Florida A&M University

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"FAMU" redirects here. For the Czech school also known by that acronym, see Film and TV School of the Academy of Performing Arts in Prague.
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Florida A&M University seal.png
Former names
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes
State Normal and Industrial College for Colored Students
State Normal College for Colored Students
Motto Excellence With Caring
Type Public, HBCU
Established October 3, 1887 (1887-10-03)
Endowment $127.18 million[1]
President Elmira Mangum
Academic staff
Students 9,928[2]
Location Tallahassee, Florida, U.S.
30°25′04″N 84°17′04″W / 30.4178°N 84.2845°W / 30.4178; -84.2845Coordinates: 30°25′04″N 84°17′04″W / 30.4178°N 84.2845°W / 30.4178; -84.2845
Campus Urban
420 acres (1.7 km2)
Colors Orange and Green
Athletics NCAA Division IMEAC
Nickname Rattlers and Lady Rattlers
Mascot Venom the Rattlesnake
Affiliations State University System of Florida
Urban 13
Website www.famu.edu
Florida A&M University logo.png

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, commonly known as Florida A&M University or FAMU, is a public, historically black university in Tallahassee, Florida, United States. Florida A&M University was founded on the highest of seven hills in Tallahassee, Florida on October 3, 1887. It is one of the largest historically black universities in the United States by enrollment.[3] It is a member institution of the State University System of Florida, as well as one of the state's land grant universities, and is accredited to award baccalaureate, master's and doctoral degrees by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. The university is a member-school of the Thurgood Marshall College Fund.

In 2015, the National Science Foundation ranked Florida A&M University as the #1 HBCU in the nation for total research and development expenditures.[4]


On October 3, 1887, the State Normal College for Colored Students began classes, and became a land grant university four years later when it received $7,500 under the Second Morrill Act, and its name was changed to State Normal and Industrial College for Colored Students. However, it was not an official institution of higher learning until the 1905 Buckman Act, which transferred control from the Department of Education to the Board of Control, creating what was the foundation for the modern Florida A&M University. This same act is responsible for the creation of the University of Florida and Florida State University from their previous institutions. In 1909, the name of the college was once again changed to Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes, and in 1953 the name was finally changed to Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University. Florida A&M is the only publicly funded historically black college or university in the state of Florida.[5]

In 1951, the university started a pharmacy and nursing program. In order to give these students hands on experience, the university built a hospital. Until 1971 this hospital was the only one for 150 miles (240 km) to serve the black community.[6][7][clarification needed]

In 1963, FAMU students demonstrated against segregation in the city.[8]

In 1992, 1995, and 1997, FAMU successfully recruited more National Achievement Scholars than Harvard University.[9][10][11]

In the fall of 1997, FAMU was selected as the TIME Magazine-Princeton Review "College of the Year" and was cited in 1999 by Black Issues in Higher Education for awarding more baccalaureate degrees to African-Americans than any institutions in the nation.[12][13]

FAMU was named the number-one college for African Americans in the United States in the September 2006 issue of Black Enterprise Magazine and a "Best in the Southeast" college by Forbes Magazine in 2014.[14] FAMU is a member school of the Thurgood Marshall Scholarship Fund.[15]


  1. Thomas DeSaille Tucker 1887–1901
  2. Nathan B. Young 1901–1923
  3. William A. Howard 1923–1924
  4. John Robert Edward Lee 1924–1944
  5. J.B. Bragg April 5, 1944 – September 1, 1944
  6. William H. Gray, Jr. 1944–1949
  7. H. Manning Efferson July 7, 1949 – April 1, 1950
  8. George W. Gore 1950–1968
  9. Benjamin L. Perry, Jr. 1968–1977
  10. Walter L. Smith 1977–1985
  11. Frederick S. Humphries 1985–2001
  12. Henry Lewis III January 2002 – June 2002
  13. Fred Gainous 2002–2004
  14. Castell V. Bryant January 2005 – May 2007
  15. James H. Ammons May 2007 – July 2012
  16. Larry Robinson July 2012 – April 2014
  17. Elmira Mangum April 2014–present


The university offers 62 bachelor's degrees in 103 majors/tracks. 36 master's degrees with 56 majors/tracks are offered within 11 of the university's 13 schools and colleges. Two professional degrees and 11 doctoral degree programs are offered.[citation needed]

