Economy of Denmark

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The economy of Denmark is a modern high-income and mixed economy. The economy of Denmark is dominated by the service sector with 80% of all jobs, whereas about 11% of all employees work in manufacturing and 2% in agriculture. The nominal gross national income per capita was the ninth-highest in the world at $68,827 in 2023.

Economy of Denmark
CurrencyDanish krone (DKK, kr)
calendar year
Trade organisations
EU, WTO, OECD and others
Country group
Population5,932,654 (January 2023)[3]
  • $406 billion (nominal, 2023)[4]
  • $432 billion (PPP, 2023)[4]
GDP rank
GDP growth
  • 3.6% (2022)
  • 0.0% (2023)
  • 1.0% (2024)[4]
GDP per capita
  • $68,800 (nominal, 2023)[4]
  • $73,400 (PPP, 2023)[4]
GDP per capita rank
GDP by sector
  • agriculture: 1.6%
  • mining and quarrying: 1.2%
  • industry: 14.4%
  • utilities and construction: 7.7%
  • services: 75.2%
  • (2017)[5]
4.8% (2023)[4]
Population below poverty line
  • 4% in poverty (2021)[6]
  • 8.4% at risk of poverty or social exclusion (AROPE, 2021)[7]
27.5 low (2019)[8]
Labour force
  • 3,132,170 (2022)[11]
  • 77.5% employment rate (2018)[12]
Labour force by occupation
  • agriculture: 2.4%
  • mining and quarrying: 0.1%
  • industry: 10.7%
  • utilities and construction: 6.7%
  • services: 79.9%
  • (2017)[13]
  • 2.5% (January 2022)[14]
  • 12.2% youth unemployment (15 to 24 year-olds; July 2020)[15]
Average gross salary
DKK 45,482 / €6,107 monthly (2021)
DKK 30,971 / €4,159 monthly (2021)
Main industries
wind turbines, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment, shipbuilding and refurbishment, iron, steel, nonferrous metals, chemicals, food processing, machinery and transportation equipment, textiles and clothing, electronics, LEGO, construction, furniture and other wood products
Exports$234.2 billion (2021)[16]
Export goods
wind turbines, pharmaceuticals, machinery and instruments, meat and meat products, dairy products, fish, furniture and design
Main export partners
  • Germany 15.5%
  • Sweden 11.6%
  • United Kingdom 8.2%
  • United States 7.5%
  • Norway 6.0%
  • China 4.4%
  • (2017)[16]
Imports$208.1 billion (2021 est.)[16]
Import goods
machinery and equipment, raw materials and semimanufactures for industry, chemicals, grain and foodstuffs, consumer goods
Main import partners
  • Germany 21.3%
  • Sweden 11.9%
  • Netherlands 7.8%
  • China 7.1%
  • Norway 6.3%
  • Poland 4.0%
  • (2017)[16]
FDI stock
  • $188.7 billion (2017)[16]
  • Abroad: $287.9 billion (2017)[16]
$32.4 billion (2021 est.)[16]
$484.8 billion (2016)[16]
64.6% of GDP (1 July 2018)[17]
Public finances
  • 33.2% of GDP (2019)[18]
  • DKK 770.832 billion (2019)[18]
  • DKK 84.9 billion surplus (2019)[18]
  • +3.7% of GDP (2019)[18]
Revenues53.3% of GDP (2019)[18]
Expenses49.6% of GDP (2019)[18]
Economic aidODA, 0.72% of GNI (2017)[19]
$75.25 billion (2017)[16]

All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.

Correcting for purchasing power, per capita income was Int$57,781 or 10th-highest globally.[23] The income distribution is relatively equal but inequality has somewhat increased during the last decades. This increase was attributed to both a larger spread in gross incomes and various economic policy measures.[24] In 2017, Denmark had the seventh-lowest Gini coefficient (a measure of economic inequality) of the then 28 European Union countries.[25] With 5,932,654 inhabitants (1 January 2023),[26] Denmark has the 38th largest national economy in the world measured by nominal gross domestic product (GDP), and the 52nd largest in the world measured by purchasing power parity (PPP).

Denmark has a very long tradition of adhering to a fixed exchange-rate system and still does so today. It is unique among OECD countries to do so while maintaining an independent currency: The Danish krone, which is pegged to the euro. Though eligible to join the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union (EMU), the Danish voters in a referendum in 2000 rejected exchanging the krone for the euro. Whereas Denmark's neighbours like Norway, Sweden, Poland and the United Kingdom generally follow inflation targeting in their monetary policy, the priority of Denmark's central bank is to maintain exchange rate stability. Consequently, the central bank has no role in a domestic stabilization policy. Since February 2015, the central bank has maintained a negative interest rate to contain an upward exchange rate pressure.

In an international context, a relatively large proportion of the population is part of the labour force, in particular because the female participation rate is very high. In 2017, 78.8% of all 15-to-64-year-old people were active on the labour market, the sixth-highest number among all OECD countries. The unemployment is relatively low, in comparison to other European countries. In October 2018, 4.8% of the Danish labour force were unemployed, as compared to an average of 6.7% for all EU countries.[27] There is no legal minimum wage in Denmark.[28] The labour market is traditionally characterized by a high degree of union membership rates and collective agreement coverage. Denmark invests heavily in active labor market policies and the concept of flexicurity has been important historically.

Denmark is an example of the Nordic model, characterized by an internationally high tax level, and a correspondingly high level of government-provided services (e.g. health care, child care and education services). There are also income transfers to various groups, such as retired or disabled people, unemployed persons, students, etc. Altogether, the amount of revenue from taxes paid in 2017 amounted to 46.1% of the GDP. The Danish fiscal policy is generally considered healthy. The net government debt is very close to zero, amounting to 1.3% of GDP in 2017. The Danish fiscal policy is characterized by a long-term outlook, taking into account likely future fiscal demands. During the 2000s, a challenge was perceived to government expenditures in future decades. It was ultimately a challenge to fiscal sustainability from demographic development, in particular higher longevity. Responding to this, age eligibility rules for receiving public age-related transfers were changed. Since 2012, calculations of future fiscal challenges, from both the government and independent analysts, have generally perceived Danish fiscal policy to be sustainable. In recent years, it was considered overly sustainable.


Development of real GDP per capita, 1820 to 2018

Denmark's long-term economic development has largely followed the same pattern as other Northwestern European countries. In most of recorded history Denmark has been an agricultural country with most of the population living on a subsistence level. Since the 19th century Denmark has gone through an intense technological and institutional development. The material standard of living has experienced formerly unknown rates of growth, and the country has been industrialized and later turned into a modern service society.

Almost all of the land area of Denmark is arable. Unlike most of its neighbours, Denmark has not had extractable deposits of minerals or fossil fuels, except for the deposits of oil and natural gas in the North Sea, which started playing an economic role only during the 1980s. On the other hand, Denmark has had a logistic advantage through its long coastal line and the fact that no point on Danish land is more than 50 kilometers from the sea – an important fact for the whole period before the industrial revolution when sea transport was cheaper than land transport.[29] Consequently, foreign trade has always been very important for the economic development of Denmark.

Danish silver penning from the time of Valdemar I of Denmark.

Already during the Stone Age there was some foreign trade,[30] and even though trade has made up only a very modest share of total Danish value added until the 19th century, it has been decisive for economic development, both in terms of procuring vital import goods (like metals) and because new knowledge and technological skills have often come to Denmark as a byproduct of goods exchange with other countries. The emerging trade implied specialization which created demand for means of payments, and the earliest known Danish coins date from the time of Svend Tveskæg around 995.[31]

Count Otto Thott was the foremost representative of mercantilist thought in Denmark.

