Foreign relations of Brazil
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
The Ministry of External Relations is responsible for managing the foreign relations of Brazil. Brazil is a significant political and economic power in Latin America and a key player on the world stage. Brazil's foreign policy reflects its role as a regional power and a potential world power and is designed to help protect the country's national interests, national security, ideological goals, and economic prosperity.
Between World War II and 1990, both democratic and military governments sought to expand Brazil's influence in the world by pursuing a state-led industrial policy and an independent foreign policy. Brazilian foreign policy has recently aimed to strengthen ties with other South American countries, engage in multilateral diplomacy through the United Nations and the Organization of American States, and act at times as a countervailing force to U.S. political and economic influence in Latin America.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Foreign policy
- 3 Regional policy
- 4 Diplomatic relations
- 5 United Nations politics
- 6 Outstanding international issues
- 7 Foreign aid
- 8 Participation in international organizations
- 9 Bilateral relations
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Bibliography
- 13 External links
Brazil's international relations are based on article 4 of the Federal Constitution, which establishes non-intervention, self-determination, international cooperation and the peaceful settlement of conflicts as the guiding principles of Brazil's relationship with other countries and multilateral organizations. According to the Constitution, the President has ultimate authority over foreign policy, while Congress is tasked with reviewing and considering all diplomatic nominations and international treaties, as well as legislation relating to Brazilian foreign policy.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, also known as Itamaraty, is the government department responsible for advising the President and conducting Brazil's foreign relations with other countries and international bodies. Itamaraty's scope includes political, commercial, economic, financial, cultural and consular relations, areas in which it performs the classical tasks of diplomacy: represent, inform and negotiate. Foreign policy priorities are established by the President.
Brazil's foreign policy is a by-product of the country's unique position as a regional power in Latin America, a leader among developing countries, and an emerging world power. Brazilian foreign policy has generally been based on the principles of multilateralism, peaceful dispute settlement, and non-intervention in the affairs of other countries. Brazil engages in multilateral diplomacy through the Organization of American States and the United Nations, and has increased ties with developing countries in Africa and Asia. Brazil is currently commanding a multinational U.N. stabilization force in Haiti, the MINUSTAH. Instead of pursuing unilateral prerogatives, Brazilian foreign policy has tended to emphasize regional integration, first through the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosul) and now the Union of South American Nations. Brazil is also committed to cooperation with other Portuguese-speaking nations through joint-collaborations with the rest of the Portuguese-speaking world, in several domains which include military cooperation, financial aid, and cultural exchange. This is done in the framework of CPLP, for instance. Lula da Silva recently visited to Africa included State visits to three Portuguese-speaking African nations (Angola, São Tomé and Príncipe, and Mozambique). Finally, Brazil is also strongly committed in the development and restoration of peace in East Timor, where it has a very powerful influence.
Brazil's political, business, and military ventures are complemented by the country's trade policy. In Brazil, the Ministry of Foreign Relations continues to dominate trade policy, causing the country's commercial interests to be (at times) subsumed by a larger foreign policy goal, namely, enhancing Brazil's influence in Latin America and the world. For example, while concluding meaningful trade agreements with developed countries (such as the United States and the European Union) would probably be beneficial to Brazil's long-term economic self-interest, the Brazilian government has instead prioritized its leadership role within Mercosul and expanded trade ties with countries in Africa, Asia and the Middle East.
Brazil's soft power diplomacy involves institutional strategies such as the formation of diplomatic coalitions to constrain the power of the established great powers. In recent years, it has given high priority in establishing political dialogue with other strategic actors such as India, Russia, China and South Africa through participation in international groupings such as BASIC, IBSA and BRICS. The BRICS states have been amongst the most powerful drivers of incremental change in world diplomacy and they benefit most from the connected global power shifts.
Lula da Silva administration
The Brazilian foreign policy under the Lula da Silva administration focused on the following directives: to contribute toward the search for greater equilibrium and attenuate unilateralism; to strengthen bilateral and multilateral relations in order to increase the country's weight in political and economic negotiations on an international level; to deepen relations so as to benefit from greater economical, financial, technological and cultural interchange; to avoid agreements that could jeopardize development in the long term.
