|Part of a series on|
|Part of a series on|
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social rights for women. This includes seeking to establish educational and professional opportunities for women that are equal to such opportunities for men.
Feminist movements have campaigned and continue to campaign for women's rights, including the right to vote, to hold public office, to work, to earn fair wages or equal pay, to own property, to receive education, to enter contracts, to have equal rights within marriage, and to have maternity leave. Feminists have also worked to promote bodily autonomy and integrity, and to protect women and girls from rape, sexual harassment, and domestic violence.
Feminist campaigns are generally considered to be a main force behind major historical societal changes for women's rights, particularly in the West, where they are near-universally credited with achieving women's suffrage, gender neutrality in English, reproductive rights for women (including access to contraceptives and abortion), and the right to enter into contracts and own property. Although feminist advocacy is, and has been, mainly focused on women's rights, some feminists, including bell hooks, argue for the inclusion of men's liberation within its aims because men are also harmed by traditional gender roles. Feminist theory, which emerged from feminist movements, aims to understand the nature of gender inequality by examining women's social roles and lived experience; it has developed theories in a variety of disciplines in order to respond to issues concerning gender.
Numerous feminist movements and ideologies have developed over the years and represent different viewpoints and aims. Some forms of feminism have been criticized for taking into account only white, middle class, and college-educated perspectives. This criticism led to the creation of ethnically specific or multicultural forms of feminism, including black feminism and intersectional feminism.
- 1 History
- 2 Theory
- 3 Movements and ideologies
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Sexuality
- 6 Science
- 7 Culture
- 8 Politics
- 9 Societal impact
- 10 Reactions
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
Charles Fourier, a Utopian Socialist and French philosopher, is credited with having coined the word "féminisme" in 1837. The words "féminisme" ("feminism") and "féminist" ("feminist") first appeared in France and the Netherlands in 1872, Great Britain in the 1890s, and the United States in 1910, and the Oxford English Dictionary lists 1852 as the year of the first appearance of "feminist" and 1895 for "feminism". Depending on the historical moment, culture and country, feminists around the world have had different causes and goals. Most western feminist historians contend that all movements working to obtain women's rights should be considered feminist movements, even when they did not (or do not) apply the term to themselves. Other historians assert that the term should be limited to the modern feminist movement and its descendants. Those historians use the label "protofeminist" to describe earlier movements.
The history of the modern western feminist movements is divided into three "waves". Each wave dealt with different aspects of the same feminist issues. The first wave comprised women's suffrage movements of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, promoting women's right to vote. The second wave was associated with the ideas and actions of the women's liberation movement beginning in the 1960s. The second wave campaigned for legal and social equality for women. The third wave is a continuation of, and a reaction to, the perceived failures of second-wave feminism, which began in the 1990s.
Nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
First-wave feminism was a period of activity during the 19th century and early twentieth century. In the UK and US, it focused on the promotion of equal contract, marriage, parenting, and property rights for women. By the end of the 19th century, a number of important steps had been made with the passing of legislation such as the UK Custody of Infants Act 1839 which introduced the Tender years doctrine for child custody arrangement and gave woman the right of custody of their children for the first time. Other legislation such as the Married Women's Property Act 1870 in the UK and extended in the 1882 Act, these became models for similar legislation in other British territories. For example, Victoria passed legislation in 1884, New South Wales in 1889, and the remaining Australian colonies passed similar legislation between 1890 and 1897. Therefore with the turn of the 19th century activism had focused primarily on gaining political power, particularly the right of women's suffrage, though some feminists were active in campaigning for women's sexual, reproductive, and economic rights as well.
Women's suffrage began in Britain's Australasian colonies at the close of the 19th century, with the self-governing colonies of New Zealand granting women the right to vote in 1893 and South Australia granting female suffrage (the right to vote and stand for parliamentary office) in 1895. This was followed by Australia granting female suffrage in 1902.
In Britain the Suffragettes and the Suffragists campaigned for the women's vote, and in 1918 the Representation of the People Act was passed granting the vote to women over the age of 30 who owned property. In 1928 this was extended to all women over 21. Emmeline Pankhurst was the most notable activist in England, with Time naming her one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th Century stating: "she shaped an idea of women for our time; she shook society into a new pattern from which there could be no going back." In the U.S., notable leaders of this movement included Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Susan B. Anthony, who each campaigned for the abolition of slavery prior to championing women's right to vote. These women were influenced by the Quaker theology of spiritual equality, which asserts that men and women are equal under God. In the United States, first-wave feminism is considered to have ended with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (1919), granting women the right to vote in all states. The term first wave was coined retroactively to categorize these western movements after the term second-wave feminism began to be used to describe a newer feminist movement that focused on fighting social and cultural inequalities, as well political inequalities.