According to economic historian Angus Maddison, Denmark was the sixth-most prosperous country in the world around 1600. The population size relative to arable agricultural land was small so that the farmers were relatively affluent, and Denmark was geographically close to the most dynamic and economically leading European areas since the 16th century: the Netherlands, the northern parts of Germany, and Britain. Still, 80 to 85% of the population lived in small villages on a subsistence level.[29]

Mercantilism was the leading economic doctrine during the 17th and 18th century in Denmark,[32] leading to the establishment of monopolies like Asiatisk Kompagni, development of physical and financial infrastructure like the first Danish bank Kurantbanken in 1736 and the first "kreditforening" (a kind of building society) in 1797, and the acquisition of some minor Danish colonies like Tranquebar.[33]

At the end of the 18th century major agricultural reforms took place that entailed decisive structural changes.[29][34] However, the Napoleonic Wars caused Copenhagen to lose its status as an international centre of finance and trade.[35] Politically, mercantilism was gradually replaced by liberal thoughts among the ruling elite. Following a monetary reform after the Napoleonic wars, the present Danish central bank Danmarks Nationalbank was founded in 1818.

There exists national accounting data for Denmark from 1820 onwards thanks to the pioneering work of Danish economic historian Svend Aage Hansen.[36] They find that there has been a substantial and permanent, though fluctuating, economic growth all the time since 1820. The period 1822–94 saw on average an annual growth in factor incomes of 2% (0.9% per capita) From around 1830 the agricultural sector experienced a major boom lasting several decades, producing and exporting grains, not least to Britain after 1846 when British grain import duties were abolished. When grain production became less profitable in the second half of the century, the Danish farmers made an impressive and uniquely successful change from vegetarian to animal production leading to a new boom period.[29] Parallelly industrialization took off in Denmark from the 1870s. At the turn of the century industry (including artisanry) fed almost 30% of the population.[37]

During the 20th century agriculture slowly dwindled in importance relative to industry,[34] but agricultural employment was only during the 1950s surpassed by industrial employment. The first half of the century was marked by the two world wars and the Great Depression during the 1930s. After World War II Denmark took part in the increasingly close international cooperation, joining OEEC/OECD, IMF, GATT/WTO, and from 1972 the European Economic Community, later European Union. Foreign trade increased heavily relative to GDP. The economic role of the public sector increased considerably, and the country was increasingly transformed from an industrial country to a country dominated by production of services. The years 1958–73 were an unprecedented high-growth period. The 1960s are the decade with the highest registered real per capita growth in GDP ever, i.e. 4.5% annually.[38]

As a chairman of the Danish Economic Council and of several policy-preparing commissions, Professor Torben M. Andersen has played an important role in Danish economic policy debates for the last decades.

During the 1970s Denmark was plunged into a crisis, initiated by the 1973 oil crisis leading to the hitherto unknown phenomenon stagflation. For the next decades the Danish economy struggled with several major so-called "balance problems": High unemployment, current account deficits, inflation, and government debt. From the 1980s economic policies have increasingly been oriented towards a long-term perspective, and gradually a series of structural reforms have solved these problems. In 1994 active labour market policies were introduced that via a series of labour market reforms have helped reducing structural unemployment considerably.[39] A series of tax reforms from 1987 onwards, reducing tax deductions on interest payments, and the increasing importance of compulsory labour market-based funded pensions from the 1990s have increased private savings rates considerably, consequently transforming secular current account deficits to secular surpluses. The announcement of a consistent and hence more credible fixed exchange rate in 1982 has helped reducing the inflation rate.

In the first decade of the 21st century new economic policy issues have emerged. A growing awareness that future demographic changes, in particular increasing longevity, could threaten fiscal sustainability, implying very large fiscal deficits in future decades, led to major political agreements in 2006 and 2011, both increasing the future eligibility age of receiving public age-related pensions. Mainly because of these changes, from 2012 onwards the Danish fiscal sustainability problem is generally considered to be solved.[40] Instead, issues like decreasing productivity growth rates and increasing inequality in income distribution and consumption possibilities are prevalent in the public debate.

The global Great Recession during the late 2000s, the accompanying Euro area debt crisis and their repercussions marked the Danish economy for several years. Until 2017, unemployment rates have generally been considered to be above their structural level, implying a relatively stagnating economy from a business-cycle point of view. From 2017/18 this is no longer considered to be the case, and attention has been redirected to the need of avoiding a potential overheating situation.

In 2022 the popularity of Novo Nordisk's Ozempic and Wegovy for weight loss began greatly affecting the Danish economy. The pharmaceutical industry contributed two thirds of growth that year, and 1.7 points of the 1.9% year-over-year growth in the first quarter of 2023. As of August 2023 Novo Nordisk's market capitalization—Europe's second-largest, after LVMH—exceeded the size of the entire national economy, and it is the largest payer of corporate taxes to the Danish state. Economists discussed whether the government needed to publish data including and excluding the company; as the enormous economic growth did not similarly increase employment, data including Novo Nordisk is misleading regarding the Danish business cycle. Some worried that the nation might become overdependent on the company, similar to what happened to the economy of Finland with Nokia, or that Novo Nordisk's success might cause Dutch disease.[41]

Income, wealth and income distribution[edit]

Average per capita income is high in an international context. According to the World Bank, gross national income per capita was the tenth-highest in the world at $55,220 in 2017. Correcting for purchasing power, income was Int$52,390 or 16th-highest among the 187 countries.[23]

During the last three decades household saving rates in Denmark have increased considerably. This is to a large extent caused by two major institutional changes: A series of tax reforms from 1987 to 2009 considerably reduced the effective subsidization of private debt implicit in the rules for tax deductions of household interest payments. Secondly, compulsory funded pension schemes became normal for most employees from the 1990s.[42] Over the years, the wealth of the Danish pension funds have accumulated so that in 2016 it constituted twice the size of Denmark's GDP.[43] The pension wealth consequently is a very important both for the life-cycle of a typical individual Danish household and for the national economy. A large part of the pension wealth is invested abroad, thus giving rise to a fair amount of foreign capital income. In 2015, average household assets were more than 600% of their disposable income, among OECD countries second only to the Netherlands. At the same time, average household gross debt was almost 300% of disposable income, which is also at the highest level in OECD. Household balance sheets are consequently very large in Denmark compared to most other countries. Danmarks Nationalbank, the Danish central bank, has attributed this to a well-developed financial system.[44]

Income inequality[edit]

Income inequality has traditionally been low in Denmark. According to OECD figures, in 2000 Denmark had the lowest Gini coefficient of all countries.[45] However, inequality has increased during the last decades. According to data from Statistics Denmark, the Gini coefficient for disposable income has increased from 22.1 in 1987 to 29.3 in 2017.[46] The Danish Economic Council found in an analysis from 2016 that the increasing inequality in Denmark is due to several components: Pre-tax labour income is more unequally distributed today than before, capital income, which is generally less equally distributed than labour income, has increased as share of total income, and economic policy is less redistributive today, both because public income transfers play a smaller role today and because the tax system has become less progressive.[24]

In international comparisons, Denmark has a relatively equal income distribution. According to the CIA World Factbook, Denmark had the twentieth-lowest Gini coefficient (29.0) of 158 countries in 2016.[47] According to data from Eurostat, Denmark was the EU country with the seventh-lowest Gini coefficient in 2017. Slovakia, Slovenia, Czechia, Finland, Belgium and the Netherlands had a lower Gini coefficient for disposable income than Denmark.[25]

Labour market and employment[edit]

The Danish labour market is characterized by a high degree of union membership rates and collective agreement coverage dating back from Septemberforliget (The September Settlement) in 1899 when the Danish Confederation of Trade Unions and the Confederation of Danish Employers recognized each other's right to organise and negotiate. The labour market is also traditionally characterized by a high degree of flexicurity, i.e. a combination of labour market flexibility and economic security for workers.[48] The degree of flexibility is in part maintained through active labour market policies. Denmark first introduced active labour market policies (ALMPs) in the 1990s after an economic recession that resulted in high unemployment rates.[49] Its labour market policies are decided through tripartite cooperation between employers, employees and the government.[50] Denmark has one of the highest expenditures on ALMPs and in 2005, spent about 1.7% of its GDP on labour market policies.[51] This was the highest amongst the OECD countries. Similarly, in 2010 Denmark was ranked number one amongst Nordic countries for expenditure on ALMPs.[52]

