Education in Brazil

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Education in Brazil
Ministry of Education
Minister of EducationVictor Godoy
National education budget (2017)
Budget5.95% of GDP; 15.72% of total government expenditure
General details
Primary languagesPortuguese
System typeFederal, state, municipal, private

Education in Brazil has had many changes. It first began with Jesuit missions,[1] that controlled education for a long time. Then, two hundred years after their arrival, their powers were limited by the Marquis of Pombal.[1] Shortly after the Jesuits' power was limited, the Brazilian government took over education and it is now run by the government through the Ministry of Education.[1]

Issues in education are now seen through PISA, the Programme for International Student Assessment, and the Idep assessment now used by the Ministry. They have historically tested below average on all topics but are improving in mathematics.[2]

Brazil uses both public and private school systems. They have the traditional primary, secondary, tertiary and technical school levels.

The Human Rights Measurement Initiative[3] finds that Brazil is doing 86.8% of what should be possible at its level of income for the right to education.[4]


Federal University of Paraná in Curitiba.
Medicine College of São Paulo.

When Portuguese explorers arrived in Brazil in the 16th century and started to colonize their new possessions in the New World, the territory was inhabited by indigenous peoples and tribes who had no writing system or school education.

The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) was, since its beginnings in 1540, a missionary order. Evangelisation was one of the main goals of the Jesuits and they were committed to teaching and education, in Europe and overseas. The missionary activities, in the cities and in the countryside, were complemented by a strong commitment to education. This took the form of the opening of schools for boys, first in Europe but rapidly extended to America and Asia. The first elementary school in Brazil was founded by the Jesuits in what is now the city of Salvador, Bahia, and they established several others as well as high schools throughout the 1500s. These schools were primarily located in the more coastal regions of Brazil, as those had the largest colonial populations.[5] The foundation of Catholic missions, schools, and seminaries was another consequence of the Jesuit involvement in education. As the spaces and cultures where the Jesuits were present varied considerably, their evangelising methods were very often quite different from one place to another. However, the society's engagement in trade, architecture, science, literature, languages, arts, music and religious debate corresponded to the same main purpose of Christianisation. By the middle of the 16th century the Jesuits were present in West Africa, South America, Ethiopia, India, China, and Japan. This enlargement of their missionary activities took shape to a large extent within the framework of the Portuguese Empire.

In a period when the world had a largely illiterate population, the Portuguese Empire was home to one of the first universities founded in Europe — the University of Coimbra, which is one of the oldest universities in continuous operation. Throughout the centuries of Portuguese rule, Brazilian students, mostly graduated of the Jesuit missions and seminaries, were allowed to enroll at higher education in mainland Portugal.

Law School

The Jesuits, a religious order founded to promote the cause and teachings of Catholicism, had gained influence with the Portuguese crown and over education, and had begun missionary work in Portugal's overseas possessions, including the colony of Brazil. By 1700, and reflecting a larger transformation of the Portuguese Empire, the Jesuits had decisively shifted from the East Indies to Brazil. In the late 18th century, Portuguese minister of the kingdom, the Marquis of Pombal, attacked the power of the privileged nobility and the church, and expelled the Jesuits from Portugal and its overseas possessions. Pombal seized the Jesuit schools and introduced education reforms all over the empire.[1] In Brazil, the reforms were noted. Following the expulsion of Jesuits from Brazil, education was primarily left to remaining religious organizations and military institutions, which developed to protect Portuguese interests in the area following the discovery of gold.[5]

In 1772, before the establishment of the Science Academy of Lisbon (1779), one of the first learned societies of Brazil and the Portuguese Empire was founded in Rio de Janeiro: the Sociedade Scientifica. In 1797, the first botanic institute was founded in Salvador, Bahia. During the late 18th century, the Escola Politécnica (Polytechnic School) was created, then the Real Academia de Artilharia, Fortificação e Desenho (Royal Academy for Artillery, Fortifications and Design) was created in Rio de Janeiro, 1792, through a decree issued by the Portuguese authorities as a higher education school for the teaching of the sciences and engineering. Its legacy is shared by the Instituto Militar de Engenharia (Military Engineering Institute) and the Escola Politécnica da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Polytechnic School of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro) — the oldest engineering school of Brazil and one of the oldest in the world.