Florida A&M offers an Honors College to undergraduate students who meet performance criteria.[16]

In 2012, FAMU implemented the Medical Scholars Program (MSP). MSP is a rigious pre-medical program designed to uniquely prepare academically talented students for success in medical school and beyond. Each year, a new class of only 10 students are accepted into this competitive program.[17]

FAMU has eight fully funded, endowed, eminent-scholars chairs, including two in the School of Journalism and Graphic Communications, four in the School of Business & Industry, one in the College of Education, one in Arts and Sciences, and one in its School of Pharmacy.[citation needed]


Ethnic composition of student body[18]
Student Body[19] Florida[20] U.S. Census[21]
African American 87.6% 16.7% 13.2%
Asian American 1.2% 2.7% 5.3%
Hispanic American
(of any race)
2.3% 23.6% 17.1%
International students 1.4% N/A N/A
Native American <1% 0.5% 1.2%
Non-Hispanic White 7.2% 56.4% 62.6%

Florida A&M University student enrollment population consists primarily of undergraduates. Ninety percent of the school's enrolled students are African-American. The next largest demographic group is White (non-Hispanic) students at 7%. Native Americans, Hispanics and Asian Americans round out the remaining 3.7%.[22] As of Fall 2014, the top three feeder states for out-of-state students are Georgia with 454, Illinois with 104, and Texas with 86 students.[18]


Florida A&M University has been accredited by Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) since 1935.[23]


University rankings
Forbes[26] 611 [24]
Washington Monthly[27] 100[25]

A newly released study by New York-based financial technology company SmartAsset has ranked FAMU among the best value colleges (No. 4) and the top schools where graduates earn the highest starting salaries (No. 9). The rankings consider all Florida universities and colleges and are part of SmartAsset's overarching study of the schools providing students with the best overall value. The study considered starting salary, as well as scholarships and grants, tuition, living costs, and retention rate.[citation needed]

The Princeton Review recently named FAMU among its "2016 Best Colleges: Region-by-Region" list, ranking FAMU as one of the "Best Southeastern" colleges and universities in the nation. FAMU is among only 140 colleges and universities in the Southeast that received this ranking. The Princeton Review notes that institutions making the list are considered academically outstanding and well worth consideration in a student's college search.[citation needed]

The Washington Monthly College Guide named FAMU among its list of the top 100 national universities, highlighting the University for its contributions to the public good through social mobility (recruiting and graduating low-income students), research (producing cutting-edge scholarship and doctoral scholars), and service (encouraging students to give something back to their country).[citation needed]

Niche, a ranking and reviews company aimed at helping high school students make the right college choice, listed FAMU among its "2016 Best Colleges." Niche's top-ranked colleges are elite academic institutions that provide a good value, attract a diverse student body, and offer an exceptional college experience.[citation needed]

NerdWallet, a national personal finance and information service, recently released its "Florida's Best Colleges for Your Buck" list, ranking FAMU as one of the state's top schools for affordability and student success after graduation. NerdWallet cites that FAMU's offering of the lowest annual tuition among all of the colleges or universities on the list, and its ranking as one of the top HBCUs in the nation (U.S. News & World Report), make it "tough to beat." FAMU was also cited for graduating notable alumni, such as Microsoft chair John W. Thompson and U.S. Rep. Corrine Brown.[citation needed]

The University was recognized in 2015 by the Building Green Initiative as the No. 2 "Greenest" public historically Black college or university (HBCU) in the nation. In releasing its rankings, the initiative celebrated FAMU for its sustainability efforts via its agriculture and recycling programs, citing that the University has an "innovative approach to solving modern sustainability issues."[citation needed]

U.S. News & World Report named FAMU among the best national universities in 2015.[citation needed]

Forbes magazine listed the University as one of "America's Top Colleges" for 2015, and as one of its "Best in the South" colleges. Also, College Choice named FAMU among its 2015 list of the Best HBCUs, and a recently released report by the National Science Foundation (NSF) listed FAMU as the No. 1 HBCU in the nation for total research and development (R&D) expenditures. Additionally, the American City Business Journals listed FAMU among the nation's top public universities and colleges.[24]