Denmark's active labour market policies particularly focus on tackling youth unemployment. They have had a "youth initiative" or the Danish Youth Unemployment Programme in place since 1996.[53] This includes mandatory activation for those unemployed under the age of 30. While unemployment benefits are provided, the policies are designed to motivate job-seeking. For example, unemployment benefits decrease by 50% after 6 months.[54] This is combined with education, skill development and work training programs. For instance, the Building Bridge to Education program was started in 2014 to provide mentors and skill development classes to youth that are at risk of unemployment.[55] Such active labour market policies have been successful for Denmark in the short-term and the long-term. For example, 80% of participants in the Building Bridge for Education program felt that "the initiative has helped them to move towards completing an education".[55] On a more macro scale, a study of the impact of ALMPs in Denmark between 1995 and 2005 showed that such policies had positive impact not just on employment but also on earnings.[50] The effective compensation rate for unemployed workers has been declining for the last decades, however. Unlike in most Western countries there is no legal minimum wage in Denmark.

A relatively large proportion of the population is active on the labour market, not least because of a very high female participation rate. The total participation rate for people aged 15 to 64 years was 78.8% in 2017. This was the 6th-highest number among OECD countries, only surpassed by Iceland, Switzerland, Sweden, New Zealand and the Netherlands. The average for all OECD countries together was 72.1%.[56]

According to Eurostat, the unemployment rate was 5.7% in 2017. This places unemployment in Denmark somewhat below the EU average, which was 7.6%. 10 EU member countries had a lower unemployment rate than Denmark in 2017.[57]

Altogether, total employment in 2017 amounted to 2,919,000 people according to Statistics Denmark.[58]

The share of employees leaving jobs every year (for a new job, retirement or unemployment) in the private sector is around 30%[59] – a level also observed in the U.K. and U.S.- but much higher than in continental Europe, where the corresponding figure is around 10%, and in Sweden. This attrition can be very costly, with new and old employees requiring half a year to return to old productivity levels, but with attrition bringing the number of people that have to be fired down.[60]

Foreign trade[edit]

As a small open economy, Denmark is very dependent on its foreign trade. In 2017, the value of total exports of goods and services made up 55% of GDP, whereas the value of total imports amounted to 47% of GDP. Trade in goods made up slightly more than 60% of both exports and imports, and trade in services the remaining close to 40%.[61]

Machinery, chemicals and related products like medicine and agricultural products were the largest groups of export goods in 2017.[62] Service exports were dominated by freight sea transport services from the Danish merchant navy.[63] Most of Denmark's most important trading partners are neighbouring countries. The five main importers of Danish goods and services in 2017 were Germany, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States and Norway. The five countries from which Denmark imported most goods and services in 2017 were Germany, Sweden, the Netherlands, China and United Kingdom.[64]

After having almost consistently an external balance of payments current account deficit since the beginning of the 1960s, Denmark has maintained a surplus on its BOP current account for every year since 1990, with the single exception of 1998. In 2017, the current account surplus amounted to approximately 8% of GDP.[65] Consequently, Denmark has changed from a net debtor to a net creditor country. By 1 July 2018, the net foreign wealth or net international investment position of Denmark was equal to 64.6% of GDP, Denmark thus having the largest net foreign wealth relative to GDP of any EU country.[17]

As the annual current account is equal to the value of domestic saving minus total domestic investment, the change from a structural deficit to a structural surplus is due to changes in these two national account components. In particular, the Danish national saving rate in financial assets increased by 11 per cent of GDP from 1980 to 2015. Two main reasons for this large change in domestic saving behaviour were the growing importance of large-scale compulsory pension schemes and several Danish fiscal policy reforms during the period which considerably decreased tax deductions of household interest expense, thus reducing the tax subsidy to private debt.[42]

Currency and monetary policy[edit]

The building of Danmarks Nationalbank, the central bank of Denmark, built by the Danish architect Arne Jacobsen.

The Danish currency is the Danish krone, subdivided into 100 øre. The krone and øre were introduced in 1875, replacing the former rigsdaler and skilling.[66] Denmark has a very long tradition of maintaining a fixed exchange-rate system, dating back to the period of the gold standard during the time of the Scandinavian Monetary Union from 1873 to 1914. After the breakdown of the international Bretton Woods system in 1971, Denmark devalued the krone repeatedly during the 1970s and the start of the 1980s, effectively maintaining a policy of "fixed, but adjustable" exchange rates. Rising inflation led to Denmark declaring a more consistent fixed exchange-rate policy in 1982. At first, the krone was pegged to the European Currency Unit or ECU, from 1987 to the Deutsche Mark, and from 1999 to the euro.[67]

Although eligible, Denmark chose not to join the European Monetary Union when it was founded. In 2000, the Danish government advocated Danish EMU membership and called a referendum to settle the issue. With a turn-out of 87.6%, 53% of the voters rejected Danish membership. Occasionally, the question of calling another referendum on the issue has been discussed, but since the Financial crisis of 2007–2008 opinion polls have shown a clear majority against Denmark joining the EMU,[68] and the question is not high on the political agenda presently.

Maintenance of the fixed exchange rate is the responsibility of Danmarks Nationalbank, the Danish central bank. As a consequence of the exchange rate policy, the bank must always adjust its interest rates to ensure a stable exchange rate and consequently cannot at the same time conduct monetary policy to stabilize e.g. domestic inflation or unemployment rates. This makes the conduct of stabilization policy fundamentally different from the situation in Denmark's neighbouring countries like Norway, Sweden, Poland and the United Kingdom, in which the central banks have a central stabilizing role. Denmark is presently the only OECD member country maintaining an independent currency with a fixed exchange rate. Consequently, the Danish krone is the only currency in the European Exchange Rate Mechanism II (ERM II).[69]

In the first months of 2015, Denmark experienced the largest pressure against the fixed exchange rate for many years because of very large capital inflows, causing a tendency for the Danish krone to appreciate.[69] Danmarks Nationalbank reacted in various ways, chiefly by lowering its interest rates to record low levels. On 6 February 2015 the certificates of deposit rate, one of the four official Danish central bank rates, was lowered to −0.75%. In January 2016 the rate was raised to −0.65%, at which level it has been maintained since then.[70]

Inflation in Denmark as measured by the official consumer price index of Statistics Denmark was 1.1% in 2017.[71] Inflation has generally been low and stable for the last decades. Whereas in 1980 annual inflation was more than 12%, in the period 2000–2017 the average inflation rate was 1.8%.[71]


Overall organization[edit]

Since a local-government reform in 2007, the general government organization in Denmark is carried out on three administrative levels: central government, regions, and municipalities. Regions administer mainly health care services, whereas municipalities administer primary education and social services. Municipalities in principle independently levy income and property taxes, but the scope for total municipal taxation and expenditure is closely regulated by annual negotiations between the municipalities and the Finance Minister of Denmark. At the central government level, the Ministry of Finance carries out the coordinating role of conducting economic policy. In 2012, the Danish parliament passed a Budget Law (effective from January 2014) which governs the over-all fiscal framework, stating among other things that the structural deficit must never exceed 0.5% of GDP,[72] and that Danish fiscal policy is required to be sustainable,[73] i.e. have a non-negative fiscal sustainability indicator. The Budget Law also assigned the role of independent fiscal institution (IFI, informally known as "fiscal watchdog"[74]) to the already-existing independent advisory body of the Danish Economic Councils.[72]

Budget and fiscal position[edit]

