Energy in Denmark

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This article describes energy and electricity production, consumption, import and export in Denmark.
Denmark ranks as number 32 in the world among net exporters of crude oil.

Denmark has considerable sources of oil and natural gas in the North Sea and ranked as number 32 in the world among net exporters of crude oil in 2008.[1] Denmark expects to be self-sufficient with oil until 2050.[2] However, gas resources are expected to decline, and production may decline below consumption in 2020, making imports necessary.[3] A large but decreasing proportion[4] of electricity is produced from coal and nuclear energy imports,[5] while wind turbines supply the equivalent of about 42% of electricity demand by 2015 (see Wind power in Denmark).[6][7]

In February 2011 the Danish government announced the "Energy Strategy 2050" with the aim to be fully independent of fossil fuels by 2050,[8] and a new government repeated the goal in 2015 despite public scepticism.[9] The European Renewables Directive set a mandatory target at 20% share of energy from renewable sources by 2020 (EU combined).[10][11] In 2012 the Danish government adopted a plan to increase the share of electricity production from wind to 50% by 2020,[12][13] and to 84% in 2035.[14]

Denmark's electrical grid is connected by transmission lines to other European countries,[15] and had (according to the World Economic Forum) the best energy security in the EU in 2013[16] although this had fallen to third in the EU by 2014.[17]

History[edit]

In 1972, 92% of Denmark's energy consumption came from imported oil.[18] The 1973 oil crisis forced Denmark to rethink its energy policy; in 1978 coal contributed 18%, and the Tvind wind turbine was made, along with the creation of a wind turbine industry.[19] The 1979 energy crisis pushed further change, and in 1984 the North Sea natural gas projects began.[20] The North Sea production of oil and gas made Denmark self-sufficient in 1997,[21] peaking in 2005,[22] and decreased below self-sufficiency by 2013.[23]

The year 2014 was the warmest on record in Denmark, with the lowest number of degree days in history. A normal year has 2,906 while 2014 saw only 2,100 degree days.[24] Since 2000, Denmark has increased Gross National Product and decreased energy consumption.[25]

Overview[edit]

External image
Danish energy flow 2014

Energy statistics[edit]

Energy in Denmark [26]
Capita Prim. energy Production Export Electricity CO2-emission
Million TWh TWh TWh TWh Mt
2004 5.40 233 361 117 35.8 50.9
2007 5.46 229 314 64 36.4 50.5
2008 5.49 221 309 54 35.5 48.4
2009 5.52 216 278 43 34.5 46.8
2010 5.55 224 271 42 35.1 47.0
2012 5.57 209 244 19 34.1 41.7
2012R 5.59 202 221 8 33.8 37.1
2013 5.61 203 196 -26 33.9 38.8
Change 2004-10 2.8% -4.1% -24.8% -63.6% 0.0% -7.7%
Mtoe = 11.63 TWh. Primary energy includes energy losses.

2012R = CO2 calculation criteria changed, numbers updated

Energy taxes[edit]

2015 energy taxes per unit, in DKK[27][28][29]
Diesel Gasoline Natural gas Coal Electricity
per unit liter liter m3 MWh tonne GJ MWh
Excise 2.660 4.137 2.158 176.6 1,6051 54.5 8781
Environment 0.420 0.388 0.384 31.4 413.51 0

1Not applicable for industry

Fuel is not taxed for ships and planes to other countries. Coal and gas for electricity is not taxed.[30]

Minor taxes are called "Compulsory storage fee" and "NOx tax". Carbon dioxide tax is 0.09 DKK/kWh for electricity. Fossil fuels are taxed at about 90 DKK/ton CO2.[31]

2015 overall energy taxes, in billions DKK[32]
Oil Gasoline Natural gas Coal Electricity
Excise 9.3 7.3 3.3 2.5 11.7