These directives implied precise emphasis on: the search for political coordination with emerging and developing countries, namely India, South Africa, Russia and China; creation of the Union of South American Nations and its derivative bodies, such as the South American Security Council; strengthening of Mercosul; projection at the Doha Round and WTO; maintenance of relations with developed countries, including the United States; undertaking and narrowing of relations with African countries; campaign for the reform of the United Nations Security Council and for a permanent seat for Brazil; and defense of social objectives allowing for a greater equilibrium between the States and populations.
The foreign policy of the Rousseff administration sought to deepen Brazil's regional commercial dominance and diplomacy, expand Brazil's presence in Africa, and play a major role in the G20 on global warming and in other multilateral settings.
At the United Nations, Brazil continues to oppose sanctions and foreign military intervention, while seeking to garner support for a permanent seat at the Security Council. Cooperation with other emerging powers remain a top priority in Brazil's global diplomatic strategy. On the recent airstrike resolution supporting military action in Libya, Brazil joined fellow BRICS in the Council and abstained. On the draft resolution condemning violence in Syria, Brazil worked with India and South Africa to try to bridge the Western powers' divide with Russia and China.
Over the past decade, Brazil has firmly established itself as a regional power. It has traditionally been a leader in the inter-American community and played an important role in collective security efforts, as well as in economic cooperation in the Western Hemisphere. Brazilian foreign policy supports economic and political integration efforts in order to reinforce long-standing relationships with its neighbors. It is a founding member of the Organization of American States (OAS) and the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (Rio Treaty). It has given high priority to expanding relations with its South American neighbors and strengthening regional bodies such as the Latin American Integration Association (ALADI), the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) and Mercosur. Although integration is the primary purpose of these organizations, they also serve as forums in which Brazil can exercise its leadership and develop consensus around its positions on regional and global issues. Most scholars agree that by promoting integration through organizations like Mercosur and UNASUR, Brazil has been able to solidify its role as a regional power. In addition to consolidating its power within South America, Brazil has sought to expand its influence in the broader region by increasing its engagement in the Caribbean and Central America., although some think this is still a fragile, ongoing process, that can be thwarted by secondary regional powers in South America.
Brazil regularly extends export credits and university scholarships to its Latin American neighbors. In recent years, the Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES) has provided US$5 billion worth of loans to countries in the region. Brazil has also increasingly provided Latin American nations with financial aid and technical assistance. Between 2005 and 2009, Cuba, Haiti, and Honduras were the top three recipients of Brazilian assistance, receiving over $50 million annually.
Brazil has a large global network of diplomatic missions, and maintains diplomatic relations with every United Nations member state, in addition to Palestine and the Holy See. As of 2011, Brazil's diplomatic network consisted of 179 overseas posts.
Relations with non-U.N. member states:
- Kosovo - Brazil does not recognize Kosovo as an independent state and has announced it has no plans to do so without an agreement with Serbia.
- Taiwan - Brazil does not recognize the Republic of China as it has recognized the People's Republic of China, although it has non-diplomatic relations and maintains a special office in Taipei.
United Nations politics
Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations and participates in all of its specialized agencies. It has participated in 33 United Nations peacekeeping missions and contributed with over 27,000 soldiers. Brazil has been a member of the United Nations Security Council ten times, most recently 2010-2011. Along with Japan, Brazil has been elected more times to the Security Council than any other U.N. member state.
Brazil is currently seeking a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council. It is a member of the G4, an alliance among Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan for the purpose of supporting each other's bids for permanent seats on the Security Council. They propose the Security Council be expanded beyond the current 15 members to include 25 members. The G4 countries argue that a reform would render the body "more representative, legitimate, effective and responsive" to the realities of the international community in the 21st century.
Outstanding international issues
- Two short sections of the border with Uruguay are in dispute - the Arroio Invernada area of the Quaraí River, and the Brazilian Island at the confluence of the Quaraí River and the Uruguay River.
- Brazil declared in 1986 the sector between 28°W to 53°W Brazilian Antarctica (Antártica Brasileira) as its Zone of Interest. It overlaps Argentine and British claims
- In 2004, the country submitted its claims to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its maritime continental margin.