Danish fiscal policy is generally considered healthy. Government net debt was close to zero at the end of 2017, amounting to DKK 27.3 billion, or 1.3% of GDP.[75][76] The government sector having a fair amount of financial assets as well as liabilities, government gross debt amounted to 36.1% of GDP at the same date.[77] The gross EMU-debt as percentage of GDP was the sixth-lowest among all 28 EU member countries, only Estonia, Luxembourg, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic and Romania having a lower gross debt.[78] Denmark had a government budget surplus of 1.1% of GDP in 2017.[78]

Long-run annual fiscal projections from the Danish government as well as the independent Danish Economic Council, taking into account likely future fiscal developments caused by demographic developments etc. (e.g. a likely ageing of the population caused by a considerable expansion of life expectancy), consider the Danish fiscal policy to be overly sustainable in the long run. In Spring 2018, the so-called Fiscal Sustainability Indicator was calculated to be 1.2 (by the Danish government) respectively 0.9% (by the Danish Economic Council) of GDP.[79][80] This implies that under the assumptions employed in the projections, fiscal policy could be permanently loosened (via more generous public expenditures and/or lower taxes) by ca. 1% of GDP while still maintaining a stable government debt-to-GDP ratio in the long run.


The tax level as well as the government expenditure level in Denmark ranks among the highest in the world, which is traditionally ascribed to the Nordic model of which Denmark is an example, including the welfare state principles which historically evolved during the 20th century. In 2017, the official Danish tax level amounted to 46.1% of GDP.[81] The all-record highest Danish tax level was 49.8% of GDP,[81] reached in 2014 because of high extraordinary one-time tax revenues caused by a reorganization of the Danish-funded pension system. The Danish tax-to-GDP-ratio of 46% was the second-highest among all OECD countries, second only to France. The OECD average was 34.2%.[82] The tax structure of Denmark (the relative weight of different taxes) also differs from the OECD average, as the Danish tax system in 2015 was characterized by substantially higher revenues from taxes on personal income, whereas on the other hand, no revenues at all derive from social security contributions. A lower proportion of revenues in Denmark derive from taxes on corporate income and gains and property taxes than in OECD generally, whereas the proportion deriving from payroll taxes, VAT, and other taxes on goods and services correspond to the OECD average.[82]

In 2016, the average marginal tax rate on labour income for all Danish tax-payers was 38.9%. The average marginal tax on personal capital income was 30.7%.[83]

Professor of Economics at Princeton University Henrik Kleven has suggested that three distinct policies in Denmark and its Scandinavian neighbours imply that the high tax rates cause only relatively small distortions to the economy: widespread use of third-party information reporting for tax collection purposes (ensuring a low level of tax evasion), broad tax bases (ensuring a low level of tax avoidance), and a strong subsidization of goods that are complementary to working (ensuring a high level of labour force participation).[84]

in 2023, Denmark considered methods to increase taxes on energy dealers.[85]

Government Expenditures[edit]

Parallel to the high tax level, government expenditures make up a large part of GDP, and the government sector carries out many different tasks. By September 2018, 831,000 people worked in the general government sector, corresponding to 29.9% of all employees.[86] In 2017, total government expenditure amounted to 50.9% of GDP. Government consumption took up precisely 25% of GDP (e.g. education and health care expenditure), and government investment (infrastructure etc.) expenditure another 3.4% of GDP. Personal income transfers (for e.g. elderly or unemployed people) amounted to 16.8% of GDP.[79]

Denmark has an unemployment insurance system called the A-kasse (arbejdsløshedskasse). This system requires a paying membership of a state-recognized unemployment fund. Most of these funds are managed by trade unions, and part of their expenses are financed through the tax system. Members of an A-kasse are not obliged to be members of a trade union.[87] Not every Danish citizen or employee qualifies for a membership of an unemployment fund, and membership benefits will be terminated after 2 years of unemployment.[88] A person that is not a member of an A-kasse cannot receive unemployment benefits.[89] Unemployment funds do not pay benefits to sick members, who will be transferred to a municipal social support system instead. Denmark has a countrywide, but municipally administered social support system against poverty, securing that qualified citizens have a minimum living income. All Danish citizens above 18 years of age can apply for some financial support if they cannot support themselves or their family. Approval is not automatic, and the extent of this system has generally been diminished since the 1980s. Sick people can receive some financial support throughout the extent of their illness. Their ability to work will be re-evaluated by the municipality after 5 months of illness.[90][91]

The welfare system related to the labor market has experienced several reforms and financial cuts since the late 1990s due to political agendas for increasing the labor supply. Several reforms of the rights of the unemployed have followed up, partially inspired by the Danish Economic Council.[92] Halving the time unemployment benefits can be received from four to two years, and making it twice as hard to regain this right, was implemented in 2010 for example.

Disabled people can apply for permanent social pensions. The extent of the support depends on the ability to work, and people below 40 can not receive social pension unless they are deemed incapable of any kind of work.[93]



Pasture grazing cattle (Rømø)

Agriculture was once the most important industry in Denmark. Nowadays, it is of minor economic importance. In 2016, 62,000 people, or 2.5% of all employed people worked in agriculture and horticulture. Another 2,000 people worked in fishing.[13] As value added per person is relatively low, the share of national value added is somewhat lower. Total gross value added in agriculture, forestry and fishing amounted to 1.6% of total output in Denmark (in 2017).[5] Despite this, Denmark is still home to various types of agricultural production. Within animal husbandry, it includes dairy and beef cattle, pigs, poultry and fur animals (primarily mink) – all sectors that produce mainly for export. Regarding vegetable production, Denmark is a leading producer of grass-, clover- and horticultural seeds. The agriculture and food sector as a whole represented 25% of total Danish commodity exports in 2015.[94]

63% of the land area of Denmark is used for agricultural production – the highest share in the world according to a report from University of Copenhagen in 2017.[95] The Danish agricultural industry is historically characterized by freehold and family ownership, but due to structural development farms have become fewer and larger. In 2020 the number of farms was approximately 33,000,[96] of which approximately 10,000 were owned by full-time farmers.[97]

Animal production[edit]

The tendency toward fewer and larger farms has been accompanied by an increase in animal production, using fewer resources per produced unit.

The number of dairy farmers has reduced to about 3,800 with an average herd size of 150 cows. The milk quota is 1,142 tonnes. Danish dairy farmers are among the largest and most modern producers in Europe. More than half of the cows live in new loose-housing systems. Export of dairy products accounts for more than 20 percent of the total Danish agricultural export. The total number of cattle in 2011 was approximately 1.5 million. Of these, 565,000 were dairy cows and 99,000 were suckler cows. The yearly number of slaughtering of beef cattle is around 550,000.

For more than 100 years the production of pigs and pig meat was a major source of income in Denmark. The Danish pig industry is among the world's leaders in areas such as breeding, quality, food safety, animal welfare and traceability creating the basis for Denmark being among the world's largest pig meat exporters. Approximately 90 percent of the production is exported. This accounts for almost half of all agricultural exports and for more than 5 percent of Denmark's total exports. About 4,200 farmers produce 28 million pigs annually. Of these, 20.9 million are slaughtered in Denmark.

Fur animal production on an industrial scale started in the 1930s in Denmark. Prior to a government-mandated culling during the COVID-19 pandemic, Denmark was the world's largest producer of mink furs, with 1,400 mink farmers fostering 17.2 million mink and producing around 14 million furs of the highest quality every year (see mink industry in Denmark).[98] Approximately 98 percent of the skins sold at Kopenhagen Fur Auction were exported. Fur ranked as Danish agriculture's third largest export article, at more than DKK 7 billion annually. The number of farms peaked in the late 1980s at more than 5,000 farms, but the number has declined steadily since, as individual farms grew in size.[98] Danish mink farmers claim their business to be sustainable, feeding the mink food industry waste and using all parts of the dead animal as meat, bone meal and biofuel. Special attention is given to the welfare of the mink, and regular "Open Farm" arrangements are made for the general public.[99] Mink thrive in, but are not a native to Denmark, and it is considered an invasive species. American Mink are now widespread in Denmark and continues to cause problems for the native wildlife, in particular waterfowl.[100] Denmark also has a small production of fox, chinchilla and rabbit furs.[99]

Two hundred professional producers are responsible for the Danish egg production, which was 66 million kg in 2011. Chickens for slaughter are often produced in units with 40,000 broilers. In 2012, 100 million chickens were slaughtered. In the minor productions of poultry, 13 million ducks, 1.4 million geese and 5.0 million turkeys were slaughtered in 2012.