Between 2004-2013, FAMU was the second most baccalaureate-origin institution of U.S. black male doctorate recipients.[28]

The university received its largest individual gift in its history ($5 million from Thompson and his wife, Sandi); completing the transfer of 3,800 acres (1,500 ha) of land in Brooksville, Florida, one of the largest land transfers in the history of the USDA to a land-grant HBCU.[citation needed] It became the first public HBCU to join the Thurgood Marshall College Fund/University of Phoenix Online Learning Alliance.[citation needed] It was the first Purple Heart HBCU and first Purple Heart university in Florida.[citation needed] It was the first classical HBCU ensemble to play at Carnegie Hall.[citation needed] It was one of the first HBCUs to play at Fenway Park.[citation needed]

In 2015, Florida A&M was ranked the #3 college in the United States by the Social Mobility Index college rankings.[29]

College of Law[edit]

On December 21, 1949, a division of law was established at the then Florida A&M College, and the first class was admitted in 1951. The legislature established the school because no "separate but equal" state-supported law school existed for African-Americans at that time.[30] The school's enrollment was limited to African-American male students and was located in Tallahassee, Florida.[30] The FAMU law school was closed through a vote by the Florida legislature in 1965, with the funds transferred to a new law school at Florida State University; vindictiveness for FAMU activism in support of desegregation was a factor.[31] The College of Law reopened in 2002 and now occupies its own 160,000-square-foot (15,000 m2) building at 201 Beggs Avenue in downtown Orlando with an onsite College of Law Library that is open to the general public. The four-story building was designed by Rhodes+Brito Architects of Orlando. The new building opened to students in 2005. Of the 1,807 who applied to the school in 2009, 630 were accepted and 234 enrolled.[30][32] Seventy-seven percent of the entering class were Florida residents, and 42% were non-minority students.The FAMU College of Law recently announced that 72.2 percent of its first-time examinees passed the February 2014 Florida Bar Exam. The Florida Bar Exam first-time cumulative pass rate for February 2014 was 72.9 percent.[33]

College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences[edit]

The School of Pharmacy was organized in 1951. It received its present name in 1985 in recognition of the expanded role and mission of the college in professional and graduate education. It is now one of the largest colleges of pharmacy in the country.[34] It offers a Doctor of Pharmacy Degree (PharmD) and also a PhD program in Pharmacy. The fall PharmD enrollment was 1,068, and FAMU has produced over 20% of the nation's African-American pharmacists.[35] The Pharmacy School in 2009–2010 graduate student enrollment was 122, with 42 PhDs, 21 DrPH, 45 MPH and 14 MS candidates. The school has graduated over 60% of African-American PhDs in pharmaceutical sciences, since 1990.[35] In 2003 it was ranked third in the nation for research funding through the National Institute of Health and consistently ranks as one of the top-funded pharmacy school in the southeast.[36] It is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) through June 30, 2010.[37]


FAMU's annual research funding currently exceeds $54 million. Research is funded by grants from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health.[38] For 2007–2008, the largest source of funds was $15.1 million from the US Department of Education, followed by $6.1 million from the Department of Agriculture (most of which is allocated to FAMU by virtue of it being a land grant university.) [39] FAMU's two largest research areas are agriculture and heath sciences.[39] The Pharmacy College's research funding for 2009–2010 is $22.5 million ($21.0 million in federal, $1.1 million in state support, and from $325,046 private industry support) with over $37,301,715 committed through 2012.[35]


FAMU's main campus is in Tallahassee, Florida, just south of the State Capitol and the campus of Florida State University. It also has a law school campus in Orlando, Florida and the Research and Development Center in Quincy, Florida. The College of Pharmacy has extension campuses in Miami, Jacksonville, Tampa and Crestview, Florida.[34]

Residential facilities[edit]

FAMU requires all first-year students and students with fewer than 12 credit hours to live on campus, if their families are over 35 miles (56 km) from the FAMU campus. Exceptions to this rule include married students, students with dependents, and students who are of age 21 by the start of classes.[40]

FAMU offers a limited number of rooms for students with dependent families.[40] Family households may occupy rooms in the Palmetto North Apartments.[41] Residents are zoned to Leon County Schools.[42] Residents are zoned to Bond Elementary School,[43] Nims Middle School,[44] and Leon High School.[45]