A royal letter of November 20, 1800 by the king John VI of Portugal established the Aula Prática de Desenho e Figura (Practice Class for Design and Form) in Rio de Janeiro. It was the first institution in Brazil systematically dedicated to the teaching of arts. During colonial times, the arts were mainly religious or utilitarian and were learnt in a system of apprenticeship. A decree on August 12, 1816 created the Escola Real de Ciências, Artes e Ofícios (Royal School of Sciences, Arts and Crafts), which established an official education in the fine arts and built the foundations of the current Escola Nacional de Belas Artes (National School of Fine Arts).

Music school of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.

In the 19th century, the Portuguese royal family, headed by then prince regent John, arrived in Rio de Janeiro, escaping from the Napoleonic invasion of Portugal in 1807. John VI gave impetus to the expansion of European civilization to Brazil. The presence of the monarchy in Brazil encouraged the development of more formal educational institutions.[5] In the short period between 1808 and 1810, the Portuguese government founded the Academia Real dos Guarda Marinha (Royal Naval Academy), the Real Academia Militar (Royal Military Academy), the Biblioteca Nacional (National Library of Brazil), the Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden), the Academia Médico-Cirúrgica da Bahia (Medic-Cirurgical Academy of Bahia), now known as Faculdade de Medicina (Med School) in the Universidade Federal da Bahia (Federal University of Bahia) and the Academia Médico-Cirúrgica do Rio de Janeiro (Medic-Cirurgical Academy of Rio de Janeiro) which is now the medical school of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.

Brazil achieved independence in 1822.[6][7] During the period of the Brazilian empire, the government did guarantee primary education to all Brazilians. However, this largely excluded enslaved people and indigenous people. Additionally, the established educational system was largely unable to serve the entire country, given the lack of resources and large size of Brazil.[5] The first public secondary school was established in Rio de Janeiro in 1837, the Imperial Colégio de Pedro II, and served as both a day school as well as a boarding school. Other public secondary schools followed under a similar structure. Despite being public schools, the student bodies were predominately made up of economically well-off white men.[5] Until the 20th century, it was a large rural nation with low social and economic standards comparing to the average North American and European standards. Its economy was based on the primary sector, possessing an unskilled and increasingly larger workforce, composed of free people (including slave owners) and slaves or their direct descendants. Among the first law schools founded in Brazil were the ones in Recife and São Paulo in 1827. But for decades to come, most Brazilian lawyers studied at European universities, such as in the ancient University of Coimbra, in Portugal, which had awarded degrees to generations of Brazilian students since the 16th century.

In 1872 there were 9,930,478 inhabitants (84.8% free and 15.2% slaves). According to the national census made in that year, among the free inhabitants (8,419,672 people), 38% were white, 39% were mixed race and 11% were black. Only 23.4% of the free men and 13.4% of the free women could read and write. In 1889, six decades after independence, only 20% of the total population could read and write. In the former colonial power, Portugal, about 80% of the population was classified as illiterate.

Following the creation of the First Republic, the Ministry of Education, Post, and Telegraph was established. Previous thought on education tended to emphasize humanities-centric curriculums, however the educational legislation from this era focused on creating curriculums that centered on science and mathematics.[5] Additionally, preparatory exams for secondary and tertiary education began to be widely used during the First Republic era. These exams were used to gauge a students preparedness for a certain course or subject.[5] Education during this period continued to be mostly inaccessible to the black population of Brazil, due to the variety of socio-economic pressures they faced despite the abolition of slavery.[5]

With the massive post-war expansion that lasts to date, the government focused on strengthening Brazil's tertiary education, while simultaneously neglecting assistance to primary and secondary education.[8] The problems of primary and secondary education were compounded by significant quality differences across regions, with the northeast suffering dramatically.[9] In the aftermath of Brazilian military rule, education became seen as a way to create a fairer society. "Citizen schools" emerged, designed to promote critical thinking, incorporation of marginalized people, and curiosity (over rote memorization and obedience).[10] Education also became more standardized during and immediately following the World War II era, regulating the length of each level of schooling and the content of lessons, as well as outlining the requirements for becoming a primary school teacher. However, only about 16% of secondary school educators actually held degrees. Additionally, vocational secondary was emphasized as an option for lower-income students.[5] During the period of economic growth around the 1950s, education in Brazil also became more accessible to lower-income people, with the numbers of students in both primary and secondary education significantly increasing.[5]