Energy taxes contributed 34 billion DKK in 2015, about 12% of overall taxing revenue.[32] The money is a considerable income for the state, and changing the composition of the taxes towards a "greener" mix is difficult. According to a government official, the majority of taxes are not based on environment concerns,[33] in contrast to the DKK 5 billion per year in PSO-money for cleaner energy, paid by electricity consumers to producers of clean electricity. These tolls are not available for government consumption.[34]

Energy sources[edit]

Coal[edit]

Fossil fuel consumption in Denmark.
Main article: Coal power in Denmark

Coal power provided 48.0% of the electricity and 22.0% of the heat in district heating in Denmark in 2008; and in total provided 21.6% of total energy consumption (187 PJ out of 864 PJ).[35] The coal is mainly imported from outside Europe.[36] Consumption of coal was more than halved over the 10 years between 2004-2014.[4]

Oil[edit]

Production

The production of crude oil fell from 523 PJ in 2010 to 470 PJ in 2011. As of May 2014, Denmark produced an average of 172 kbpd.[37] Danish oil companies donate DKK 1 billion over 10 years to Technical University of Denmark to increase production. Danish oil reserves are expected to run out around 2047.[38]

Consumption

Consumption fell from 315 to 306 PJ during 2011.[39] Official statistics estimate 231,000 residences heated by oil in 2014 (down from 328,000 in 2013), but only 87,000 actually purchased oil during 2014.[40]

Natural gas[edit]

The production of natural gas fell from 307 PJ in 2010 to 265 PJ in 2011. Consumption fell from 187 to 157 PJ.[39]

CO2 emissions from energy production fell from 49.4 to 44.3 million tons, from 2010 to 2011,[39] a decline of 10%.[41]

Biomass[edit]

Denmark consumed 2.1 million tonnes of wood pellets in 2014, expected to increase by 1.2 million tonnes as more coal is replaced. They are mainly imported from the Baltic states and Russia. Denmark also burns wood chips and straw, mostly for heating.[42]

Nuclear Energy[edit]

The production of nuclear energy has been banned in Denmark since 1985. In 2014 and 2015, (imported) nuclear power was 3-4% of electricity consumption in Denmark.[43] An average of 10% of domestic energy consumption comes from nuclear power imports from neighboring countries Sweden and Germany.[44] In 2011, with imports of 2.9 TWh from Germany and 5.2 TWh from Sweden, about 3.5TWh used was nuclear – nearly 11% of total final consumption. This fluctuates year to year, mainly due to NordPool prices, and Energinet.dk analysis showed 1% nuclear in 2010, 7% in 2011 and 14% in 2012.[44]

Solar[edit]

Denmark had 790 MW of photovoltaic capacity in late 2015,[45] and already reached its year 2020 governmental goal of installing 200 MW in 2012.[46] As of 2013, the total PV capacity from 90,000 private installations amounts to 500 MW.[47] Danish energy sector players estimate that this development will result in 1000 MW by 2020 and 3400 MW by 2030.[46]

Solar heating is installed in some homes,[48] and also used in district heating.[49]

Geothermal[edit]

Denmark has two geothermal district heating plants, one in Thisted started in 1988, and one in Copenhagen started in 2005.[50][51] They produce no electricity.

Electricity[edit]

The electricity sector relies on fossil, nuclear and renewable energy: wind power, biogas, biomass and waste. No hydro power is produced domestically and other countries' hydro and thermal power is used for buffering Denmark's renewable generation. The average consumption of electricity per person was 0.8 GWh less than EU 15 average in 2008. Denmark invested in the wind power development in the 1970s and has been the top wind power country of the world ever since. Danish consumption of wind electricity has been highest in the world per person: 1,218 kWh in 2009. Denmark produced more wind power per person in 2009 than Spain or the UK produced nuclear power.