Overseas aid has become an increasingly important tool for Brazil's foreign policy. Brazil provides aid through the Brazilian Agency of Cooperation (Abbreviation: ABC; Portuguese: Agência Brasileira de Cooperação), in addition to offering scientific, economical, and technical support. More than half of Brazilian aid is provided to Africa, whereas Latin America receives around 20% of Brazilian aid. The share of aid allocated to the Asian continent is small. Within Africa, more than 80% of Brazilian aid is received by Portuguese-speaking countries. Brazil concentrates its aid for Portuguese-speaking countries in the education sector, specially in secondary and post-secondary education, but it is more committed to agricultural development in other countries. Estimated to be around $1 billion annually, Brazil is on par with China and India and ahead of many more traditional donor countries. The aid tends to consist of technical aid and expertise, alongside a quiet non-confrontational diplomacy to development results. Brazil's aid demonstrates a developing pattern of South-South aid, which has been heralded as a 'global model in waiting'. Some studies have suggested that, by giving aid, Brazil could be trying to get access to mineral and energy resources.
Participation in international organizations
ACS(Observer) • ACTO • AfDB • BIS • CAF-BDLA(Associate) • Cairns Group • CAN(Associate) • CDB • CPLP • FAO • G4 • BASIC countries • G8+5 • G15 • G20 • G20+ • G24 • G77 • IADB • IDB • IAEA • IBRD • IBSA •ICAO • ICC • ICRM • IDA • IFAD • IFC • IFRCS • IHO • ILO • IMF • IMO • Inmarsat •INSARAG • Intelsat • Interpol • IOC • IOM • ISO • ITU • LAES • LAIA • Mercosul • MINUSTAH • NAM(Observer) • NSG • OAS • OEI • OPANAL • OPCW • PCA • Rio Group • Rio Treaty • UN • UNASUR • UNCTAD • UNESCO • UNHCR • UNIDO • UNITAR • UNMIL • UNMIS • UNMOVIC • UNOCI • UNTAET • UNWTO • UPU • WCO • WHO • WIPO • WMO • WTO • ZPCAS
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Algeria||See Algeria–Brazil relations
|Angola||See Angola–Brazil relations
|Cape Verde||See Brazil–Cape Verde relations
|Central African Republic||2010||
Both countries established diplomatic relations in 2010.
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||See Brazil–Democratic Republic of the Congo relations
|Egypt||See Brazil–Egypt relations
|Kenya||See Brazil–Kenya relations
|Mozambique||15 November 1975||See Brazil–Mozambique relations
Mozambique is the country that receives the highest amount of Brazilian aid in Africa. Almost 50% of Brazilian aid allocated to the African continent between 1998 and 2010 was allocated to Mozambique.
|Nigeria||See Brazil–Nigeria relations
Bilateral relations between Nigeria and Brazil focus primarily upon trade and culture. The largest country in Latin America by size, and the largest country in Africa by population are remotely bordered across from one another by the Atlantic Ocean. Brazil and Nigeria for centuries, have enjoyed a warmly, friendly, and strong relationship on the bases of culture (many Afro-Brazilians trace their ancestry to Nigeria) and commercial trade.
|São Tomé and Príncipe||1975|
|South Africa||See Brazil–South Africa relations
Brazil-South Africa relations have traditionally been close. Brazil has provided military assistance to South Africa in the form of warfare training and logistics. Bilateral relations between the countries have recently increased, as a result of Brazil's new South-South foreign policy aimed to strengthen integration between the major powers of the developing world. South Africa is part of the IBSA Dialogue Forum, alongside Brazil and India.
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Argentina||See Argentina–Brazil relations
After democratization, a strong integration and partnership began between the two countries. In 1985 they signed the basis for the MERCOSUL, a Regional Trade Agreement. In the field of science, the two regional giants had been rivals since the 1950s when both governments launched parallel nuclear and space programs, however, several agreements were signed since then such as the creation of the Brazilian–Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) to verify both countries' pledges to use nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes. National spaces agencies CONAE and the AEB had also begun working together since the 1990s. Brazil's decision to prevent a Royal Navy ship docking in Rio de Janeiro was seen as backing Argentina over the Falklands dispute. Also on the military side there has been greater rapprochement. In accordance with the friendship policy, both armies dissolved or moved major units previously located at their common border (for example, Argentine's 7th Jungle and 3rd Motorized Infantry Brigades). Brazilian soldiers are embedded in the Argentine peacekeeping contingent at UNFICYP in Cyprus and they are working together at MINUSTAH in Haiti and, as another example of collaboration, Argentine Navy aircraft routinely operate from the Brazilian Navy carrier NAe São Paulo.