During the late Qing period and reform movements such as the Hundred Days' Reform, Chinese feminists called for women's liberation from traditional roles and Neo-Confucian gender segregation. Later, the Chinese Communist Party created projects aimed at integrating women into the workforce, and claimed that the revolution had successfully achieved women's liberation.
According to Nawar al-Hassan Golley, Arab feminism was closely connected with Arab nationalism. In 1899, Qasim Amin, considered the "father" of Arab feminism, wrote The Liberation of Women, which argued for legal and social reforms for women. He drew links between women's position in Egyptian society and nationalism, leading to the development of Cairo University and the National Movement. In 1923 Hoda Shaarawi founded the Egyptian Feminist Union, became its president and a symbol of the Arab women's rights movement.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in 1905 triggered the Iranian women's movement, which aimed to achieve women's equality in education, marriage, careers, and legal rights. However, during the Iranian revolution of 1979, many of the rights that women had gained from the women's movement were systematically abolished, such as the Family Protection Law.
In France, women obtained the right to vote only with the Provisional Government of the French Republic of 21 April 1944. The Consultative Assembly of Algiers of 1944 proposed on 24 March 1944 to grant eligibility to women but following an amendment by Fernand Grenier, they were given full citizenship, including the right to vote. Grenier's proposition was adopted 51 to 16. In May 1947, following the November 1946 elections, the sociologist Robert Verdier minimized the "gender gap", stating in Le Populaire that women had not voted in a consistent way, dividing themselves, as men, according to social classes. During the baby boom period, feminism waned in importance. Wars (both World War I and World War II) had seen the provisional emancipation of some women, but post-war periods signalled the return to conservative roles.
By the mid 20th century, in some European countries, women still lacked some significant rights. Feminists in these countries continued to fight for voting rights. In Switzerland, women gained the right to vote in federal elections in 1971; but in the canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden women obtained the right to vote on local issues only in 1991, when the canton was forced to do so by the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland. In Liechtenstein, women were given the right to vote by the women's suffrage referendum of 1984. Three prior referendums held in 1968, 1971 and 1973 had failed to secure women's right to vote.
Feminists continued to campaign for the reform of family laws which gave husbands control over their wives. Although by the 20th century coverture had been abolished in the UK and the US, in many continental European countries married women still had very few rights. For instance, in France married women did not receive the right to work without their husband's permission until 1965. Feminists have also worked to abolish the "marital exemption" in rape laws which precluded the prosecution of husbands for the rape of their wives. Earlier efforts by first-wave feminists such as Voltairine de Cleyre, Victoria Woodhull and Elizabeth Clarke Wolstenholme Elmy to criminalize marital rape in the late 19th century had failed; this was only achieved a century later in most Western countries, but is still not achieved in many other parts of the world.
French philosopher Simone de Beauvoir provided a Marxist solution and an existentialist view on many of the questions of feminism with the publication of Le Deuxième Sexe (The Second Sex) in 1949. The book expressed feminists' sense of injustice. Second-wave feminism is a feminist movement beginning in the early 1960s and continuing to the present; as such, it coexists with third-wave feminism. Second-wave feminism is largely concerned with issues of equality beyond suffrage, such as ending gender discrimination.
Second-wave feminists see women's cultural and political inequalities as inextricably linked and encourage women to understand aspects of their personal lives as deeply politicized and as reflecting sexist power structures. The feminist activist and author Carol Hanisch coined the slogan "The Personal is Political", which became synonymous with the second wave.
Second- and third-wave feminism in China has been characterized by a reexamination of women's roles during the communist revolution and other reform movements, and new discussions about whether women's equality has actually been fully achieved.
In 1956, President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt initiated "state feminism", which outlawed discrimination based on gender and granted women's suffrage, but also blocked political activism by feminist leaders. During Sadat's presidency, his wife, Jehan Sadat, publicly advocated further women's rights, though Egyptian policy and society began to move away from women's equality with the new Islamist movement and growing conservatism. However, some activists proposed a new feminist movement, Islamic feminism, which argues for women's equality within an Islamic framework.
