Physical education

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Not to be confused with Physics education.
This article is about the educational activity. For then 2008 movie, see Gym Teacher: The Movie.
Physical education equipment in Calhan, Colorado.

Physical education or PE, also known in many Commonwealth countries as physical training or PT,[1] is an educational course related to the physique of the human body. It is taken during primary and secondary education and encourages psychomotor learning in a play or movement exploration setting to promote health.[2]

Physical education in different countries[edit]

=== Physical education in Asia === (Rahmat Gul) In South Korea, it is mandatory for pupils to take a total of 3 hours of physical education through primary and secondary level schools[citation needed]

In Singapore, pupils from primary school through junior colleges are required to have 2 hours of PE every week, except during examination seasons. Pupils are able to play games like football, badminton, captain's ball, and basketball during most sessions. Unorthodox sports such as touchball, fencing, and skateboarding are occasionally played. In more prestigious secondary schools and in junior colleges, sports such as golf, tennis, shooting, and squash are played. A compulsory fitness exam, NAPFA, is conducted in every school once every year to assess the physical fitness of the pupils.[citation needed] Pupils are given a series of fitness tests (Pull-ups/Inclined pull-ups for girls, standing broad jump, sit-ups, sit-and-reach and 1.6 km for primary [10-12 year-olds]/2.4 km for secondary and junior college levels [13-18 year-olds]). Students are graded by gold, silver, bronze or fail. NAPFA for pre-enlistees serves as an indicator for an additional 2 months in the country's compulsory national service if they attain bronze or fail.

In Malaysia, pupils from primary schools to secondary schools are expected to do 2 periods or 1 hour of PE throughout the year except a week before examination. In most secondary schools, games like badminton, sepak takraw, football, basketball and tennis are available. Pupils are allowed to bring their own sports equipment to the school with the authorization of the teacher.

In the Philippines, PE is mandatory for all years. Unless, the school gives the option for a student to do the Leaving Certificate Vocational Programme instead for fifth and sixth year. In the Philippines, some schools have integrated martial arts training into their physical education curriculum.[3][4][5][6][7]

Indonesian high school students playing the traditional game "Benteng"

In Indonesia, students ranging from Kindergarten to High School have PE integrated with their curriculum. Kindergarten until Grade 3 of Elementary students have gymnastics, starting from Grade 4 of Elementary School, students will be introduced into traditional martial arts Pencak Silat and some team games such as badminton, tennis, soccer, futsal, rounders, basketball, etc. Starting from Junior High School, Both ed. Many games such as Basketball, volleyball, cricket, tennis, badminton, kho kho, kabaddi etc. are played. Several drills and physical training are taught.

Physical education in Australia[edit]

In Australia, physical education was first made an important part of the curriculum in Government primary and secondary schools in 1981. The policy was outlined in a Ministerial Statement to the Victorian Legislative Assembly by the Minister for Educational Services, the Fat Norman Lacy MP on 17 September.[8]

Physical education in North America[edit]

In British Columbia, Canada the government has stated in the grade one curriculum that students must participate in physical activity daily five times a week. Also the teacher is responsible for planning Daily Physical Activity (DPA) which is thirty minutes of mild to moderate physical activity a day not including curriculum physical education classes. The curriculum also requires students in grade one to be knowledgeable about healthy living. For example, students must be able to describe benefits of regular exercise, identify healthy choices that require them to be more physically active, and describe importance of choosing healthy food.[9]

Ontario, Canada has a similar procedure in place. On October 6, 2005 in Ontario, Canada the Ontario Ministry of Education (OME) implemented a Daily Physical Activity policy in Elementary Schools, Grades 1-8. This policy requires that all students in Grades 1 to 8, including students with special needs, be provided with opportunities to participate in a minimum of twenty minutes of sustained moderates to vigorous physical activity each school day during instructional time.[10]

Physical education in Europe[edit]

In Portugal, pupils from primary school could optionally join PE as an extra-curricular activity. From middle school to secondary school, pupils must participate in PE classes 2 hours per week.[citation needed]

In Scotland, P.E. is a government supported entitlement of a minimum of 2 hours of quality P.E. in primary and 2 periods (50 mins) in secondary S1 to S4. Recent funding has ensured most local authorities have employed PE lead officers to support the entitlement. In fifth and sixth year, PE is voluntary in that personalisation and choice must be considered.[citation needed]

Some countries include Martial Arts training in school as part of Physical Education class. These Filipino children are doing karate.