Today, Brazil struggles to improve the public education offered at earlier stages and maintain the high standards that the population has come to expect from public universities. The choice on public funding is an issue. In particular, the U.N. Development Goal of Universal Primary Education and a larger offer of education for students with special needs are pursued by Brazilian policy-makers.[11]

Despite its shortcomings, Brazil has progressed substantially since the 1980s. The nation witnessed an increase in school enrollment for children age 7–14, from 80.9% in 1980 to 96.4% in the year 2000. In the 15-17 age demographic, in the same period, this rate rose from 49.7% to 83%.[12] Literacy rates rose from 75% to 90.0%.[13][14]

Constitution of 1824

Voting has been mandatory for all citizens of Brazil since the first Constitution of 1824. However, people who are illiterate have, historically, not been able to be registered to vote.[15][16] The Constitution of 1988 changed this, stating that those who are illiterate have the option to vote but it is not compulsory for those.[16] The Constitution of 1824 also stated that those who made less than 100,000 reis were not able to vote.[16]

Throughout the 20th century, in response to campaigns occurring in other Latinoamérican countries, Brazilian states began their own literacy campaigns.[17] Led by educators like Paulo Freire, the campaigns hoped to combat the high amounts of illiteracy in the countryside. Beginning in 1963, the campaigns were centered in rural areas.[17] Paulo Freire's methods were widely popular due to the immediacy in which they seemed to work: as he claimed, a student could learn to read and write in 40 hours.[17] The growing fear of communism and the rising power of the military led to the end of the campaigns in 1964 and the exile of Freire and others like him.[17] The military government began new campaigns in the late 1970s to questionable improvements.[18]

"Indigenous schools" became an official educational category in 1991 by the Brazilian Ministry of Education and Culture, meaning schools for indigenous people are no longer categorized solely as missionary schools or reservations schools. The change in designation has allowed these schools to be designated as state or municipal public schools, and receive funding and guidelines accordingly. The designation has also allowed more data to be collected on indigenous schools.[19]


According to PISA, the Programme for International Student Assessment, Brazil, on average, underperforms. Brazilian students score lower than the average in reading, mathematics, and science, the three categories of testing.[2] Their scores have improved since 2000, the first year the test was taken.[2] Since 2000, Brazil has started the Brazil Literate Program to lower the rate of illiteracy in those ages 15 and older.[20] Brazil has also implemented the IDEP, the Index of Basic Education Development, which evaluates school flow and performance rates in the test.[21] According to the website, the index is used to tell whether the educational system should be improved.[21] The program is important in deciding public policy of the educational system.[21] IDEP also led to the creation of the Social Mobilisation program which works to involve the entire community in the educational system.[22] Several other committees have created programs in individual municipalities in order to curb the IDEP findings.[23]

It takes an extra three years to finish elementary school for low-income students, PNAD, the national household survey, shows.[24] Costs of finishing school rise each year until it is impossible to attend, meaning that low-income students also have the lowest rates for completing school.[24] Rio de Janeiro began a program in 2009 called the Reforço Escolar testing all students in the beginning of the school year to discover all who are not yet at grade level.[24] Those who are not receive two weeks of in-depth tutoring.[24] São Paulo and Paraná have also created programs to help those who are behind, either due to being low-income or for other reasons.[24] During the Covid-19 pandemic, many low-income students enrolled in public schools had minimal access to the technology required for virtual learning, as many students did not own personal computers, and schools often did not have the budget to distribute them.[25] From the start of the school closures in March 2020 to August 2020, it is estimated that about 38 million students in basic education were left with no educational instruction or activity.[25] Additionally, many rural and indigenous regions have particularly low access to technology and reliable internet, making virtual learning widely inaccessible to students from those areas.[26]

Additionally, racial inequalities in education are prevalent in Brazil, both in terms dropout rates and quality of education.[27] School materials, such as textbooks often lack the perspectives of Black students or contain stereotypes.[28] Black and mixed-race students are also more likely to attend less school than white students. While the differences between them have narrowed in the 21st century, black students on average get about one year of education less than their white counterparts.[29] In recent years, Brazilian universities have been using affirmative action programs to attempt to remedy these inequalities.[27]

As of 2018, the illiteracy rate for people age 15 or more was of 6.8% [30]

Organization and structure[edit]

Table showing how the education system is organized in Brazil

Education is divided into three levels, with grades in each level:

  • Pre-school education (educação infantil) is found in public institutions and private institutions.
  • Basic education (ensino básico) is found in public institutions and private institutions, and mandatory for those between the ages of 6 and 17.[31][32] It consists of elementary school (ensino fundamental) and high school (ensino médio).
  • Higher education (ensino superior) (including graduate degrees) is found in public institutions and private institutions.