In Latin America, revolutions brought changes in women's status in countries such as Nicaragua, where feminist ideology during the Sandinista Revolution aided women's quality of life but fell short of achieving a social and ideological change.
In 1969, Betty Friedan's book The Feminine Mystique was published and helped voice the discontent that American women felt. The book proved highly successful, almost becoming a bible for feminists and a spur for political activists. The book's success also meant that Friedan could lecture her views while she was on tour in 1970. Within ten years, after Friedan's successful publishing, women made up more than half of the total percentage in the First World workforce.
Late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries
In the early 1990s in the USA, third-wave feminism began as a response to perceived failures of the second wave and to the backlash against initiatives and movements created by the second wave. Third-wave feminism distinguished itself from the second wave around issues of sexuality, challenging female heterosexuality and celebrating sexuality as a means of female empowerment. Third-wave feminism also seeks to challenge or avoid what it deems the second wave's essentialist definitions of femininity, which, they argue, over-emphasize the experiences of upper middle-class white women. Third-wave feminists often focus on "micro-politics" and challenge the second wave's paradigm as to what is, or is not, good for women, and tend to use a post-structuralist interpretation of gender and sexuality. Feminist leaders rooted in the second wave, such as Gloria Anzaldúa, bell hooks, Chela Sandoval, Cherríe Moraga, Audre Lorde, Maxine Hong Kingston, and many other non-white feminists, sought to negotiate a space within feminist thought for consideration of race-related subjectivities. Third-wave feminism also contains internal debates between difference feminists, who believe that there are important differences between the sexes, and those who believe that there are no inherent differences between the sexes and contend that gender roles are due to social conditioning.
Standpoint theory is a feminist theoretical point of view that believes a persons' social position influences their knowledge. This perspective argues that research and theory treats women and the feminist movement as insignificant and refuses to see traditional science as unbiased. Since the 1980s, standpoint feminists have argued that the feminist movement should address global issues (such as rape, incest, and prostitution) and culturally specific issues (such as female genital mutilation in some parts of Africa and the Middle East, as well as glass ceiling practices that impede women's advancement in developed economies) in order to understand how gender inequality interacts with racism, homophobia, classism and colonization in a "matrix of domination".
The term post-feminism is used to describe a range of viewpoints reacting to feminism since the 1980s. While not being "anti-feminist", post-feminists believe that women have achieved second wave goals while being critical of third wave feminist goals. The term was first used to describe a backlash against second-wave feminism, but it is now a label for a wide range of theories that take critical approaches to previous feminist discourses and includes challenges to the second wave's ideas. Other post-feminists say that feminism is no longer relevant to today's society. Amelia Jones has written that the post-feminist texts which emerged in the 1980s and 1990s portrayed second-wave feminism as a monolithic entity. Dorothy Chunn notes a "blaming narrative" under the post-feminist moniker, where feminists are undermined for continuing to make demands for gender equality in a "post-feminist" society, where "gender equality has (already) been achieved." According to Chunn, "many feminists have voiced disquiet about the ways in which rights and equality discourses are now used against them."
Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical or philosophical fields. It encompasses work in a variety of disciplines, including anthropology, sociology, economics, women's studies, literary criticism, art history, psychoanalysis and philosophy. Feminist theory aims to understand gender inequality and focuses on gender politics, power relations, and sexuality. While providing a critique of these social and political relations, much of feminist theory also focuses on the promotion of women's rights and interests. Themes explored in feminist theory include discrimination, stereotyping, objectification (especially sexual objectification), oppression, and patriarchy. In the field of literary criticism, Elaine Showalter describes the development of feminist theory as having three phases. The first she calls "feminist critique", in which the feminist reader examines the ideologies behind literary phenomena. The second Showalter calls "gynocriticism", in which the "woman is producer of textual meaning". The last phase she calls "gender theory", in which the "ideological inscription and the literary effects of the sex/gender system are explored".
This was paralleled in the 1970s by French feminists, who developed the concept of écriture féminine (which translates as 'female or feminine writing'). Helene Cixous argues that writing and philosophy are phallocentric and along with other French feminists such as Luce Irigaray emphasize "writing from the body" as a subversive exercise. The work of Julia Kristeva, a feminist psychoanalyst and philosopher, and Bracha Ettinger, artist and psychoanalyst, has influenced feminist theory in general and feminist literary criticism in particular. However, as the scholar Elizabeth Wright points out, "none of these French feminists align themselves with the feminist movement as it appeared in the Anglophone world". More recent feminist theory, such as that of Lisa Lucile Owens, has concentrated on characterizing feminism as a universal emancipatory movement.