National historic district[edit]

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College Historic District
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University campus.jpg
FAMU campus, Lee Hall
Location Tallahassee, Florida
Area 370 acres (1.5 km2)
Built 1907
Architect William Augustus Edwards; Rudolph Weaver, et al.
Architectural style Colonial Revival, Classical Revival
NRHP Reference # 96000530[46]
Added to NRHP May 9, 1996
The Library, ca. 1930

The Florida A&M Tallahassee Campus consists of 132 buildings spread across 420 acres (1.7 km2). Part of the campus is listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places as the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College Historic District. It received that designation on May 9, 1996. The district is centered along the section of Martin Luther King Boulevard that goes through the campus. According to the National Register, it covers 370 acres (1.5 km2), and contains 14 historic buildings and 1 object. One campus building, the old Carnegie Library, is listed separately on the National Register.[46] On April 18, 2012, the AIA's Florida Chapter placed Lee Hall at Florida Agricultural & Mechanical University (FAMU) on its list of Florida Architecture: 100 Years. 100 Places.[47]

Research and Development Center[edit]

The FAMU Research and Development Center in Quincy, Florida serves students in animal science, pre-veterinary medicine and veterinary technology. In May 2009, a new New Animal Healthcare Complex opened to support FAMU's pre-veterinary program. The complex was funded by a $1.2 million grant from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Cooperative Extension Research.[48]


The Samuel H. Coleman Memorial Library is the University's main library, named for the man who served as the University's general alumni president for 14 years. After the University’s main building containing administrative offices, cafeteria, and library were destroyed by fire, Andrew Carnegie donated a $10,000 gift for the construction of a new library facility. The construction of Coleman Library began during the post-World War II era. The new library was officially dedicated during FMAU’s 1949 annual Founders Day celebration in honor of civil leader Samuel H. Coleman.[49] The library was built in 1948, renovated in 1972, expanded in 1990 and again in 2004. The 88,964 square feet (8,265.0 m2) facility includes study rooms, a student study lounge and cafe, graduate and faculty study carrels, teleconference rooms, and a state-of-the-art information literacy classroom.[50]

Along with the additional 20,000 square feet (1,900 m2) available in the branch libraries, the Florida A&M University Libraries provide a seating capacity of 920. The Libraries hold nearly 2 million volumes, over 155,000 e-books and e-journals, and 256,126 microforms, which are readily accessible to users and support both onsite and online programs.[50]

Carnegie Library[edit]

In 1907, when the city of Tallahassee turned down philanthropist Andrew Carnegie's offer of a library building, because by his rules it would have had to serve black patrons, Carnegie funded instead the Carnegie Library at FAMU. It no longer serves as a library, but instead houses the Southeastern Regional Black Archives Research Center and Museum.

Student life[edit]


Official Athletics logo

Florida A&M University is a member of the Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference and participates in NCAA Division I-AA. FAMU's sports teams are called the "Rattlers." FAMU offers men's sports in baseball, basketball, football, golf, swimming, tennis and track and field. It offers women's sports in basketball, bowling, softball, swimming, wrestling, tennis, track and field and volleyball.[51]

From 1938 to 1961, the football team won the Black College National Championship eight times, including six times under head coach Jake Gaither, in 1950, 1952, 1954, 1957, 1959 and 1961. When Gaither retired after 25 years of coaching in 1969, his FAMU teams had a 203-36-4 (wins-losses-ties) record, for a .844 winning percentage. Thirty-six players from Gaither's teams were All-Americans, and 42 went on to play in the National Football League. During his 25 years as head coach, FAMU won 22 Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference championships. Gaither was elected to the College Football Hall of Fame in 1975. FAMU went on to win the first NCAA D1-AA National Championship in 1978 after defeating the University of Massachusetts Amherst.

The men's basketball team has qualified for the opening round game of the NCAA men's basketball tournament three times (1999, 2004 and 2007). The FAMU Wrestling Team placed third in their region and had several national placers in 2008 under Coach Sharif.

Gospel Choir[edit]

The FAMU Gospel Choir was established in 1957.

Marching band[edit]

Main article: Marching 100

The FAMU band, The Marching 100, received national recognition in January 1993 when it performed in the 42nd Presidential Inauguration Parade by invitation of Bill Clinton. The band has also performed in the Super Bowl and in the 44th Presidential Inauguration Parade.