Pre-school education (educação infantil)[edit]

Pre-school education is optional and exists to aid in the development of children under 6. It aims to assist in all areas of child development, including motor skills, cognitive skills, and social skills while providing fertile ground for the later acquisition of knowledge and learning. There are day nurseries for children under 2, kindergartens for 2- to 3-year-olds, and preschools for children 4 and up. Public preschools are provided by city governments. Pre-school education is typically taught by a combination of teachers who hold early childhood education degrees and teachers' aides, who typically only need a high school education. The average child-staff ratio in pre-school education is 1 teacher to every 14 students, and 8 students to every staff member including both teachers and aides.[33]

Elementary school (ensino fundamental)[edit]

Elementary school is mandatory for children ages 6–14. There are nine "years" (as opposed to the former eight "grades").[34] The current "first year" broadly corresponds to the former pre-school last year of private institutions, and its aim is to achieve literacy. Generally speaking, the only prerequisite for enrolling in first year is that a child should be 6 years old, but some education systems allow children younger than 6 to enroll in first year (as long as they turn 6 during the first academic semester). Older students who have not completed their elementary education are allowed to attend, though those over 18 are separated from the younger children.

The National Council of Education (Conselho Nacional de Educação) establishes a core curriculum consisting of Portuguese language, history, geography, science, mathematics, arts and physical education (for years 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5). As for years 6, 7, 8 and 9, one foreign language is also compulsory (usually English).

Each education system supplements this core curriculum with a diversified curriculum defined by the needs of the region and the abilities of individual students.

Elementary education is divided in two stages, called Ensino Fundamental I (years 1–5) and Ensino Fundamental II (years 6–9). During Ensino Fundamental I each group of students is usually assisted by a single teacher. In Ensino Fundamental II, there are as many teachers as subjects.

The length of the school year is set by the National Education Bases and Guidelines Law (Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação) to at least 200 days. Elementary schools must provide students with at least 800 hours of activities per year. The school calendar is set by individual schools, which often organize their calendars according to planting and harvesting seasons in rural areas.

High school (ensino médio)[edit]

Students must have completed their elementary school before they enroll in high school. High school takes three years. The minimum is 2,200 hours of teaching over three years. High school core curriculum comprises Portuguese (including Portuguese language, essay studies, Brazilian and Portuguese literatures), foreign language (usually English and an optional language), History, Geography, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Arts, Physical Education, and Biology. Philosophy and Sociology, which were banned during the military dictatorship (1964–1985), have become compulsory again.

Technical education (ensino técnico)[edit]

The coursing of the second or third year of high school or the completion of these years is mandatory for those who intend to enroll in technical education.[35] In addition, students must pass an entrance examination for their specific course. These institutions usually have a greater number of hours per week. The instruction of the technical course lasts from one year and a half to two years.[36]

Higher education (ensino superior)[edit]

Federal University of Minas Gerais
TV station in Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte

The completion of high school or equivalent is mandatory for those who intend to enroll in higher education. In addition, students must pass an entrance examination (known as vestibular) for their specific course. The number of candidates per available place in the freshman class may be in excess of 30 or 40 to one in the not so competitive courses at the top public universities. The most competitive ones excess 80 or 150. In some courses with small number of vacancies, this number can be as high as 200 (medical school, for example).[37]

As is the case in many nations, higher education in Brazil can be divided into undergraduate and graduate work. In addition to providing education, universities promote research and provide separate classes to the community. The Brazilian standard for technology (Associate degree), licentiate or bachelor's degree is awarded in most areas of the arts, humanities, social sciences, exact sciences, or natural sciences, and lasts two to three years for technology courses, three to four years for licenciate and bachelor's courses in general and five to six years for special bachelor's courses such as law, architecture, engineering, human medicine and veterinary medicine.