Movements and ideologies
Many overlapping feminist movements and ideologies have developed over the years.
Some branches of feminism closely track the political leanings of the larger society, such as liberalism and conservatism, or focus on the environment. Liberal feminism seeks individualistic equality of men and women through political and legal reform without altering the structure of society. Catherine Rottenberg has argued that the neoliberal shirt in Liberal feminism has led to that form of feminism being individualized rather than collectivized and becoming detached from social inequality. Due to this she argues that Liberal Feminism cannot offer any sustained analysis of the structures of male dominance, power, or privilege.
Radical feminism considers the male-controlled capitalist hierarchy as the defining feature of women's oppression and the total uprooting and reconstruction of society as necessary. Conservative feminism is conservative relative to the society in which it resides. Libertarian feminism conceives of people as self-owners and therefore as entitled to freedom from coercive interference. Separatist feminism does not support heterosexual relationships. Lesbian feminism is thus closely related. Other feminists criticize separatist feminism as sexist. Ecofeminists see men's control of land as responsible for the oppression of women and destruction of the natural environment; ecofeminism has been criticized for focusing too much on a mystical connection between women and nature.
Rosemary Hennessy and Chrys Ingraham say that materialist forms of feminism grew out of Western Marxist thought and have inspired a number of different (but overlapping) movements, all of which are involved in a critique of capitalism and are focused on ideology's relationship to women. Marxist feminism argues that capitalism is the root cause of women's oppression, and that discrimination against women in domestic life and employment is an effect of capitalist ideologies. Socialist feminism distinguishes itself from Marxist feminism by arguing that women's liberation can only be achieved by working to end both the economic and cultural sources of women's oppression. Anarcha-feminists believe that class struggle and anarchy against the state require struggling against patriarchy, which comes from involuntary hierarchy.
Black and postcolonial ideologies
Sara Ahmed argues that Black and Postcolonial feminisms pose a challenge "to some of the organizing premises of Western feminist thought." During much of its history, feminist movements and theoretical developments were led predominantly by middle-class white women from Western Europe and North America. However women of other races have proposed alternative feminisms. This trend accelerated in the 1960s with the civil rights movement in the United States and the collapse of European colonialism in Africa, the Caribbean, parts of Latin America, and Southeast Asia. Since that time, women in developing nations and former colonies and who are of colour or various ethnicities or living in poverty have proposed additional feminisms. Womanism emerged after early feminist movements were largely white and middle-class. Postcolonial feminists argue that colonial oppression and Western feminism marginalized postcolonial women but did not turn them passive or voiceless. Third-world feminism and Indigenous feminism are closely related to postcolonial feminism. These ideas also correspond with ideas in African feminism, motherism, Stiwanism, negofeminism, femalism, transnational feminism, and Africana womanism.
Social constructionist ideologies
In the late twentieth century various feminists began to argue that gender roles are socially constructed, and that it is impossible to generalize women's experiences across cultures and histories. Post-structural feminism draws on the philosophies of post-structuralism and deconstruction in order to argue that the concept of gender is created socially and culturally through discourse. Postmodern feminists also emphasize the social construction of gender and the discursive nature of reality; however, as Pamela Abbott et al. note, a postmodern approach to feminism highlights "the existence of multiple truths (rather than simply men and women's standpoints)".
Riot grrls took an anti-corporate stance of self-sufficiency and self-reliance. Riot grrrl's emphasis on universal female identity and separatism often appears more closely allied with second-wave feminism than with the third wave. The movement encouraged and made "adolescent girls' standpoints central", allowing them to express themselves fully. Lipstick feminism is a cultural feminist movement that attempts to respond to the backlash of second-wave radical feminism of the 1960s and 1970s by reclaiming symbols of "feminine" identity such as make-up, suggestive clothing and having a sexual allure as valid and empowering personal choices.
According to 2015 poll, 18 percent of Americans consider themselves feminists, while 85 percent reported they believe in "equality for women". Despite the popular belief in equal rights, 52 percent did not identify as feminist, 26 percent were unsure, and four percent provided no response.