|Barbados||1971-11-26||See Barbados–Brazil relations|
Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 March 1983.
|Canada||See Brazil–Canada relations
Brazil-Canada relations have been cordial but relatively limited, although the relationship between the two countries has been gradually evolving over time.
|Chile||See Brazil–Chile relations
Chile and Brazil have acted numerous times as mediators in international conflicts, such as in the 1914 diplomatic impasse between the United States and Mexico, avoiding a possible state of war between those two countries. More recently, since the 2004 Haiti rebellion, Chile and Brazil have actively participated in the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti, which is led by the Brazilian Army. They are also two of the three most important economies in South America along with Argentina.
|Costa Rica||See Brazil–Costa Rica relations
|Cuba||See Brazil–Cuba relations
Brazilian-Cuban relations were classified as "excellent" in May 2008 following a meeting of foreign ministers. During a January 2008 state visit to Cuba by Brazilian President Lula da Silva, the Brazilian leader expressed desire for his country to be Cuba's "number one partner". Bilateral trade increased by 58% between April 2007 and April 2008.
Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1986.
|Guyana||See Brazil–Guyana relations
Brazil–Guyana relations have traditionally been close. Brazil has provided military assistance to Guyana in the form of warfare training and logistics. Bilateral relations between the countries have recently increased, as a result of Brazil's new South-South foreign policy aimed to strengthen South American integration.
|Jamaica||1962-10-14||See Brazil–Jamaica relations
Both countries are full members of the Group of 15.
|Mexico||7 August 1824||See Brazil–Mexico relations
Brazil and Mexico have the two largest emerging economies in Latin-America and the global stage. Both nations are considered to be regional powers and highly influential within the American continent. Both nations have historically been friendly and they have both participated in and are members of several multilateral organizations such as the G20, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States, Rio Group and the United Nations. Several high-level diplomatic meeting have been held by presidents of both nations to enhance bilateral relations.
|Paraguay||See Brazil–Paraguay relations
Paraguay–Brazil relations have improved greatly after Brazilian President Lula's decision in 2009 to triple its payments to Paraguay for energy from a massive hydro-electric dam on their border, ending a long-running dispute. Under the accord, Brazil will pay Paraguay $360m a year for energy from the jointly-operated Itaipu plant. Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva called it a "historic agreement" and the deal slated as a political victory for Paraguayan President Fernando Lugo.
|Suriname||See Brazil–Suriname relations
|United States||See Brazil–United States relations
Brazil-United States relations has a long history, characterized by some moments of remarkable convergence of interests but also by sporadic and critical divergences on sensitive international issues. The United States has increasingly regarded Brazil as a significant power, especially in its role as a stabilizing force and skillful interlocutor in Latin America. As a significant political and economic power, Brazil has traditionally preferred to cooperate with the United States on specific issues rather than seeking to develop an all-encompassing, privileged relationship with the United States.
|Uruguay||See Brazil–Uruguay relations
Brazil and Uruguay are neighboring countries that share close historical, cultural and geographical ties. The singularity of the bilateral relationship between the two countries originates from the strong historical connection - marked by important events, such as the establishment of the Colônia do Sacramento in 1680, the annexation by Brazil and the subsequent creation of the Província Cisplatina in 1815, and Uruguay's independence from Brazil in 1828.
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Armenia||17 February 1992||See Armenia–Brazil relations|
|Azerbaijan||21 October 1993||See Azerbaijan–Brazil relations|
|Bangladesh||See Bangladesh-Brazil relations
Relations have been good. Brazil has an embassy in Dhaka. While Bangladesh has an embassy in Brasília. In 2013, Bangladesh has sought Brazil's support for its candidature at the Human Rights Council in 2015 and non-permanent seat of the UN Security Council for 2016-17 term. In 2014, Brazil assured its support to Bangladesh for the posts of United Nations Human Rights Commission and CEDAW (The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women). Bangladesh also supported Brazil's candidature for the post of Director General of World Trade Organization.
|Bhutan||2009-09-21||See Bhutan–Brazil relations|
|China||See Brazil–China relations|
|East Timor||See Brazil–East Timor relations
|India||See Brazil–India relations|
|Indonesia||See Brazil–Indonesia relations
Both are large tropical country endowed with rich natural resources, Brazil and Indonesia possess the largest tropical rain forest of the world that contains the world's richest biodiversity, which gave them a vital role in global environment issues, such as ensuring tropical forests protection. Both countries leading the list of Megadiverse countries with Indonesia second only to Brazil.