After graduation students can take postgraduate courses being these latu sensu or stricto sensu. Latu sensu graduate degrees are specializations and refinements lasting one to two years and do not confer academic title. At the end of the course the student must present a course completion work. (Example of latu sensu: MBA, specialization, medical residency, among others). Graduate degrees stricto sensu are courses that confer academic title. After graduation, the student must do a master's degree with a duration of two years and after that period present a master's thesis. If it is approved by the examining board, it will receive the master's degree. The doctorate course in Brazil is the most academic degree course. In order to study this postgraduate course it is necessary to have the title of Master. The doctorate has a duration of four years and must be unpublished. After four years of course the student will present the doctoral thesis to an assessment bank, if approved will receive the title of Doctor.

There are more than 2,600 universities in Brazil, between private and public, according to MEC. [38] Higher vocational education is in general assumed by non-university institutions and the federal Institutions for Education, Science and Technology (38 in 2008).[39]

Studies show that, despite the expansion of access to Higher Education in Brazil, this had very limited impact on the country's social disparities.[40]

Teacher training and qualification[edit]

Students can obtain teacher training in secondary schools through vocational programs. In addition to the required courses to graduate, students take teacher training courses which includes a supervised internship and need 300 hours of teaching practice. Students can be certified through the secondary school program; however, to teach secondary schools, most teaching students need higher education to obtain either a master's or doctorate's. Schools do offer school administration training, but it is not compulsory for students hoping to become an administrator. The licenses and degrees are as follows: teaching certification through vocational programs, a bachelor's, master's, and doctorate. Recently, the government has released a new National Education Plan outlining 20 goals to improve national education, four of which outline improvements to teacher training.[41][42]

Educational statistics[edit]

Private German school in São Paulo.

As a large middle-income country, Brazil has several regions. Its education system is accordingly plagued by many deficiencies and social and regional disparities.[14][43][44]

As of 2017:

  • Literacy rate of 91.73% for people age 15 or older[45]

As of 2017:

  • The nation invests 5.95% of GDP on education, approximately 15.72% of total government expenditures.[45]

As of 2017:[46]

  • Literacy rate of 67.8% for people age 6 to 14
  • Literacy rate of 79.1% for people age 15 to 17
  • Literacy rate of 99.6% of Brazil.

PISA results as of 2019:

  • Science: Above average; stable since 2006
  • Mathematics: Above average; improvement since 2006
  • Reading: Above average; stable since 2006
  • Equity: (none available)
    • Boys versus Girls: Above average; stable since 2006
    • Social Background: Average; improvement since 2006[2]

International education[edit]