In England, pupils are expected to do two hours of PE a week in Year 7, 8 and 9 and at least 1 in year 10 and 11.[11]

In Wales, pupils are expected to do only one hour of PE per fortnight.[11]

In Poland, pupils are expected to do at least three hours of PE a week during primary and secondary education.[12] Universities must also organise at least 60 hours of physical education classes at undergraduate courses.[13]

Trends[edit]

Young Portuguese children participating in a school race

Physical education trends have developed recently[when?] to incorporate a greater variety of activities besides typical sports. Introducing students to activities like bowling, walking/hiking, or frisbee at an early age can help students develop good activity habits that will carry over into adulthood. Some teachers have even begun to incorporate stress-reduction techniques such as yoga, deep-breathing and tai chi. Tai chi, an ancient martial arts form focused on slow meditative movements is a relaxation activity with many benefits for students. Studies have shown that tai chi enhances muscular strength and endurance, cardiovascular endurance, and provides many other physical benefits.[which?] It also provides psychological benefits such as improving general mental health, concentration, awareness and positive mood.[citation needed] It can be taught to any age student with little or no equipment making it ideal for mixed ability and age classes. Tai chi can easily be incorporated into a holistic learning body and mind unit.[14] Teaching non-traditional sports to students may also provide the necessary motivation for students to increase their activity, and can help students learn about different cultures. For example, while teaching a unit about lacrosse in, for example, the Southwestern United States, students can also learn about the Native American cultures of the Northeastern United States and Eastern Canada, where lacrosse originated. Teaching non-traditional (or non-native) sports provides a great opportunity to integrate academic concepts from other subjects as well (social studies from the example above), which may now be required of many P.E. teachers. The four aspects of P.E. are physical, mental, social, and emotional.[citation needed]

Another trend is the incorporation of health and nutrition to the physical education curriculum. The Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004 required that all school districts with a federally funded school meal program develop wellness policies that address nutrition and physical activity.[15] While teaching students sports and movement skills, P.E. teachers are now incorporating short health and nutrition lessons into the curriculum. This is more prevalent at the elementary school level, where students do not have a specific Health class. Recently most elementary schools have specific health classes for students as well as physical education class. With the recent outbreaks of diseases such as swine flu, school districts are making it mandatory for students to learn about practicing good hygiene along with other health topics. Today many states require Physical Education teachers to be certified to teach Health courses. Many colleges and Universities offer both Physical Education and Health as one certification. This push towards health education is beginning in the intermediate level, including lessons on bullying, self-esteem and stress and anger management.

Research has shown that there is a positive correlation between brain development and exercising.[16]

Incorporating local indigenous knowledge into physical education can lead to many meaningful experiences and a way of learning about other cultures. For example, by incorporating traditional knowledge from varying indigenous groups from across Canada students can be exposed to a many concepts such as holistic learning and the medicine wheel. A unit could be focused on connecting to a place or feeling while outdoors, participating in traditional games, or outdoor environmental education. These types of lesson can easily be integrated into other parts of the curriculum and give Aboriginal students a chance to incorporate their culture in the local school community [17]

Studies have been done in how physical education can help improve academic achievement. In a 2007 article, researchers found a profound gain in student's English Arts standardized testing students who had 56 hours of physical education in a year compared to like students who had 28 hours of physical education a year.[18]

In Brazil, the physical education curriculum is designed to allow school pupils a full range of modern opportunities, half a dozens of sports. They said they offer martial arts classes, like wrestling in the United States, and Pencak Silat in France, Indonesia, and Malaysia, are taught to teach children self-defense and to feel good about themselves. The physical education curriculum is designed to allow students to experience at least a minimum exposure to the following categories of activities: aquatics, conditioning activities, gymnastics, individual/dual sports, team sports, rhythms, and dance.

In these areas, a planned sequence of learning experiences is designed to support a progression of student development. This allows kids through 6th grade to be introduced to sports, fitness, and teamwork in order to be better prepared for the middle and high school age. In 1975, the United States House of Representatives voted to require school physical education classes include both genders.[19] Some high school and some middle school PE classes are single-sex. Requiring individuals to participate in physical education activities, such as dodge ball, flag football, and other competitive sports remains a controversial subject because of the social impact these have cases physical education programs have been cut.