According to 2014 Ipsos poll covering 15 developed countries, 53 percent of respondents identified as feminists, and 87% agreed that "women should be treated equally to men in all areas based on their competency, not their gender". However, only 55% of women agreed that they have "full equality with men and the freedom to reach their full dreams and aspirations".
Among women, some of the strongest support for feminism was found in Sweden, where one in three (36%) agreed very much that they defined themselves as feminists. They were followed by women in Italy (31%) and Argentina (29%). Those in the middle of the ranking were from Great Britain (22%), Spain (22%), United States (20%), Australia (18%), Belgium (18%), France (18%), Canada (17%), Poland (17%), and Hungary (15%). Women least likely to agree very much were from Japan (8%), Germany (7%) and South Korea (7%).
One quarter of men in Italy (25%) and Argentina (25%), and two in ten of those in Poland (21%) and France (19%), agreed very much they defined themselves as feminist. They were followed by those from Sweden (17%), Spain (16%), the United States (16%), Canada (15%), Great Britain (14%), Hungary (12%), Belgium (11%) and Australia (10%). Men least likely to identify this way were from South Korea (7%), Germany (3%) and Japan (3%).
Women were more likely to self-identify as being feminists than men in every country except Poland, where men (21%) were four points more likely than women (17%) to agree very much with the statement. In South Korea, there was no difference between men and women (7%) on this measure.
Feminist views on sexuality vary, and have differed by historical period and by cultural context. Feminist attitudes to female sexuality have taken a few different directions. Matters such as the sex industry, sexual representation in the media, and issues regarding consent to sex under conditions of male dominance have been particularly controversial among feminists. This debate has culminated in the late 1970s and the 1980s, in what came to be known as the feminist sex wars, which pitted anti-pornography feminism against sex-positive feminism, and parts of the feminist movement were deeply divided by these debates. Feminists have taken a variety of positions on different aspects of the sexual revolution from the 1960s and 70s. Over the course of the 1970s, a large number of influential women accepted lesbian and bisexual women as part of feminism.
Opinions on the sex industry are diverse. Feminists critical of the sex industry generally see it as the exploitative result of patriarchal social structures which reinforce sexual and cultural attitudes complicit in rape and sexual harassment. Alternately, feminists who support at least part of the sex industry argue that it can be a medium of feminist expression and a means for women to take control of their sexuality.
Feminist views of pornography range from condemnation of pornography as a form of violence against women, to an embracing of some forms of pornography as a medium of feminist expression. Feminists' views on prostitution vary, but many of these perspectives can be loosely arranged into an overarching standpoint that is generally either critical or supportive of prostitution and sex work.
Affirming female sexual autonomy
For feminists, a woman's right to control her own sexuality is a key issue. Feminists such as Catharine MacKinnon argue that women have very little control over their own bodies, with female sexuality being largely controlled and defined by men in patriarchal societies. Feminists argue that sexual violence committed by men is often rooted in ideologies of male sexual entitlement, and that these systems grant women very few legitimate options to refuse sexual advances. In many cultures, men do not believe that a woman has the right to reject a man's sexual advances or to make an autonomous decision about participating in sex. Feminists argue that all cultures are, in one way or another, dominated by ideologies that largely deny women the right to decide how to express their sexuality, because men under patriarchy feel entitled to define sex on their own terms. This entitlement can take different forms, depending on the culture. In many parts of the world, especially in conservative and religious cultures, marriage is regarded as an institution which requires a wife to be sexually available at all times, virtually without limit; thus, forcing or coercing sex on a wife is not considered a crime or even an abusive behaviour. In more liberal cultures, this entitlement takes the form of a general sexualization of the whole culture. This is played out in the sexual objectification of women, with pornography and other forms of sexual entertainment creating the fantasy that all women exist solely for men's sexual pleasure, and that women are readily available and desiring to engage in sex at any time, with any man, on a man's terms.
Sandra Harding says that the "moral and political insights of the women's movement have inspired social scientists and biologists to raise critical questions about the ways traditional researchers have explained gender, sex and relations within and between the social and natural worlds." Some feminists, such as Ruth Hubbard and Evelyn Fox Keller, criticize traditional scientific discourse as being historically biased towards a male perspective. A part of the feminist research agenda is the examination of the ways in which power inequities are created or reinforced in scientific and academic institutions. Physicist Lisa Randall, appointed to a task force at Harvard by then-president Lawrence Summers after his controversial discussion of why women may be underrepresented in science and engineering, said, "I just want to see a whole bunch more women enter the field so these issues don't have to come up anymore."