As of January 2015, the International Schools Consultancy (ISC)[47] listed Brazil as having 136 international schools.[48] ISC defines an 'international school' in the following terms: "ISC includes an international school if the school delivers a curriculum to any combination of pre-school, primary or secondary students, wholly or partly in English outside an English-speaking country, or if a school in a country where English is one of the official languages, offers an English-medium curriculum other than the country's national curriculum and is international in its orientation."[48] This definition is used by publications including The Economist.[49]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d "The Jesuit Order in Colonial Brazil | Brazil: Five Centuries of Change". Retrieved 2018-04-11.
  2. ^ a b c d "Brazil". PISA 2015. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  3. ^ "Human Rights Measurement Initiative – The first global initiative to track the human rights performance of countries". Retrieved 2022-02-25.
  4. ^ "Brazil - HRMI Rights Tracker". Retrieved 2022-02-25.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Magalhães Gomes, Maria Laura; Marafioti Garnica, Antonio Vicente (2021-08-01). "History of Mathematics Education in Brazil: an overview of secondary education". The Mathematics Enthusiast. 18 (3): 352–384. doi:10.54870/1551-3440.1530. ISSN 1551-3440. S2CID 235753795.
  6. ^ "Pedro I and Pedro II | Brazil: Five Centuries of Change". Retrieved 2018-04-11.
  7. ^ Crocitti, John J.; LeVine, Robert A. (1999). The Brazil Reader. Durham: Duke University Press.
  8. ^ "Educação". Archived from the original on 2006-11-28. Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  9. ^ Ralph Harbison and Eric Hanushek, Educational performance of the poor: lessons from rural northeast Brazil (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).
  10. ^ Ignoramuses Academy, 2016
  11. ^ "Plano Nacional de Educação Especial - Ministry of Education" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  12. ^ "Edudata Brasil". Archived from the original on 2006-12-24. Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  13. ^ "COELHO DE SOUZA, Marcos Medeiros. O Analfabetismo no Brasil sob o Enfoque Demográfico" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-11-28. Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  14. ^ a b "IBGE". Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  15. ^ "Republica Federativa do Brasil/Federative Republic of Brazil: Constituições/Constitutions".[dead link]
  16. ^ a b c Rosenn, Keith S. (17 January 2018). "Brazil's Constitution of 1988 with Amendments through 2014" (PDF).
  17. ^ a b c d Kirkendall, Andrew J. (2010). Paulo Freire & the Cold War Politics of Literacy. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: The University of North Carolina Press.
  18. ^ Riding, Alan (1985). "ILLITERACY RESISTS TREATMENT IN BRAZIL". The New York Times.
  19. ^ Guilherme, Alex; Hüttner, Édison (August 2015). "Exploring the new challenges for indigenous education in Brazil: Some lessons from Ticuna schools". International Review of Education. 61 (4): 481–501. Bibcode:2015IREdu..61..481G. doi:10.1007/s11159-015-9503-z. ISSN 0020-8566. S2CID 141565622.
  20. ^ "Brazil Literate Program". Ministry of Education. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  21. ^ a b c "Ideb". INEP. 20 October 2015. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  22. ^ "Social Mobilization for Education". Ministry of Education. 2009. Archived from the original on 30 March 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  23. ^ UNESCO (2008). "Youth and Adult Literacy in Brazil: Learning from Practice". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  24. ^ a b c d e Bruns, Barbara; Evans, David; Luque, Javier (2012). Achieving World-Class Education in Brazil: The Next Agenda. Washington D.C.: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