Organic production[edit]

Organic farming and production has increased considerably and continuously in Denmark since 1987 when the first official regulations of this particular agricultural method came into effect. In 2017, the export of organic products reached DK 2.95 billion, a 153% increase from 2012 five years earlier, and a 21% increase from 2016. The import of organic products has always been higher than the exports though and reached DK 3.86 billion in 2017. After some years of stagnation, close to 10% of the cultivated land is now categorized as organically farmed, and 13.6% for the dairy industry, as of 2017.[101]

Denmark has the highest retail consumption share for organic products in the world. In 2017, the share was at 13.3%, accounting for a total of DKK 12.1 billion.[102]

Natural resource extraction[edit]

Denmark has large proven reserves of oil and natural gas in the North Sea with Esbjerg being the main city for the oil and gas industry. Denmark is the largest producer of oil and natural gas in the EU. Production has decreased in recent years, though. Whereas in 2006 output (measured as gross value added or GVA) in mining and quarrying industries made up more than 4% of Denmark's total GVA, in 2017 it amounted to 1.2%.[5] The sector is very capital-intensive, so the share of employment is much lower: About 2,000 persons worked in the oil and gas extraction sector in 2016, and another 1,000 persons in extraction of gravel and stone, or in total about 0.1% of total employment in Denmark.[13]

Engineering and high-tech[edit]

Denmark houses a number of significant engineering and high-technology firms, within the sectors of industrial equipment, aerospace, robotics, pharmaceutical and electronics.

Electronics and industrial equipment[edit]

Danfoss, headquartered in Nordborg, designs and manufactures industrial electronics, heating and cooling equipment, as well as drivetrains and power solutions.[103]

Denmark is also a large exporter of pumps, with the company Grundfos holding 50% of the market share, manufacturing circulation pumps.[104]


In 2017 total output (gross value added) in manufacturing industries amounted to 14.4% of total output in Denmark.[5] 325,000 people or a little less than 12% of all employed persons worked in manufacturing (including utilities, mining and quarrying) in 2016.[13] Main sub-industries are manufacture of pharmaceuticals, machinery, and food products.[105]

Service industry[edit]

In 2017 total output (gross value added) in service industries amounted to 75.2% of total output in Denmark,[5] and 79.9% of all employed people worked here (in 2016).[13] Apart from public administration, education and health services, main service sub-industries were trade and transport services, and business services.[13]


Copenhagen Central Station with S-Trains.

Significant investment has been made in building road and rail links between Copenhagen and Malmö, Sweden (the Øresund Bridge), and between Zealand and Funen (the Great Belt Fixed Link). The Copenhagen Malmö Port was also formed between the two cities as the common port for the cities of both nations.

The main railway operator is Danske Statsbaner (Danish State Railways) for passenger services and DB Schenker Rail for freight trains.[106] The railway tracks are maintained by Banedanmark. Copenhagen has a small Metro system, the Copenhagen Metro and the greater Copenhagen area has an extensive electrified suburban railway network, the S-train.

Private vehicles are increasingly used as a means of transport. New cars are taxed by means of a registration tax (85% to 150%) and VAT (25%). The motorway network now covers 1,300 km.[107]

Denmark is in a strong position in terms of integrating fluctuating and unpredictable energy sources such as wind power in the grid. It is this knowledge that Denmark now aims to exploit in the transport sector by focusing on intelligent battery systems (V2G) and plug-in vehicles.[108]


Denmark has invested heavily in windfarms. In 2015, 42% of the domestic electricity consumption comes from wind.
Fossil fuel consumption in Denmark.

Denmark has changed its energy consumption from 99% fossil fuels (92% oil (all imported) and 7% coal) and 1% biofuels in 1972 to 73% fossil fuels (37% oil (all domestic), 18% coal and 18% natural gas (all domestic)) and 27% renewables (largely biofuels) in 2015. The goal is a full independence of fossil fuels by 2050. This drastic change was initially inspired largely by the discovery of Danish oil and gas reserves in the North Sea in 1972 and the 1973 oil crisis.[109] The course took a giant leap forward in 1984, when the Danish North Sea oil and gas fields, developed by native industry in close cooperation with the state, started major productions.[110] In 1997, Denmark became self-sufficient with energy[111] and the overall CO2 emission from the energy sector began to fall by 1996.[112] Wind energy contribution to the total energy consumption has risen from 1% in 1997 to 5% in 2015.[113]

Since 2000, Denmark has increased gross domestic product (GDP) and at the same time decreased energy consumption.[114] Since 1972, the overall energy consumption has dropped by 6%, even though the GDP has doubled in the same period.[113] Denmark had the 6th best energy security in the world in 2014.[115] Denmark has had relatively high energy taxation to encourage careful use of energy since the oil crises in the 1970s, and Danish industry has adapted to this and gained a competitive edge.[116] The so-called "green taxes" have been broadly criticised partly for being higher than in other countries, but also for being more of a tool for gathering government revenue than a method of promoting "greener" behaviour.[117][118]

2015 overall energy taxes, in billions DKK[119]
Oil Gasoline Natural gas Coal Electricity
Excise&VAT 9.3 7.3 3.3 2.5 11.7

Denmark has low electricity costs (including costs for cleaner energy) in EU,[120] but general taxes (11.7 billion DKK in 2015)[119] make the electricity price for households the highest in Europe.[121] As of 2015, Denmark has no environment tax on electricity.[122]

Denmark is a long-time leader in wind energy and a prominent exporter of Vestas and Siemens wind turbines, and in 2019 Denmark's exports of wind-turbine technology and services amounted to €8.9 billion.[123] It has integrated fluctuating and less predictable energy sources such as wind power into the grid. Wind produced the equivalent of 43% of Denmark's total electricity consumption in 2017.[124][125] The share of total energy production is smaller: In 2015, wind accounted for 5% of total Danish energy production.[113] is the Danish national transmission system operator for electricity and natural gas. The electricity grids of western Denmark and eastern Denmark were not connected until 2010 when the 600MW Great Belt Power Link went into operation.

Cogeneration plants are the norm in Denmark, usually with district heating which serves 1.7 million households.

Waste-to-energy incinerators produce mostly heating and hot water. Vestforbrænding in Glostrup Municipality operates Denmark's largest incinerator, a cogeneration plant which supplies electricity to 80,000 households and heating equivalent to the consumption in 63,000 households (2016). Amager Bakke is an example of a new incinerator.

Greenland and the Faroe Islands[edit]

In addition to Denmark proper, the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: Greenland and the Faroe Islands. Both use the Danish krone as their currency, but form separate economies, having separate national accounts etc. Both countries receive an annual fiscal subsidy from Denmark which amounts to about 25% of Greenland's GDP and 11% of Faroese GDP.[126][127] For both countries, fishing industry is a major economic activity.