|Iraq||1967||See Brazil–Iraq relations
Brazil maintains an embassy in Baghdad and Iraq maintains an embassy in Brasília. Both countries are full members of the Group of 77. Brazil was the first Latin American country to reopen its embassy in Iraq since the 1991 Gulf War.
|Israel||1949-2-7||See Brazil–Israel relations
Brazil played a large role in the establishment of the State of Israel. Brazil held the Presidency office of the UN General Assembly in 1947, which proclaimed the Partition Plan for Palestine. The Brazilian delegation to the U.N., supported and heavily lobbied for the partition of Palestine toward the creation of the State of Israel. Brazil was also one of the first countries to recognize the State of Israel, on 7 February 1949, less than one year after Israeli Declaration of Independence. Nowadays, Brazil and Israel maintains close political, economic and military ties. Brazil is a full member state of Israel Allies Caucus, a political advocacy organization that mobilizes pro-Israel parliamentarians in governments worldwide. The two nations enjoy a degree of arms cooperation as Brazil is a key buyer of Israeli weapons and military technology. Also, Brazil is Israel's largest trading partner in Latin America. Israel has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo and Brazil has an embassy in Tel Aviv and an honorary consulate in Haifa. Brazil has the 9th largest Jewish community in the world, about 107,329 by 2010, according to the IBGE census. The Jewish Confederation of Brazil (CONIB) estimates to more than 120,000.
|Japan||1895||See Brazil–Japan relations|
|Lebanon||November 1945||See Brazil–Lebanon relations|
|Malaysia||See Brazil–Malaysia relations|
|North Korea||9 March 2001||See Brazil–North Korea relations|
|Pakistan||See Brazil–Pakistan relations
Brazil-Pakistan relations are characterized as friendly and cooperative. Brazil maintains an embassy in Islamabad and Pakistan maintains an embassy in Brasília. In 2008, Brazil approved the sale of 100 MAR-1 anti-radiation missiles to Pakistan despite India's pressure on Brazil to avoid doing so.
|Philippines||See Brazil–Philippines relations
In June 2009, Brazil and the Philippines made their pledges as they signed mutual cooperation agreements in the fields of bio-energy and agriculture. The two countries committed themselves to take the necessary steps to implement the signed Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in Agriculture and the Memorandum of Understanding on Bioenergy Cooperation. The Philippines and Brazil signed six memoranda of understanding and agreements on the development and production of renewable energy, and agriculture cooperation. It intends to "facilitate technical cooperation... on the production and use of biofuels, particularly ethanol, and promote the expansion of bilateral trade and investment in biofuel,"
|Qatar||5 November 1974||See Brazil–Qatar relations
|South Korea||31 October 1959||See Brazil–South Korea relations
The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea and the Federative Republic of Brazil started on 31 October 1959.
|United Arab Emirates||
established a Consulate General in São Paulo in 1998, and upgraded it to embassy status in 2000. The Brazilian Embassy in Hanoi was opened in 1994, being the first Latin American country to open an embassy in Hanoi. Vietnamese Presidents Lê Đức Anh and Trần Đức Lương have visited Brazil in October 1995 and November 2004, respectively.
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Albania||See Albania–Brazil relations
|Cyprus||July 21, 1964|
|Czech Republic||See Czech Brazilians|
|Denmark||See Brazil–Denmark relations|
|Finland||April 8, 1929||Brazil recognised the independence of Finland on December 26, 1919. Brazil has an embassy in Helsinki. Finland has an embassy in Brasília, honorary consulate generals in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo and other honorary consulates in Belém, Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Fortaleza, Manaus, Porto Alegre, Recife, Salvador and Vitória.|
|France||See Brazil–France relations
France has recognized Brazil as its special partner in South America and as a global player in international affairs. The two countries are committed to strengthening their bilateral cooperation in the areas for which working groups have been created: nuclear power, renewable energies, defence technologies, technological innovation, joint cooperation in African countries and space technologies, medicines and the environment. Recently, France announced its support to the Brazilian bid for a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council.