Denmark has mediocre electricity costs (including about DKK 5 billion in costs for cleaner energy)[34] in EU for industries at 9eurocent/kWh,[52][53][54][55] but general taxes increase the household price to the highest in Europe at 31eurocent/kWh.[52][56]

Transmission costs are around 1c/kWh, and support regimes cost 2½c/kWh in 2014.[57]

Wind power[edit]

Main article: Wind power in Denmark

Wind provided 39% of the electricity generated in Denmark in 2014,[7][58][59] and 42.1% of Denmark's total electricity consumption in 2015.[6][60] Denmark is a long-time leader in wind energy, and as of May 2011 Denmark derives 3.1 percent of its Gross Domestic Product from renewable energy technology and energy efficiency, or around €6.5 billion ($9.4 billion).[61][62]

To encourage investment in wind power, families were offered a tax exemption for generating their own electricity within their own or an adjoining commune. While this could involve purchasing a turbine outright, more often families purchased shares in wind turbine cooperatives which in turn invested in community wind turbines. By 2004 over 150,000 Danes were either members of cooperatives or owned turbines, and about 5,500 turbines had been installed, although with greater private sector involvement the proportion owned by cooperatives had fallen to 75%.

District heating[edit]

Danish district heating plants use 100 Petajoule/year,[63] mostly waste heat from thermal power plants burning coal, natural gas and biomass, but a small part of this consumption is from electrode boilers[64] or heat pumps.[65][66] Expansion of wind powered district heating is calculated to be economically efficient without taxes.[67][68] The peak thermal load of district heating in Copenhagen is 2.5 GWth, and simulations suggest a potential heat pump would run 3,500 load-hours per year using sewage water as the heat reservoir.[69]

In 2013, Denmark imported 158,000 ton garbage for incineration in 10 district heating plants,[70] increasing to 323,963 ton in 20 plants in 2015, about 10% of burnt waste.[71]

The pipe heat loss is 17%, at a value of DKK 150 million. New pipes have a heat loss of 6.5%. There are 60,000 km of pipes, serving 1.6 million households.[72] Several towns use central solar heating, some with storage.[49][73]

Transport[edit]

Main article: Transport in Denmark

Denmark aims to focus on intelligent battery systems (V2G) and plug-in vehicles in the transport sector.[74]

Tax revenue from vehicles was 28 billion DKK in 2014.[32]

Cities[edit]

Copenhagen has a target to be carbon-neutral by 2025,[75] and has burned more biomass and less coal during 2004-2014.[76]