Neither Greenland nor the Faroe Islands are members of the European Union. Greenland left the European Economic Community in 1986, and the Faroe Islands declined membership in 1973, when Denmark joined.[128][129]


The following table shows the main economic indicators in 1980–2017. Inflation under 2% is in green.[130]

Year GDP
(in Bil. US$ PPP)
GDP per capita
(in US$ PPP)
GDP growth
Inflation rate
(in Percent)
(in Percent)
Government debt
(in % of GDP)
1980 58.9 11,504 Decrease−0.5% Negative increase11.3% 5.3% n/a
1981 Increase64.0 Increase12,491 Decrease−0.7% Negative increase11.7% Negative increase7.1% n/a
1982 Increase70.5 Increase13,766 Increase3.7% Negative increase10.1% Negative increase7.6% n/a
1983 Increase75.2 Increase14,689 Increase2.6% Negative increase6.8% Positive decrease8.4% n/a
1984 Increase81.1 Increase15,858 Increase4.2% Negative increase6.3% Positive decrease7.9% n/a
1985 Increase87.0 Increase17,025 Increase4.0% Negative increase4.7% Positive decrease6.6% n/a
1986 Increase93.1 Increase18,200 Increase4.9% Negative increase3.7% Positive decrease5.0% n/a
1987 Increase95.7 Increase18,681 Increase0.3% Negative increase4.0% Negative increase5.0% n/a
1988 Increase99.1 Increase19,317 Steady0.0% Negative increase4.5% Negative increase5.7% n/a
1989 Increase103.6 Increase20,194 Increase0.6% Negative increase4.8% Negative increase6.8% n/a
1990 Increase109.0 Increase21,227 Increase1.5% Negative increase2.6% Negative increase7.2% n/a
1991 Increase114.2 Increase22,192 Increase1.4% Negative increase2.4% Negative increase7.9% n/a
1992 Increase119.1 Increase23,072 Increase2.0% Negative increase2.1% Negative increase8.6% 66.8
1993 Increase121.9 Increase23,538 Steady0.0% Increase1.2% Negative increase9.5% Negative increase78.6%
1994 Increase131.2 Increase25,242 Increase5.3% Increase2.0% Positive decrease7.7% Positive decrease75.2%
1995 Increase138.0 Increase26,452 Increase3.0% Negative increase2.0% Positive decrease6.8% Positive decrease71.4%
1996 Increase144.6 Increase27,531 Increase2.9% Negative increase2.2% Positive decrease6.3% Positive decrease68.3%
1997 Increase151.8 Increase28,783 Increase3.3% Negative increase2.2% Positive decrease5.2% Positive decrease64.3%
1998 Increase156.9 Increase29,629 Increase2.2% Increase1.8% Positive decrease4.9% Positive decrease60.3%
1999 Increase164.0 Increase30,860 Increase2.9% Negative increase2.5% Negative increase5.1% Positive decrease56.8%
2000 Increase174.0 Increase32,645 Increase3.7% Negative increase2.9% Positive decrease4.3% Positive decrease52.4%
2001 Increase179.4 Increase33,543 Increase0.8% Negative increase2.4% Negative increase4.5% Positive decrease48.5%
2002 Increase183.0 Increase34,095 Increase0.5% Negative increase2.4% Negative increase4.6% Negative increase49.1%
2003 Increase187.4 Increase34,811 Increase0.4% Negative increase2.1% Negative increase5.4% Positive decrease46.2%
2004 Increase197.7 Increase36,627 Increase2.7% Increase1.1% Negative increase5.5% Positive decrease44.2%
2005 Increase208.8 Increase38,592 Increase2.3% Increase1.8% Positive decrease4.8% Positive decrease37.4%
2006 Increase223.7 Increase41,211 Increase3.9% Increase1.9% Positive decrease3.9% Positive decrease31.5%
2007 Increase231.7 Increase42,538 Increase0.9% Increase1.7% Positive decrease3.8% Positive decrease27.3%
2008 Increase235.0 Increase42,924 Decrease−0.5% Negative increase3.4% Positive decrease3.5% Negative increase33.3%
2009 Decrease225.2 Decrease40,863 Decrease−4.9% Increase1.3% Negative increase6.0% Negative increase40.2%
2010 Increase232.2 Increase41,958 Increase1.9% Negative increase2.3% Negative increase7.5% Negative increase42.6%
2011 Increase240.2 Increase43,194 Increase1.3% Negative increase2.8% Negative increase7.6% Negative increase46.1%
2012 Increase245.2 Increase43,933 Increase0.2% Negative increase2.4% Positive decrease7.5% Positive decrease44.9%
2013 Increase251.5 Increase44,882 Increase0.9% Increase0.8% Positive decrease7.0% Positive decrease44.0%
2014 Increase260.1 Increase46,223 Increase1.6% Increase0.6% Positive decrease6.5% Positive decrease43.9%
2015 Increase267.2 Increase47,202 Increase1.6% Increase0.5% Positive decrease6.2% Positive decrease39.6%
2016 Increase275.9 Increase48,338 Increase2.0% Increase0.3% Steady6.2% Positive decrease37.8%
2017 Increase286.8 Increase49,883 Increase2.1% Increase1.1% Positive decrease5.8% Positive decrease36.4%

Major companies[edit]

Denmark has fostered and is home to many multi-national companies. Many of the largest are interdisciplinary with business – and sometimes research activities – in several fields. The most notable companies include:

Clothing and attire
  • ECCO (shoe and leather accessories manufacturer and retailer)
  • Bestseller
Energy technology
Food and drink
Medical equipment
Pharmaceutical and biotechnology

Many of the largest food producers are also engaged in biotechnology and research. Notable companies dedicated to the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sector, includes:






Denmark has a long tradition for cooperative production and trade on a large scale. The most notable cooperative societies today includes the agricultural coop of Dansk Landbrugs Grovvareselskab (DLG), dairy producer Arla Foods and the retail cooperative Coop Danmark. Coop Danmark started out as "Fællesforeningen for Danmarks Brugsforeninger" (FDB) in 1896 and now has around 1.4 million members in Denmark as of 2017.[131] It is part of the larger multi-sector cooperative Coop amba which has 1.7 million members in that same year.

The cooperative structure also extends to both the housing and banking sector. Arbejdernes Landsbank, founded in 1919, is the largest bank cooperative and it is currently the 6th largest bank in the country as of 2018.[132] The municipality of Copenhagen alone holds a total of 153 housing cooperatives and "Arbejdernes Andelsboligforening Århus" (AAB Århus) is the largest individual housing cooperative in Denmark, with 23,000 homes in Aarhus.[133]