2011 band hazing incident[edit]

In 2011 Robert Champion, a band member, was beaten to death in a hazing incident. Since the 2011 death, a series of reports of abuse and hazing within the band have been documented. In May 2012, 2 faculty members resigned in connection with a hazing investigation and 13 people were charged with felony or misdemeanor hazing crimes.[52][53] The leader, Dante Martin, was convicted of manslaughter and hazing charges and sentenced to six years in prison.

On July 11, 2012, James H. Ammons resigned as FAMU's president more than seven months after the incident; on the same day the parents of Robert Champion filed suit against the university.[54][55][56] Five days later, on July 16, 2012, Florida A&M University's Board of Trustees appointed provost Larry Robinson as interim president and permitted the resignation of James H. Ammons to become effective that day.[57] Reaction to the death of Champion continued into late 2012 as the university's regional accreditor, the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, placed the university on probation;[23] this probation was lifted in December 2013.[58] In 2014, Dr. Elmira Mangum, former Cornell University administrator, was chosen to serve as the university's 11th president.[59]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Sortable Table: College and University Endowments, 2013–14". The Chronicle of Higher Education. 
  2. ^ http://www.famu.edu/index.cfm?oir&enrollment#current
  3. ^ "Largest Historically Black Colleges (PHOTOS)". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 29 July 2015. 
  4. ^ "FAMU is Top HBCU for Research and Development | FAMU Forward". Famunews.com. 2015-08-27. Retrieved 2015-09-22. 
  5. ^ "About Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University". Florida Agriculture and Mechanical University. Retrieved 6 May 2014. 
  6. ^ Florida Memory, February 25, 2014, http://www.floridamemory.com/blog/2014/02/25/famu-hospital/, retrieved 22 May 2015.
  7. ^ "News Headlines - Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University 2015". Famu.edu. 2006-12-07. Retrieved 2015-09-22. 
  8. ^ Pillow, Travis (November 9, 2013). "Senator recalls role in protest". Florida Today (Melbourne, Florida). pp. 10B. Retrieved November 11, 2013. 
  9. ^ "Phenomenal growth – Black Issues in Higher Education's sixth annual Top 100 rankings of minority baccalaureates – Cover Story". Retrieved 29 July 2015. 
  10. ^ "Famu Gets Most Talented Black Scholars - tribunedigital-sunsentinel". Articles.sun-sentinel.com. 1996-01-12. Retrieved 2015-09-22. 
  11. ^ Rose (January 25, 1998). "Ongoing Famu Excellence - tribunedigital-orlandosentinel". Articles.orlandosentinel.com. Retrieved 2015-09-22. 
  12. ^ "CNN - Time survey names Florida A&M 'College of the Year' - Aug. 24, 1997". Retrieved 29 July 2015. 
  13. ^ "About FAMU - Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University 2015". Retrieved 29 July 2015. 
  14. ^ "About FAMU - Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University 2015". Retrieved 29 July 2015. 
  15. ^ Mauro Catenacci. "About Historically Black Colleges And Universities (HBCUS) - Thurgood Marshall College Fund - Thurgood Marshall College Fund". Retrieved 29 July 2015. 
  16. ^ http://www.famu.edu/index.cfm?honorsProgram&AbouttheHonorsCenter
  17. ^ http://www.famu.edu/index.cfm?medicalscholarsprogram&AbouttheFAMU-FAUMedicalScholarsProgram
  18. ^ a b http://www.famu.edu/oir/UserFiles/File/DataReporting/FactBooks/1415/Student%20Enrollment%202014-15.pdf
  19. ^ http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/00000.html
  20. ^ "Florida QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". census.gov. 
  21. ^ "USA QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". census.gov. 
  22. ^ "Enrollment Summary, 2014–2015 factbook" (PDF). FAMU. Retrieved 2015-11-22. 
  23. ^ a b Gary Finout (December 11, 2012). "Scandals threaten FAMU's accreditation". Associated Press. Retrieved December 19, 2012. 