  25. ^ a b Moraes, Joysi; Mariano, Sandra R. H; Dias, Bruno F. B. (2021). "Education Systems' Response to COVID-19 in Brazil: Highlighting Social Inequalities". International Studies in Educational Administration (Commonwealth Council for Educational Administration & Management (CCEAM)). 49 (1): 50–58 – via EBSCOhost.
  26. ^ Rodrigues de Andrade, Francisca Marli; Mendes Nogueira, Letícia Pereira; do Couto Neves, Lucas (February 1, 2022). "Rural Education Teacher Training: Remote Learning Challenges in Brazilian IFES during the COVID-19 Pandemic". Education Policy Analysis Archives. 30 (7–9): 1–26 – via EBSCOhost. closed access
  27. ^ a b Pedrosa, Renato H. L; Simões, Tania P.; Carneiro, Ana M.; Andrade, Cibele Y.; Sampaio, Helena; Knobel, Marcelo (2014). "Access to higher education in Brazil". Widening Participation & Lifelong Learning. 16 (1): 5–33. doi:10.5456/WPLL.16.1.5 – via EBSCOhost.
  28. ^ Gonçalves, Luiz Alberto Oliveira; da Silva, Natalino Neves; Brooke, Nigel (2019), "Brazil: An Overview of Research on Race and Ethnic Inequalities in Education", The Palgrave Handbook of Race and Ethnic Inequalities in Education, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 215–251, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-94724-2_6, ISBN 978-3-319-94723-5, S2CID 198783339, retrieved 2022-09-16
  29. ^ Marteleto, Leticia J. (2012-01-19). "Educational Inequality by Race in Brazil, 1982–2007: Structural Changes and Shifts in Racial Classification". Demography. 49 (1): 337–358. doi:10.1007/s13524-011-0084-6. ISSN 0070-3370. PMC 3698049. PMID 22259031.
  30. ^ "Brasil ainda tem 11,3 milhões de analfabetos". OGlobo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 5 September 2019.
  31. ^ "L9394". Retrieved 2016-05-08.
  32. ^ Ensino fundamental de nove anos: Passo a passo do processo de implementação [Nine years secondary school: Implementation step by step] (PDF) (Report). Ministério da Educaçao (Ministry of Education). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  33. ^ Education at a Glance 2019: OECD Indicators. OECD Publishing. 2019. doi:10.1787/f8d7880d-en. ISBN 9789264803985. S2CID 242901848.
  34. ^ "Folha Online - Educação - Ensino fundamental de 9 anos beneficia estudantes mais pobres, diz Lula - 06/02/2006". Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  35. ^ "Technical education". Retrieved 2017-12-02.
  36. ^ "Dilma destaca importância do ensino técnico para desenvolvimento do país". 17 March 2014. Retrieved 2017-12-01.
  37. ^ "UEM/CVU - Cursos, Turnos e Vagas". Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  38. ^ "Ser Universitário - Tudo sobre o mundo universitário e estudantil!". Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  39. ^ "UNESCO-UNEVOC World TVET Database". Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  40. ^ Balbachevsky, Elizabeth; Sampaio, Helena; Yahn de Andrade, Cibele (2019). "Expanding access to Higher Education and its (limited) consequences for social inclusion: The Brazilian experience". Social Inclusion. 7 (1): 7–17. doi:10.17645/si.v7i1.1672.
  41. ^ Lopes, Marina (15 October 2015). "Challenges and Paths for Teacher Training in Brazil". Porvir. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  42. ^ "Planejando a Próxima Década: Conhecendo as 20 Metas Do Plano Nacional De Educação" (PDF). 2014.
  43. ^ "Universidade de Brasília - Assessoria de Comunicação". Archived from the original on 2007-01-04. Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  44. ^ "Política Educacional - O Desafio da Qualidade". Archived from the original on 2007-03-31. Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  45. ^ a b "Brazil". UNESCO. 27 November 2016.
  46. ^ "Pnad 2008 - Atualidades - UOL Educação". Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  47. ^ "Home - International School Consultancy". Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  48. ^ a b "International School Consultancy Group > Information > ISC News". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-02-05.
  49. ^ "The new local". The Economist. Retrieved 2017-08-29.