In 2022, the sector with the highest number of companies registered in Denmark is Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate with 204,853 companies followed by Services and Retail Trade with 204,050 and 30,563 companies respectively.[134]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  2. ^ "World Bank Country and Lending Groups". World Bank. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  3. ^ "Population on 1 January". Eurostat. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
  4. ^ a b c d e f "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects: April 2023". International Monetary Fund.
  5. ^ a b c d e "Table NABP10: 1–2.1.1 Production and generation of income (10a3-grouping) by transaction, industry and price unit. Retrieved on 29 November 2018". StatBank Denmark.
  6. ^ "Poverty rate". OECD. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
  7. ^ "People at risk of poverty or social exclusion". Eurostat. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  8. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". Eurostat. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  9. ^ "Human Development Index (HDI)". HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 15 October 2022.
  10. ^ Nations, United. "Inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI)". UNDP. Retrieved 15 October 2022.
  11. ^ "Labor force, total – Denmark". World Bank. Retrieved 24 November 2023.
  12. ^ "Employment rate by sex, age group 20–64". Eurostat. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  13. ^ a b c d e f "Table RAS300: EMPLOYED (END NOVEMBER) BY INDUSTRY (DB07), SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, AGE AND SEX. Retrieved on 26 November 2018". StatBank Denmark.
  14. ^ "Unemployment by sex and age – monthly average". Eurostat. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  15. ^ "Unemployment rate by age group". OECD. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i "The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  17. ^ a b "Net international investment position – quarterly data, % of GDP". Eurostat. 24 October 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  18. ^ a b c d e f "Euro area and EU27 government deficit both at 0.6% of GDP" (PDF). Eurostat. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 June 2020. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  19. ^ "Denmark's bilateral assistance to developing countries divided into main categories". Danida OpenAid. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  20. ^ "Sovereigns rating list". Standard & Poor's. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
  21. ^ Monaghan, A. (15 October 2014). "The AAA-rated club: which countries still make the grade?". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 June 2018.
  22. ^ "Scope affirms Denmark's AAA rating with Stable Outlook". Scope Ratings. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  23. ^ a b "Gross national income per capita 2017, Atlas method and PPP" (PDF). World Bank. 21 September 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  24. ^ a b "Danish Economic Council: Danish Economy Fall 2016. English Summary, p. 335f". 4 October 2016.
  25. ^ a b "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey. Eurostat, last data update 20 November 2018, retrieved 28 November 2018".
  26. ^ og valg/(table)FOLK1AM
  27. ^ "Harmonised unemployment rate by gender". Eurostat. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
  28. ^ "Minimum Wage in Denmark – Frequently Asked Questions". WageIndicator Foundation (University of Amsterdam). Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  29. ^ a b c d "Ingrid Henriksen: An Economic History of Denmark. EH.Net Encyclopedia, edited by Robert Whaples. Date 6 October 2006".
  30. ^ (in Danish) Steen Busck: Udenrigshandel før 1848. From, Aarhus University. Date 6 July 2012.
  31. ^ (in Danish) 650 f. kr.-1020 – Etablering af møntvæsen. Website of Danmarks Nationalbank, date 14 June 2016.
  32. ^ (in Danish) Steen Busck: Merkantilisme. From, Aarhus University. Date 9 February 2015.
  33. ^ (in Danish) Peter Bejder and Benjamin Kristensen: Merkantilisme og danske tropekolonier, ca. 1600–1917. From, Aarhus University. Date 2 November 2015.
  34. ^ a b Kærgård, Niels (2022), "The Economic History of Denmark, 1784–2019", Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Economics and Finance, doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190625979.001.0001/acrefore-9780190625979-e-681, ISBN 978-0-19-062597-9
  35. ^ The New Encyclopaedia Britannica (15 ed.). Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1983. p. 324. ISBN 9780852294000.
  36. ^ (in Danish) Hansen, Sv. Aa. (1976): Økonomisk vækst i Danmark. Volume I: 1720–1914, volume II: 1914–70. Akademisk Forlag.
  37. ^ (in Danish) Erik Strange Petersen: Det unge demokrati, 1848–1901: Fremstillingserhverv og industrialisering. From, Aarhus University. Undated, retrieved 23 October 2017.
  38. ^ (in Danish) Johansen, H.C. (2005): Gyldendal og Politikens Danmarkshistorie, volume 17. Statistik og register. P. 157. Gyldendal and Politikens Forlag.
  39. ^ (in Danish) Jacob Isaksen, Uffe Mikkelsen and Peter Beck Nellemann (2012): Arbejdsmarkedsreformer i Danmark og Tyskland. Kvartalsoversigt, 3. kvartal 2012, del 1. Danmarks Nationalbank.
  40. ^ (in Danish) Finanspolitisk holdbarhed. Kapitel III i De Økonomiske Råds Formandskab: Dansk Økonomi, efterår 2016. De Økonomiske Råds Sekretariat. P. 146.
  41. ^ Nelson, Eshe (30 August 2023). "Novo Nordisk Tilts G.D.P. In Denmark". The New York Times. p. B1. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 5 October 2023.
  42. ^ a b "Danish Economic Council: Economy and the Environment 2017. English Summary, p. 341". 23 February 2017.
  43. ^ (in Danish) Danskernes pensionsformue er massiv. Analysis from "Dansk Metal" dated 6 November 2017. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  44. ^ "Household wealth and debt. Website of Danmarks Nationalbank, published 21 February 2014 with updates April 2017, retrieved 28 November 2018".
  45. ^ (in Danish) Indkomstudvikling og -fordeling i Danmark 1983–2005. Website of Ministry of Finance, Denmark. Dated January 2008, retrieved 1 December 2018.
  46. ^ "Table IFOR41: Inequality indicators on equivalised disposable income by indicator and municipality. Retrieved on 28 November 2018". StatBank Denmark.
  47. ^ "Country Comparison: Distribution of family income – Gini index". The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 28 November 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  48. ^ "Flexicurity". The Danish Agency for Labour Market and Recruitment. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
  49. ^ "An Economic History of Denmark". Retrieved 2 August 2019.
  50. ^ a b Jespersen, Svend T.; Munch, Jakob R.; Skipper, Lars (2008). "Costs and benefits of Danish active labour market programmes" (PDF). Labour Economics. 15 (5): 859–884. doi:10.1016/j.labeco.2007.07.005. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 August 2019.
  51. ^ Hendeliowitz, Jan (February 2008). "Danish Employment Policy" (PDF). Employment Region Copenhagen & Zealand The Danish National Labour Market Authority. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 June 2015.
  52. ^ Greve, Bent (2012). "Denmark a Nordic Welfare State – Are the Active Labour Market Policy Withering Away?". The Open Social Science Journal. 5: 15–23. doi:10.2174/1874945301205010015. S2CID 14300043.
  53. ^ "Youth unemployment policies: Review of the Danish Youth Unemployment Programme and the British New Deal for Young People" (PDF). Mutual Learning Employment. S2CID 8717167. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 December 2011.
  54. ^ "Tackling youth unemployment in Denmark". Danish Agency for Labour Market and Recruitment. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
  55. ^ a b "Building Bridge to Education". Danish Agency for Labour Market and Recruitment. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
  56. ^ "LFS by sex and age – indicators: Labour force participation rate. OECD statistics, retrieved 23 November 2018".
  57. ^ "Eurostat Employment and Unemployment Database, Table une_rt_a. Unemployment by sex and age – annual average. Last update 31 October 2018".
  58. ^ "Table NAN1: Demand and supply by price unit, transaction and time. Retrieved on 23 November 2018". StatBank Denmark.
  59. ^ (in Danish)"Personaleomsætning 2017: Flere skifter job – især i serviceerhverv". Confederation of Danish Industry, 18 June 2018.
  60. ^ (in Danish) Hyppige jobskift koster milliarder Archived 30 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  61. ^ "Table NAN1: Demand and supply by transaction and price unit". StatBank Denmark. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  62. ^ "Table UHV4: Total external trade by imports and exports, main SITC groups and country". StatBank Denmark. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  63. ^ "Table UHTP: International trade in services, quarterly by imports and exports, items and time". StatBank Denmark. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  64. ^ "Table UHV2: Total external trade by imports and exports, seasonal adjustment and country". StatBank Denmark. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  65. ^ "Balance of payments, current account, quarterly data – % of GDP". Eurostat. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  66. ^ "History of Danish coinage". Denmarks Nationalbank. Archived from the original on 30 July 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