|Greece||See Brazil–Greece relations
The countries have enjoyed "Bilateral relations [that] have always been good and are progressing smoothly," according to the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1953.
|Ireland||1975||See Brazil–Ireland relations|
|Italy||1834||See Brazil–Italy relations|
|Poland||27 May 1920||See Brazil–Poland relations|
|Portugal||See Brazil–Portugal relations
Portugal and Brazil have countless bilateral agreements in areas such as culture, language, R&D, immigration, defence, tourism, economy, environment, among others. Portugal and Brazil hold regular Summits to discuss bilateral and multilateral agreements and current topics (last one in Bahia in 2008, before that one in Porto in 2005). One rather controversial topic was the spelling reform that aims at homogenising spelling in lusophone countries. Both countries share a common heritage and are committed in its preservation, be it through bilateral agreements or involving other nations, such as in the framework of CPLP. Both countries lobby within the UN to upgrade Portuguese to a working language in that Organisation. Portugal has also lobbied for Brazil to become a permanent member of the UN Security Council. Finally, Portugal hosted the 1st EU-Brazil summit, in 2007.
|Russia||See Brazil–Russia relations
Brazil–Russia relations have seen a significant improvement in recent years, characterized by an increasing commercial trade and cooperation in military and technology segments. Today, Brazil shares an important alliance with the Russian Federation, with partnerships in areas such as space and military technologies, and telecommunications.
|Serbia||1946||See Brazil–Serbia relations
|Spain||1834||See Brazil–Spain relations|
|Ukraine||See Brazil–Ukraine relations
|United Kingdom||See Brazil–United Kingdom relations
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Australia||See Australia–Brazil relations|
|Nauru||2 November 2005||
Both countries established diplomatic relations on November 2, 2005.
|New Zealand||1964||See Brazil–New Zealand relations|
- Brazil and the European Union
- Brazil and the United Nations
- Brazil and weapons of mass destruction
- Brazilian Antarctica
- List of diplomatic missions in Brazil
- List of diplomatic missions of Brazil
- Ministry of Foreign Relations of Brazil
- Union of South American Nations
- Visa requirements for Brazilian citizens
- Country Profile: Brazil Archived 2011-05-24 at the Wayback Machine. UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved on 2009-01-05.
- Article 4 of the Federal Constitution of Brazil V-Brazil. Retrieved on 2011-09-20.
- Article 84 of the Federal Constitution of Brazil V-Brazil. Retrieved on 2011-09-20.
- U.S. Congressional Report on Brazil Archived 2009-07-10 at the Wayback Machine. United States Congress. Retrieved on 2009-06-23.
- Georges D. Landau, "The Decision-making Process in Foreign Policy: The Case of Brazil," Center for Strategic and International Studies: Washington DC: March 2003
- "Brasilemb.org". www.brasilemb.org.
- "Brazil's president visits Angola". BBC News. 2003-11-03. Retrieved 2010-04-02.
- Pepe, Leandro Leone (2005). "O envolvimento do Brasil na questão timorense" (PDF). Revue Lusotopie XIII. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "Brazil sends observers to East Timor elections". Embassy of Brazil in London. June 2007. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- CRS Report RL33258, Brazilian Trade Policy and the United States, by J. F. Hornbeck
- Brazil in the BRIC initiative: soft balancing in the shifting world order? Revista Brasileira de Política Internacional. Retrieved on 2011-09-30.
- Lula da Silva’s Foreign Policy: The Autonomy through Diversification Strategy Archived 2009-08-30 at the Wayback Machine. Vigevani, Tullo; Cepaluni, Gabriel. Retrieved on 2009-07-11.
- Brazil's Rousseff: Continuity and Tests Archived 2011-11-05 at the Wayback Machine. Sweig, Julia E. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved on 2011-09-19.
- Rousseff Tweaks Brazil's Foreign Policy at the UN Council of the Americas. Retrieved on 2011-09-19.
- Rousseff's foreign policy has limited room for change Archived 2012-04-02 at the Wayback Machine. Brazil Politics. Retrieved on 2011-09-19.
- Congressional Research Report on Brazil-U.S. Relations: Regional Policy (p.12) U.S. Congress. Retrieved on 2011-09-30.
- Background Note: Brazil – Foreign relations U.S. Department of State. Retrieved on 2011-09-30.