Further reading[edit]

  • "Education in Brazil". WENR. 2019-11-14. Retrieved 2020-01-27.
  • Antunes dos Santos, Renato, and Maria do Patrocinio Tenorio Nunes. "Medical education in Brazil." Medical Teacher 41.10 (2019): 1106-1111 online.
  • Barausse, Alberto, and Terciane Ângela Luchese. "Nationalisms and schooling: between italianity and brazility, disputes in the education of italian-gaucho people (Rs, Brazil, 1930-1945)." History of Education & Children's Literature 12.2 (2017).
  • Barbosa, Lia Pinheiro. "Educação do Campo [Education for and by the countryside] as a political project in the context of the struggle for land in Brazil." Journal of Peasant Studies 44.1 (2017): 118-143.
  • Birdsall, Nancy, Richard H. Sabot, and Richard Sabot, eds. Opportunity foregone: education in Brazil (IDB, 1996).
  • Brown, David S. "Democracy, authoritarianism and education finance in Brazil." Journal of Latin American Studies 34.1 (2002): 115-141.
  • Crespo, Manuel, José Francisco Soares, and Alberto de Mello e Souza. "The Brazilian national evaluation system of basic education: Context, process, and impact." in Studies in Educational Evaluation 26.2 (2000): 105-125 online[dead link].
  • da Silva, Mônica R., and Claudia BM Abreu. "Education in the Purview of Public Policy: An Assessment of Educational Reform in Brazil, 1990–2004." Canadian Journal of Development Studies/Revue canadienne d'études du développement 29.3-4 (2010): 245-258.
  • Dawson, Andrew. "A very Brazilian experiment: the base education movement, 1961-67." History of Education 31.2 (2002): 185-194.
  • Filho, Luciano Mendes de Faria, and Marcilaine Soares Inácio. "Civilise the people, build the nation: scientific and literary association and education in Minas Gerais (Brazil) at the beginning of the Brazilian empire." Paedagogica Historica 49.1 (2013): 82-89.
  • Havighurst, Robert James, and Aparecida Joly Gouveia. Brazilian secondary education and socio-economic development (Praeger, 1969).
  • Heringer, Rosana, Ollie Johnson, and Ollie A. Johnson III, eds. Race, politics, and education in Brazil: Affirmative action in higher education (Springer, 2016).
  • Johnson III, Ollie A. and Rosana Heringer, et al eds. Race, Politics, and Education in Brazil: Affirmative Action in Higher Education (2015).
  • Kang, Thomas H. "Education and development projects in Brazil, 1932-2004: a critique." Brazilian Journal of Political Economy 38.4 (2018): 766-780. online
  • McCowan, Tristan. "Expansion without equity: An analysis of current policy on access to higher education in Brazil." Higher education 53.5 (2007): 579-598 online.
  • McCowan, Tristan. "The growth of private higher education in Brazil: Implications for equity and quality." Journal of Education Policy 19.4 (2004): 453-472 online.
  • Mortatti, Maria do Rosário Longo. "Literature for primary school and education of Republican citizen, in the Revista de Ensino (SP-Brazil)-1902-1918." História da Educação 22.56 (2018): 106-124 online.
  • Musacchio, Aldo, André Martínez Fritscher, and Martina Viarengo. "Colonial institutions, trade shocks, and the diffusion of elementary education in Brazil, 1889–1930." Journal of Economic History (2014): 730-766 online also: online in JSTOR.
  • Neves, Clarissa Eckert Baeta, and Carlos Benedito Martins. "Higher education in Brazil: a comprehensive view." Sociologies in Dialogue 3.1 (2018): 4-23 online.
  • Raizer, Leandro, and Celia Elizabete Caregnato. "Secondary Education in Brazil: a system that persists in social reproduction." Sociologies in Dialogue 5.2 (2020): 92-106.
  • Sampaio, Helena, Ana Maria Carneiro, and Marcelo Knobel. "Higher education challenges in Brazil." Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in the South 1.1 (2017): 39-59 online.
  • Schultz, Kirsten. "Learning to obey: education, authority, and governance in the early eighteenth-century Portuguese Empire." Atlantic Studies 12.4 (2015): 435-456.
  • Schwartzman, Simon, and Elizabeth Balbachevsky. "The academic profession in Brazil" in The international academic profession: portraits of fourteen countries (1996), edited by P. G. Altbach; online pp 231–280.
  • Schwartzman, Simon. "Brazil", in Burton R. Clark and Guy Neave, es. The Encyclopedia of Higher Education (Pergamon Press, 1992), vol. I, 82-92.
  • Schwartzman, Simon, ed. "The challenges of education in Brazil." (2004) online.
  • Schwartzman, Simon. "Equity, quality and relevance in higher education in Brazil." Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 76.1 (2004): 173-188 online.
  • Silveira, Renê Trentin. "Education policy and national security in Brazil in the post-1964 context." Paedagogica Historica 49.2 (2013): 253-272.
  • Tarlau, Rebecca. "Coproducing rural public schools in Brazil: Contestation, clientelism, and the landless workers’ movement." Politics & Society 41.3 (2013): 395-424 online[dead link].
  • Tarlau, Rebecca. Occupying schools, occupying land: how the landless workers movement transformed Brazilian education: (Oxford University Press, 2019).
  • Veiga, Cynthia Greive. "Schooling, organisation of the constitutional monarchy and the education of citizens (Brazil, 1822–1889)." Paedagogica Historica 49.1 (2013): 34-42.

Historiography and memory[edit]

  • Abboud Pompeo De Camargo, Munir. "Historiography of school architecture in the state of São Paulo: the nineteenth century amidst history and architecture." Paedagogica Historica 55.1 (2019): 70-87.
  • Barausse, Alberto. "The construction of national identity in textbooks for Italian schools abroad: the case of Brazil between the two World Wars." History of Education & Children's Literature 10.2 (2015).
  • da Silva, Marcos Antônio, and Selva Guimarães Fonseca. "Teaching History Today: wanderings, achievements and losses." Revista Brasileira de Historia 30.60 (2010): 11-31.
  • Gatti Júnior, Décio, and Bruno Gonçalves Borges. "Between the Empire and the Republic: the permanence of a biography of the Nation in the history taught in secondary and primary schools in Brazil (1860-1950)." History of Education & Children's Literature 10.2 (2015).
  • Gondra, José Gonçalves, et al. "History of education in Brazil: the construction of a knowledge field." Paedagogica Historica 50.6 (2014): 822-829 online.
  • Mello, Paulo. "Public policies for the production of textbooks for youth and adults in Brazil books: some reflections on recent historical trajectory." in Public policies for the production of textbooks for youth and adults in Brazil books: some reflections on recent historical trajectory (2014) pp: 47-57.

External links[edit]