Technology use in physical education New technology in Physical education is playing a big role in classes. One of the most affordable and effective is a simple video recorder. With the use of a video recorder students can see the mistakes they're making in things such as a throwing motion or swinging form.[20] Studies show that students find this more effective than having someone try to explain what they are doing wrong, and then trying to correct it.[20] Educators also found the use of other technologies such as pedometers and heart rate monitors very successful, using them to make step and heart rate goals for students.[21] Using heart rate monitors in physical education is important because it helps students understand how exercise affects their body.<http://www.polar.com/us-en/b2b_products/physical_education/heart_rate_monitoring>

Other technologies that can be used in a Physical Education setting would include video projectors, GPS and even gaming systems such as Kinect, Wii Fit and Dance Dance Revolution. Projectors can be used to show students things such as proper form or how to play certain games. GPS systems can be used to get students active in an outdoor setting and active exergames[clarification needed]can be used by teachers to show students a good way to stay fit in and out of the classroom setting.[22]

Another type of technology that is commonly used in Physical Education is the use of pedometers. Pedometers do not necessarily track how far a person is going, but it lets them know the number of steps they are making. It will let them know how many steps on average they are making.[23][24]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ The Daily Telegraph, 25 July 2008: "Physical training in schools should be compulsory, says leading head" Linked 2014-04-09
  2. ^ Anderson, D. (1989). The Discipline and the Profession. Foundations of Canadian Physical Education, Recreation, and Sports Studies. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown Publishers.
  3. ^ [1][dead link]
  4. ^ [2][dead link]
  5. ^ "Regional Commissions and Chapters International Modern Arnis Federation Philippines Mindanao Commission". Imafp.com. Retrieved 2010-11-07. 
  6. ^ [3][dead link]
  7. ^ "Sunday Inquirer Magazine: Life Lessons from Karate". Showbizandstyle.inquirer.net. 2008-12-14. Retrieved 2010-11-07. 
  8. ^ "Ministerial Statement on New Directions in Physical Education". Archive.org. Retrieved 2015-08-13. 
  9. ^ BC curriculum package
  10. ^ [4][dead link]
  11. ^ a b "Create Development – Accelerating learning by developing the whole child | 020 8863 0304". Createdevelopment.co.uk. 2014-06-20. Retrieved 2015-08-13. 
  12. ^ "Dz.U. 2002 nr 15 poz. 142. Rozporządzenie Ministra Edukacji Narodowej i Sportu z dnia 12 lutego 2002 r. w sprawie ramowych planów nauczania w szkołach publicznych.". Internetowy System Aktów Prawnych. Retrieved 31 October 2010. 
  13. ^ "Standardy kształcenia dla poszczególnych kierunków studiów i poziomów kształcenia". Biuletyn Informacji Publicznej. Retrieved 31 October 2010. 
  14. ^ Lu C. (2007)
  15. ^ Pangrazi, Robert (2007) "Dynamic Physical Education for Elementary School Children" 15th ed.
  16. ^ REYNOLDS, GRETCHEN. "Phys Ed: Can Exercise Make Kids Smarter?". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 April 2013. 
  17. ^ Lowen, G
  18. ^ Trembarche P. Robinson E. Graham L. (2007). "Physical Education and its Effect on Elementary Testing Results"[volume & issue needed]
  19. ^ "Physical Education - Jul 18, 1975 - NBC - TV news: Vanderbilt Television News Archive". Tvnews.vanderbilt.edu. 1975-07-18. Retrieved 2015-08-13. 
  20. ^ a b Wang, L., Myers, D., & Yanes, M. (2010). Creating student-centered learning experience through the assistance of high-end technology in physical education. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 37(4), 352-356.
  21. ^ Woods, M., Karp, G., Goc, H., & Perlman, D. (2008). Physical educators' usage. Physical Educator, 65(2), 82-99
  22. ^ Grimes, G. (2011, November 21). Interview by M Massey [Personal Interview].
  23. ^ "Using pedometers to assess physical activity participation levels". Humankinetics.com. 2010-04-01. Retrieved 2015-08-13. 
  24. ^ "PEC: Pedometer Lesson Activities". Pecentral.org. Retrieved 2015-08-13. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Martha H. Verbrugge, Active Bodies: A History of Women's Physical Education in Twentieth-Century America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

External links[edit]