Lynn Hankinson Nelson notes that feminist empiricists find fundamental differences between the experiences of men and women. Thus, they seek to obtain knowledge through the examination of the experiences of women, and to "uncover the consequences of omitting, misdescribing, or devaluing them" to account for a range of human experience. Another part of the feminist research agenda is the uncovering of ways in which power inequities are created or reinforced in society and in scientific and academic institutions. Furthermore, despite calls for greater attention to be paid to structures of gender inequity in the academic literature, structural analyses of gender bias rarely appear in highly cited psychological journals, especially in the commonly studied areas of psychology and personality.
One criticism of feminist epistemology is that it allows social and political values to influence its findings. Susan Haack also points out that feminist epistemology reinforces traditional stereotypes about women's thinking (as intuitive and emotional, etc.), Meera Nanda further cautions that this may in fact trap women within "traditional gender roles and help justify patriarchy".
Biology and gender
Modern feminism challenges the biological essentialist view of gender. For example, Anne Fausto-Sterling's book, Myths of Gender, explores the assumptions embodied in scientific research that support a biologically essentialist view of gender. In Delusions of Gender, Cordelia Fine disputes scientific evidence that suggests that there is an innate biological difference between men's and women's minds, asserting instead that cultural and societal beliefs are the reason for differences between individuals that are commonly perceived as sex differences.
Feminism in psychology emerged as a critique of the dominant male outlook on psychological research where only male perspectives were studied with all male subjects. As women earned doctorates in psychology, females and their issues were introduced as legitimate topics of study. Feminist psychology emphasizes social context, lived experience, and qualitative analysis. Projects such as Psychology's Feminist Voices have emerged to catalogue the influence of feminist psychologists on the discipline.
Gender-based inquiries into and conceptualization of architecture have also come about, leading to feminism in modern architecture. Piyush Mathur coined the term "archigenderic". Claiming that "architectural planning has an inextricable link with the defining and regulation of gender roles, responsibilities, rights, and limitations", Mathur came up with that term "to explore ... the meaning of 'architecture' in terms of gender" and "to explore the meaning of 'gender' in terms of architecture".
Feminist activists have established a range of feminist businesses, including women's bookstores, feminist credit unions, feminist presses, feminist mail-order catalogs, and feminist restaurants. These businesses flourished as part of the second and third-waves of feminism in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s.</ref>
Corresponding with general developments within feminism, and often including such self-organizing tactics as the consciousness-raising group, the movement began in the 1960s and flourished throughout the 1970s. Jeremy Strick, director of the Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles, described the feminist art movement as "the most influential international movement of any during the postwar period", and Peggy Phelan says that it "brought about the most far-reaching transformations in both artmaking and art writing over the past four decades". Feminist artist Judy Chicago, who created The Dinner Party, a set of vulva-themed ceramic plates in the 1970s, said in 2009 to ARTnews, "There is still an institutional lag and an insistence on a male Eurocentric narrative. We are trying to change the future: to get girls and boys to realize that women's art is not an exception—it's a normal part of art history." A feminist approach to the visual arts has most recently developed through Cyberfeminism and the posthuman turn, giving voice to the ways "contemporary female artists are dealing with gender, social media and the notion of embodiment".
The feminist movement produced both feminist fiction and non-fiction, and created new interest in women's writing. It also prompted a general reevaluation of women's historical and academic contributions in response to the belief that women's lives and contributions have been underrepresented as areas of scholarly interest. Much of the early period of feminist literary scholarship was given over to the rediscovery and reclamation of texts written by women. Studies like Dale Spender's Mothers of the Novel (1986) and Jane Spencer's The Rise of the Woman Novelist (1986) were ground-breaking in their insistence that women have always been writing. Commensurate with this growth in scholarly interest, various presses began the task of reissuing long-out-of-print texts. Virago Press began to publish its large list of 19th and early-20th-century novels in 1975 and became one of the first commercial presses to join in the project of reclamation. In the 1980s Pandora Press, responsible for publishing Spender's study, issued a companion line of 18th-century novels written by women. More recently, Broadview Press continues to issue 18th- and 19th-century novels, many hitherto out of print, and the University of Kentucky has a series of republications of early women's novels. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792) by Mary Wollstonecraft, is one of the earliest works of feminist philosophy. A Room of One's Own (1929) by Virginia Woolf, is noted in its argument for both a literal and figural space for women writers within a literary tradition dominated by patriarchy.