  24. ^ a b http://www.forbes.com/colleges/florida-agricultural-and-mechanical-university/
  25. ^ "2015 National Universities Rankings". Washington Monthly. n.d. Retrieved November 22, 2015.  | SMI = 4
  26. ^ "America's Top Colleges". Forbes. Retrieved August 15, 2015. 
  27. ^ "2015 National Universities Rankings". Washington Monthly. n.d. Retrieved September 17, 2015. 
  28. ^ http://www.morehouse.edu/about/pdf/Morehouse-Facts-2014.pdf
  29. ^ CollegeNET. "Social Mobility Index". Retrieved 29 July 2015. 
  30. ^ a b c Kay, Julie (Jan 1, 2010). "Saving the School". American Bar Association Journal. Retrieved 2009-12-31. 
  31. ^ Kathleen Haughney and Aaron Deslatte, "Scott, FAMU rift only the latest incident in rocky 50-year relationship", (Fort Lauderdale) Sun-Sentinel, December 24, 2011, http://articles.sun-sentinel.com/2011-12-24/news/fl-famu-history-filled-with-tension-20111224_1_famu-board-famu-president-james-ammons-rick-scott, retrieved 6/4/2015.
  32. ^ "1L Class Profile". Retrieved 2009-12-31. 
  33. ^ "News Headlines - Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University 2015". Famu.edu. 2006-12-07. Retrieved 2015-09-22. 
  34. ^ a b "Overview". Retrieved 2009-12-31. 
  35. ^ a b c "Fact Sheet". Retrieved 2009-12-31. 
  36. ^ "NIH Rankings". 
  37. ^ "Accreditations". Retrieved 2009-12-31. 
  38. ^ "Page not found on the university website". Retrieved 29 July 2015. 
  39. ^ a b "Summary of Federal Contracts & Grants Awards Listed by Federal Sponsoring Agency" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-12-31. 
  40. ^ a b "Frequently Asked Questions." Florida A&M University. Retrieved on October 2, 2011.
  41. ^ Mitchell, Marri. "Families find housing on campus." The FAMUian. March 17, 2010. Retrieved on October 2, 2011.
  42. ^ "Campus Map." Florida A&M University. Retrieved on October 2, 2011. Palmetto North consists of buildings 152 to 160, in the lower right area of the map.
  43. ^ "Leon County Elementary School Zoning 2009–2010 School Year." Leon County Schools. Retrieved on August 15, 2011.
  44. ^ "Leon County Middle School Zoning 2009–2010 School Year." Leon County Schools. Retrieved on August 15, 2011.
  45. ^ "Leon County High School Zoning." Leon County Schools. Retrieved on August 15, 2011.
  46. ^ a b Staff (2007-01-23). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 
  47. ^ "Florida Architecture: 100 Years. 100 Places.". THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS. Retrieved 27 April 2012. 
  48. ^ "Ribbon-Cutting for New Animal Healthcare Complex". Retrieved 2009-12-31. 
  49. ^ Guthrie, Ana (2012). "The History of Florida's Four FBCU (Historically Black Colleges & Universities) Libraries". Florida Libraries 55 (2): 41. 
  50. ^ a b "FAMU Libraries: About Us". FAMU Libraries. Retrieved 30 October 2015. 
  51. ^ "Official Website for FAMU Athletics". Retrieved 2009-12-31. 
  52. ^ "Death of Florida A&M's Robert Champion ruled a homicide". BBC News. December 17, 2011. Retrieved 16 December 2011. 
  53. ^ "13 Charged in Hazing Death". FOX News / Associated Press. May 2, 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2012. 
  54. ^ "FAMU president resigns in wake of hazing death". CNN. July 12, 2012. Retrieved 12 July 2012. 
  55. ^ "James Ammons, FAMU President, Resigns Amid Hazing Death Lawsuit, Financial Problems". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 29 July 2015. 
  56. ^ ABC News. "FAMU Drum Major Robert Champion's Parents Sue School For Hazing Death - ABC News". ABC News. Retrieved 29 July 2015. 
  57. ^ "FAMU Provost to serve as interim president". WTLX TV. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  58. ^ "Southern Accreditor Clears Virginia, Fisk, Florida A&M". Inside Higher Ed. December 11, 2013. Retrieved December 24, 2013. 
  59. ^ "News Headlines - Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University 2015". Retrieved 29 July 2015. 

External links[edit]