- Library of Congress Country Studies - Foreign relations of Brazil: Latin America Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2011-09-30.
- Brazil and the Difficult Path to Multilateralism: Brazil's Financial Clout Funders Network on Transforming The Global Economy. Retrieved on 2011-09-30.
- Cooperação Sul-Sul (South-South Cooperation) Agência Brasileira de Cooperação. Retrieved on 2011-09-30. (in Portuguese).
- Entrance Visas in Brazil Archived 2011-08-10 at the Wayback Machine. Ministry of External Relations of Brazil. Retrieved on 2011-04-05.
- Representações do Brasil no exterior Archived 2011-09-24 at the Wayback Machine. Ministry of External Relations of Brazil. Retrieved on 2011-09-20.
- Brasil não reconhece Kosovo sem acordo com Sérvia Clic RBS. Retrieved on 2008-02-22. (in Portuguese)
- Notice Archived 2010-01-05 at the Wayback Machine. Brazilian Commercial Office in Taipei. Retrieved on 2011-09-20.
- Brazil in the Security Council Archived 2011-09-21 at the Wayback Machine. Permanent Mission of Brazil to the United Nations. Retrieved on 2011-09-20.
- Permanent Mission of Brazil to the United Nations Retrieved on 2011-09-20.
- Joint Press Statement of the G4 countries Archived 2011-09-20 at the Wayback Machine. Permanent Mission of Brazil to the United Nations. Retrieved on 2011-09-20.
- Borders and Limits of Brazil: Ilha Brasileira Archived March 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Wilson R.M. Krukoski, LNCC. Retrieved on 2009-06-23. (in Portuguese)
- .Brazilian Antarctica World Statesmen.org. Retrieved on 2009-06-23.
- UN Continental Shelf and UNCLOS Article 76: Brazilian Submission United Nations. Retrieved on 2009-06-23.
- Cabral and Weinstock 2010. Brazil: an emerging aid player. London: Overseas Development Institute
- Abellán & Alonso 2017, p. 7.
- Abellán & Alonso 2017, p. 9.
- Abellán & Alonso 2017, p. 11.
- Cabral, Lidia 2010. Brazil’s development cooperation with the South: a global model in waiting Archived 2011-04-30 at the Wayback Machine.. London: Overseas Development Institute
- Abellán & Alonso 2017, pp. 12-13.
- "Central African Republic". www.itamaraty.gov.br.
- Yapp, by Robin (22 May 2018). "Britain's isolation on Falklands grows with 'anti-colonial' Brazil snub" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
- Cuba-Brazil Relations Get New Impulse Archived August 30, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Juventuderebelde.co.cu. Retrieved on 2008-05-31.
- Brazil Wants to Be Cuba's Number-One Trade Partner CubaNews.cu. Retrieved on 2008-05-30.
- "Brazilian embassy in Mexico City (in Portuguese and Spanish only)". itamaraty.gov.br.
- "INICIO". embamex.sre.gob.mx.
- "Brazil and Paraguay in power deal". BBC News. 2009-07-25. Retrieved 2010-04-02.
- Developing a partnership with Brazil - An emerging power Bassoli, Douglas. U.S. Army War College. 2004-04-03.
- US Congress Report on Brazil-U.S. Relations Archived 2009-07-10 at the Wayback Machine. United States Congress. Retrieved on 2009-06-23
- Embaixada do Brasil em Montevideo: Relações Bilaterais Archived 2012-07-31 at Archive.is Embassy of Brazil in Montevideo. Retrieved on 2009-06-23. (in Portuguese)
- LLC, Helix Consulting. "Embassy of Armenia to Brazil". brazil.mfa.am.
- "HOME PAGE". ierevan.itamaraty.gov.br.
- FS. "Azərbaycan Respublikasının Braziliya Federativ Respublikasndakı Səfirliyi". brasilia.mfa.gov.az.
- "Apresentação". baku.itamaraty.gov.br.
- Comunicado Conjunto sobre o estabelecimento de relações diplomáticas entre o Brasil e o Butão - Nova York, 21 de setembro de 2009 Archived 2012-08-03 at Archive.is Itamaraty.gov.br. Retrieved on 2012-01-23.
- Bhutan establishes diplomatic relations with Brazil Archived 2012-02-27 at the Wayback Machine. www.mfa.gov.bt. Retrieved on 2012-01-23.