  67. ^ (in Danish) P. U. Johansen and M. Trier (2012): Danmarks økonomi siden 1980 – en oversigt. Handelshøjskolens forlag. P. 144.
  68. ^ (in Danish) "Nej"-sidens forspring skrumpet en smule. Brief from Danske Bank, published 24 March 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
  69. ^ a b London, Charles Duxbury in Stockholm And Josie Cox in (30 January 2015). "Denmark Suspends Bond Issuance to Protect Krone's Peg". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 31 December 2016.
  70. ^ "Official interest rates. Website of Danmarks Nationalbank, retrieved 25 November2018".
  71. ^ a b "Table PRIS112: CONSUMER PRICE INDEX (2015=100) BY MAIN FIGURES. Data retrieved 25 November 2018". StatBank Denmark.
  72. ^ a b "Denmark. OECD Journal on Budgeting, Volume 2015/2,OECD 2016" (PDF).
  73. ^ "Danish Economic Council: Danish Economy, Spring 2017. English Summary, p. 297". 24 May 2017.
  74. ^ "Danish Economic Councils. Information in English on website of Danish Economic Councils, retrieved 24 November 2018". 30 September 2014.
  75. ^ (in Danish) Nyt fra Danmarks Statistik nr. 126, 23 March 2018. Offentligt kvartalsregnskab 4. kvt. 2017: Fortsat fald i den offentlige finansielle nettogæld.
  76. ^ "General government financial wealth". OECDiLibrary. 2018. doi:10.1787/325ddad1-en.
  77. ^ "Table EDP3: Denmark's EMU-debt and EMU-deficit by function (% of GDP)". StatBank Denmark. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  78. ^ a b "Table EDP2: EU-countries, public finances by country and function (in % of GDP)". StatBank Denmark. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  79. ^ a b "Denmarks Convergence Programme 2018. Website of Danish Ministry of Finance". 16 May 2018. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  80. ^ "Danish Economic Council: Danish Economy, Spring 2018. English Summary". 14 May 2018. p. 242.
  81. ^ a b "SKTRYK: Tax level by national account groups". StatBank Denmark. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  82. ^ a b "OECD Revenue Statistics 2018 – Denmark" (PDF). OECD. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  83. ^ "Marginal tax for all taxpayers". Danish Ministry of Taxation. 8 April 2016. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  84. ^ Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen (November 2014). "How Can Scandinavians Tax So Much?". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 28 (4): 77–98. doi:10.1257/jep.28.4.77. S2CID 54184316.
  85. ^ "Denmark mulls higher taxes for energy traders". 4 May 2023.
  86. ^ "LBESK02: EMPLOYEES (MONTH) BY SECTOR (2-GRP)". StatBank Denmark. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  87. ^ "What is an A-kasse?". (in Danish). CA a-kasse. 16 March 2011. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  88. ^ "Introducing Masters Unemployment Insurance Fund". Magistrenes A-kasse (MA). Archived from the original on 23 January 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  89. ^ "A-kasse vs. kontanthjælp". (in Danish). CA a-kasse. 21 March 2011. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  90. ^ "Økonomisk tilskud fra kommunen [financial support from the municipality]". (in Danish). The Danish State, Kommunernes Landsforening (Local Government Denmark) and Danske Regioner (Danish Regions). Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  91. ^ "Sygedagpenge [Social benefits for the sick]" (in Danish). Ministry of Employment. Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
  92. ^ "Få overblikket over dagpengereformen [Get an overview of the unemployment benefit reform]" (in Danish). AK-Samvirket. 13 March 2013. Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2015. AK-Samvirket is an umbrella organization of the Danish unemployment funds.
  93. ^ "Førtidspension". Archived from the original on 18 April 2018. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  94. ^ "Products exported by Denmark (2015)". The Observatory of Economic Complexity. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  95. ^ (in Danish) Udviklingen af landbrugslandet gennem seks årtier fra 1954 til 2025, Miljø- og Fødevareudvalget 2016–17 MOF Alm.del Bilag 230, 2017
  96. ^ "Table BDF11: Farms by region, unit, type of farms and area. Retrieved on 28 November 2018". StatBank Denmark.
  97. ^ (in Danish) Færre end 10.000 heltids-landbrug tilbage i Danmark. published 12 October July 2017, retrieved 28 November 2018.
  98. ^ a b "Mink" (in Danish). Landbrug & Fødevarer. Retrieved 25 January 2016. "Langbrug & Fødevarer" is the largest interest organization for the Danish agricultural and food industry.
  99. ^ a b "Danske minkfarmere [Danish Mink Farmers]" (in Danish). Danske Minkavlere. Retrieved 25 January 2016. "Danske Minkavlere" is the business organization of the Danish mink farming industry.
  100. ^ "Mink" (in Danish). Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
  101. ^ "Organic production and trade". Statistics Denmark. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
  102. ^ "World leading organic nation". Organic Denmark. 10 August 2018. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
  103. ^ "Danfoss – Rejsen mod Engineering Tomorrow".
  104. ^ "Danish Grundfos the world's largest pump group". 13 July 2007.
  105. ^ "Table NABP69: 1–2.1.1 Production and generation of income (69-grouping) by transaction, industry and price unit. Retrieved on 28 November 2018". StatBank Denmark.
  106. ^ "Virksomheden". (in Danish). DSB. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  107. ^ "Table VEJ11: Road network 1 January by part of the country and type of road. Retrieved on 28 November 2018". StatBank Denmark.
  108. ^ "Plug-in and Electrical Vehicles". Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
  109. ^ "Energiomstilling 2050: 1972". Danish Energy Agency. 31 October 2021.
  110. ^ "Energiomstilling 2050: 1984". Danish Energy Agency. 31 October 2021.
  111. ^ In this context, "self-sufficient" means that the domestic energy production is equal to the energy consumption in terms of joules.
  112. ^ "Energiomstilling 2050: 1997". Danish Energy Agency. 31 October 2021.
  113. ^ a b c "Energiomstilling 2050: 2015". Danish Energy Agency. 31 October 2021.
  114. ^ Rasmus Tengvad. Det danske energiforbrug på rekordlavt niveau Archived 19 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine Dansk Energi, 30 January 2015
  115. ^ "Global Rankings", Accessed: 24 January 2016.
  116. ^ "Grønne afgifter gavner konkurrenceevne". Dagbladet Information. 12 December 2011. Danish industry has gained on the use of green taxes (dansk erhvervsliv har vundet på brugen af grønne afgifter)
  117. ^ "Dansk Industri til angreb på regeringens grønne afgifter". Dagbladet Information. 19 January 2013. We have a tax system that goes beyond environment reasons to also fill up the state coffers (idag er vi imidlertid endt med et afgiftssystem, der går ud over den rent miljømæssige begrundelse og også er blevet en måde at fylde statskassen op.)
  118. ^ "EL: Grønne afgifter spænder ben for grøn omstilling". Dagbladet Information. 19 January 2013. But in reality they also help pay for schools, hospitals and police (Men i virkeligheden er de også med til at betale for skoler, sygehuse og politi)
  119. ^ a b Afgifter – provenuet af afgifter og moms 2009–2016, Danish Ministry of Taxation, 2015
  120. ^ Forbedring af den nationale elprisstatistik for erhverv page 7. Danish Energy Agency
  121. ^ "Electricity prices for household consumers (taxes included), first half 2018 (EUR per kWh). Eurostat, data retrieved 28 November 2018".
  122. ^ ENERGY PRICES AND TAXES, COUNTRY NOTES, 3rd Quarter 2015, page 26-27. International Energy Agency, 2015. Archive
  123. ^ "Danish exports of green technology increased by billions in 2019". State of Green. 5 May 2020. Retrieved 5 January 2023.
  124. ^ "Denmark breaks its own world record in wind energy". EurActiv – EU News & policy debates, across languages. 15 January 2016.
  125. ^ "2017 var rekordår for dansk vindenergi" (in Danish). Ingeniø 3 January 2018.
  126. ^ "Greenland Economy – overview. The World Factbook, CIA, retrieved 7 December 2018". 12 July 2022.
  127. ^ "Faroe Islands Economy – overview. The World Factbook, CIA, retrieved 7 December 2018". July 2022.
  128. ^ "The Faroe Islands and the European Union". The Government of the Faroe Islands. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
  129. ^ "What is Greenland's relationship with the EU?". The Danish Parliament EU Information Centre. Archived from the original on 8 February 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
  130. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  131. ^ "Coop Danmark A/S". Hoovers. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
  132. ^ Pengeinstitutternes størrelsesgruppering (in Danish)
  133. ^ "Statistik for registrede andelsboligforeninger på [Statistics for registered housing cooperatives at]" (in Danish). Archived from the original on 1 May 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  134. ^ "Industry Breakdown of Companies in Denmark". HitHorizons.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]