliance". 10 January 2018. Archived from the original on 5 February 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- Jauvert, Vincent (1 July 2015). "EXCLUSIF. Comment la France écoute (aussi) le monde". L'Obs. Archived from the original on 11 July 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
- Martin, Adam (2 November 2013). "NSA: Germany Was 'a Little Grumpy' About Being Left Out of Spying Club". New York. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- David Sanger and Mark Mazzetti (24 October 2013), Allegation of U.S. Spying on Merkel Puts Obama at Crossroads Archived 2017-02-05 at the Wayback Machine The New York Times
- Passenheim, Antje (22 November 2013). "US lawmakers push for German entrance to Five Eyes spy alliance". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- "Five Eyes intel group ties up with Japan, Germany, France to counter China in cyberspace". Mainichi Daily News. 4 February 2019. Archived from the original on 7 February 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "Exclusive: Five Eyes intelligence alliance builds coalition to counter China". Reuters. 12 October 2018. Archived from the original on 7 February 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "'Five Eyes' Countries Eye Expanded Cooperation Amid North Korea Challenges". 28 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- Rensfeldt, Gunnar (11 December 2013). "Read the Snowden Documents From the NSA". Sveriges Television. Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- "The Five Eyes Fact Sheet - Privacy International". Archived from the original on 16 October 2017.
- "NSA asked Japan to tap regionwide fiber-optic cables in 2011". The Japan Times. 27 October 2013. Archived from the original on 20 April 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014.