- Indian Embassy in Brazil: Bilateral Relations Archived August 2, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Embassy of India in Brasília. Retrieved on 2009-06-23.
- "Brazil to Resume Relations with Iraq". voanews.com. Archived from the original on 2009-08-26. Retrieved 2009-01-24.
- Israel International Relations: International Recognition of Israel Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved on 2013-11-13.
- Member Nations. Israel Allies Fondation. Retrieved 2013-12-01.
- "Briefing: Brazil's economic and military relationship with Israel" (PDF). stopthewall.org.
- "Commercial Relations: Brazil and Israel". thebrazilbusiness.com.
- Brazil-Israel. Brazilian Embassy in Tel Aviv. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
- 2010 Brazilian census Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Retrieved on 2013-11-13
- U.S. Department of State. Brazil, Retrieved on 2013-12-18
- "Página Inicial". toquio.itamaraty.gov.br.
- "Embaixada do Japão no Brasil". www.br.emb-japan.go.jp.
- "Embassy of Brazil in Lebanon". itamaraty.gov.br.
- "Embaixada do Líbano no Brasil - Página Inicial". www.brasilia.mfa.gov.lb.
- "Embaixada Do Brasil Em Kuala Lumpur". Ministerio Das Relacoes Exteriores. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- "Official Website of Embassy of Malaysia, Brasilia". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Malaysia. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- Brazil to Sell MAR-1 SEAD Missiles to Pakistan Defense Industry Daily. Retrieved on 2009-01-05.
- "Philippines, Brazil unite on energy, agriculture"
- "PGMA, Brazilian President Lula agree to further strengthen RP-Brazil relations"[permanent dead link], ISRIA
- "Bioenergy deals top 6 RP, Brazil agreements" Archived June 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- "RP, Brazil ink 5 accords " Archived July 3, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Home". seul.itamaraty.gov.br.
- Vietnam-Brazil Relations Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved on 2009-06-23.
- "Ministry Foreign Affairs of Cyprus" (PDF). olc.gov.cy.
- "Ministry Foreign Affairs of Cyprus". mfa.gov.cy. Archived from the original on 2015-09-29. Retrieved 2015-09-09.
- "Ministry Foreign Affairs of Cyprus". mfa.gov.cy. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-05-02.
- Bilateral relations Embassy of Brazil in Helsinki. Retrieved on 2009-06-23.
- Brazilian-Finnish relations Embassy of Finland in Brasília. Retrieved on 2009-06-23
- "France and Brazil - Political relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of France. Archived from the original on 2007-10-18. Retrieved 2008-02-18.
- Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Brazil. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Greece. Accessed on 2009-05-04.
- "Republic of Iceland". www.itamaraty.gov.br.
- "Main Page". dublin.itamaraty.gov.br.
- "Brazil - Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade". www.dfa.ie.
- "Berita Teknologi Handphone dan Komputer Unik". www.embaixada-portugal-brasil.blogspot.com.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-09-27. Retrieved 2009-08-24.
- "Berita Teknologi Handphone dan Komputer Unik". embaixada-portugal-brasil.blogspot.com.
- Ministério das relações exteriores - CPLP http://www.mre.gov.br/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1185
- SAPO. "SAPO 24". SAPO 24.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-26. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
- "Republic of Nauru". www.itamaraty.gov.br.
- "Home". wellington.itamaraty.gov.br.
- "Embassy of New Zealand in Brasilia". mfat.govt.nz.
- "Independent State of Samoa". www.itamaraty.gov.br.
- Abellán, Javier; Alonso, José Antonio (2017). The role of Brazil as a new donor of development aid in Africa. Africa, New Powers, Old Powers. University of Bologna.
- The Sino-Brazilian Principles in a Latin American and BRICS Context: The Case for Comparative Public Budgeting Legal Research Wisconsin International Law Journal, 13 May 2015
- Ministério das Relações Exteriores - Official website of the Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Relations (in Portuguese)
- Ministério das Relações Exteriores - Official website of the Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Relations
- Brazilian Mission to the United Nations - Official website (in English) (in Portuguese)
- Agência Brasileira de Cooperação - Official website of the Brazilian Agency of Cooperation (in Portuguese)
- IBSA News and Media - IBSA Dialogue Forum | India, Brazil and South Africa | News, Opinion and Analysis