Aarhus aims to be carbon-neutral by 2030.[77]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Unforeseen billions from North Sea Maritime, 4 December 2011. Accessed: 8 December 2011.
  3. ^ Andersen, Christian Meiniche. Gas supply 2011-2013 page 17 Energinet.dk. Accessed: 8 December 2011.
  4. ^ a b Energy statistics, 2014 page 12
  5. ^ "More nuclear power flowing through Danish outlets". cphpost.dk. 3 September 2013. 
  6. ^ a b "New record-breaking year for Danish wind power". Energinet.dk. 15 January 2016. 
  7. ^ a b Rasmussen, Jesper Nørskov. "Vindmøller slog rekord i 2014 " Energinet.dk, 6 January 2015. Accessed: 6 January 2015.
  8. ^ "Release of Danish Energy Strategy 2050". Danish Ministry of Climate and Energy. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  9. ^ Danmark er længere med den grønne omstilling end danskerne ved Danish Energy Agency, 1 October 2015. Accessed: 24 January 2016.
  10. ^ "Deal secured on ambitious EU renewables law". EurActiv.com. 9 December 2008. 
  11. ^ EU law - as measured in gross final consumption of energy
  12. ^ Danish Wind Industry Association, Wind energy Denmark, n.d.
  13. ^ The Guardian: "Denmark aims to get 50% of all electricity from wind power", 26 March 2012
  14. ^ Lindboe, page 3
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  16. ^ "Danish security of supply is number one in the EU" Energinet.dk, 11 December 2013. Accessed: 26 December 2013.
  17. ^ "Global Rankings", Accessed: 30 April 2015.
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  19. ^ "Energiomstilling 2050 : 1978". Danish Energy Agency. 
  20. ^ "Energiomstilling 2050 : 1984". Danish Energy Agency. 
  21. ^ "Energiomstilling 2050 : 1997". Danish Energy Agency. 
  22. ^ "Energiomstilling 2050 : 2005". Danish Energy Agency. 
  23. ^ David Roberts (12 March 2016). "Got Denmark envy? Wait until you hear about its energy policies.". Vox. Retrieved 26 April 2016. 
  24. ^ Bernth, Martin. "Mildt vejr skærer 20 procent af varmeregningen" Ingeniøren, 5 January 2015. Accessed: 5 January 2015.
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  26. ^ IEA Key World Energy Statistics Statistics 2015, 2014 (2012R as in November 2015 + 2012 as in March 2014 is comparable to previous years statistical calculation criteria, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2006 IEA October, crude oil p.11, coal p. 13 gas p. 15
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  28. ^ "CO2-afgiftsloven - Bekendtgørelse af lov om kuldioxidafgift af visse energiprodukter". retsinformation.dk. Retrieved 13 September 2016. 
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  30. ^ "SKAT: E.A.4.5.8 Afgiftsfritagelse og afgiftsgodtgørelse". Retrieved 13 September 2016. uden CO2-afgift til brug om bord i skibe i udenrigsfart, fiskerfartøjer .. Jetfuel kan leveres uden CO2-afgift til brug i luftfartøjer .. fuelolie/naturgas / stenkul, der anvendes til fremstilling af elektricitet i kraftværker og kraftvarmeværker 
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  32. ^ a b c Afgifter - provenuet af afgifter og moms 2009-2016, Danish Ministry of Taxation, 2015
  33. ^ "Derfor er omlægning af energiafgifter en svær øvelse". Ingeniøren. Retrieved 17 April 2016. The main part of tolls are not based on environment concerns 
  34. ^ a b "Fremskrivning af PSO-udgifter" page 6+17. Danish Energy Agency, 19 May 2014. Retrieved: 17 January 2015.
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  43. ^ "Rekord lav CO2-udledning fra elforbrug i 2015" Energinet.dk, 1 March 2015.
  44. ^ a b "Nuclear Energy in Denmark". World Nuclear Association. Retrieved 2016-02-03. 
  45. ^ http://ing.dk/artikel/kaempe-solcelleparker-slar-bunden-ud-af-energiforlig-181991
  46. ^ a b Denmark reaches 2020-goal for solar energy before time 12.09.2012
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  48. ^ EurObserv'ER: Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer - May 2014
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  50. ^ "Geotermisk energi". Geotermisk energi. 
  51. ^ Allan Mahler & Jesper Magtengaard, Proceeding World Geothermal Congress 2005, Geothermal Development in Denmark, Country Update WGC 2005
  52. ^ a b Electricity prices for industrial consumers Eurostat, October 2015
  53. ^ Electricity prices (table) Eurostat, October 2015
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  58. ^ Energy_statics_2006
  59. ^ En visionær dansk energipolitik frem til 2025
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  62. ^ Rank-1 in Clean Energy
  63. ^ Lindboe, page 29
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  67. ^ Lindboe, page 7
  68. ^ Blarke, Morten Boje. "Store eldrevne varmepumper" Aalborg University, 17 April 2013. Retrieved: January 2015.
  69. ^ Bach, Bjarne. "Integration of Heat Pumps in Greater Copenhagen" Technical University of Denmark, March 2014. Retrieved: January 2015.
  70. ^ Klimaråd: Affaldsimport vil belaste dansk CO2-regnskab 27 November 2015.
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  72. ^ "Fjernvarmeværkerne har barberet ledningstabet kraftigt ned". 
  73. ^ Current data on Danish solar heat plants
  74. ^ "Plug-in and Electrical Vehicles". EnergyMap.dk. Archived from the original on October 9, 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2012. 
  75. ^ Copenhagen's ambitious push to be carbon-neutral by 2025 Guardian 12 April 2013
  76. ^ Udviklingen i miljødeklaration for fjernvarme 1990-2014 CTR
  77. ^ "Climate Target 2030". Go Green with Aarhus, City of Aarhus. Retrieved 28 July 2014. 

External links[edit]