The widespread interest in women's writing is related to a general reassessment and expansion of the literary canon. Interest in post-colonial literatures, gay and lesbian literature, writing by people of colour, working people's writing, and the cultural productions of other historically marginalized groups has resulted in a whole scale expansion of what is considered "literature", and genres hitherto not regarded as "literary", such as children's writing, journals, letters, travel writing, and many others are now the subjects of scholarly interest. Most genres and subgenres have undergone a similar analysis, so that one now sees work on the "female gothic" or women's science fiction.
According to Elyce Rae Helford, "Science fiction and fantasy serve as important vehicles for feminist thought, particularly as bridges between theory and practice." Feminist science fiction is sometimes taught at the university level to explore the role of social constructs in understanding gender. Notable texts of this kind are Ursula K. Le Guin's The Left Hand of Darkness (1969), Joanna Russ' The Female Man (1970), Octavia Butler's Kindred (1979) and Margaret Atwood's Handmaid's Tale (1985).
Women's music (or womyn's music or wimmin's music) is the music by women, for women, and about women. The genre emerged as a musical expression of the second-wave feminist movement as well as the labour, civil rights, and peace movements. The movement was started by lesbians such as Cris Williamson, Meg Christian, and Margie Adam, African-American women activists such as Bernice Johnson Reagon and her group Sweet Honey in the Rock, and peace activist Holly Near. Women's music also refers to the wider industry of women's music that goes beyond the performing artists to include studio musicians, producers, sound engineers, technicians, cover artists, distributors, promoters, and festival organizers who are also women. Riot grrrl is an underground feminist hardcore punk movement described in the cultural movements section of this article.
Feminism became a principal concern of musicologists in the 1980s as part of the New Musicology. Prior to this, in the 1970s, musicologists were beginning to discover women composers and performers, and had begun to review concepts of canon, genius, genre and periodization from a feminist perspective. In other words, the question of how women musicians fit into traditional music history was now being asked. Through the 1980s and 1990s, this trend continued as musicologists like Susan McClary, Marcia Citron and Ruth Solie began to consider the cultural reasons for the marginalizing of women from the received body of work. Concepts such as music as gendered discourse; professionalism; reception of women's music; examination of the sites of music production; relative wealth and education of women; popular music studies in relation to women's identity; patriarchal ideas in music analysis; and notions of gender and difference are among the themes examined during this time.
While the music industry has long been open to having women in performance or entertainment roles, women are much less likely to have positions of authority, such as being the leader of an orchestra. In popular music, while there are many women singers recording songs, there are very few women behind the audio console acting as music producers, the individuals who direct and manage the recording process.
Feminist cinema, advocating or illustrating feminist perspectives, arose largely with the development of feminist film theory in the late '60s and early '70s. Women who were radicalized during the 1960s by political debate and sexual liberation; but the failure of radicalism to produce substantive change for women galvanized them to form consciousness-raising groups and set about analysing, from different perspectives, dominant cinema's construction of women. Differences were particularly marked between feminists on either side of the Atlantic. 1972 saw the first feminist film festivals in the U.S. and U.K. as well as the first feminist film journal, Women and Film. Trailblazers from this period included Claire Johnston and Laura Mulvey, who also organized the Women's Event at the Edinburgh Film Festival. Other theorists making a powerful impact on feminist film include Teresa de Lauretis, Anneke Smelik and Kaja Silverman. Approaches in philosophy and psychoanalysis fuelled feminist film criticism, feminist independent film and feminist distribution.
It has been argued that there are two distinct approaches to independent, theoretically inspired feminist filmmaking. 'Deconstruction' concerns itself with analysing and breaking down codes of mainstream cinema, aiming to create a different relationship between the spectator and dominant cinema. The second approach, a feminist counterculture, embodies feminine writing to investigate a specifically feminine cinematic language. Some recent criticism of "feminist film" approaches has centred around a Swedish rating system called the Bechdel test.
During the 1930s–1950s heyday of the big Hollywood studios, the status of women in the industry was abysmal and, while much has improved, many would argue that there is still much to be done. From art films by Sally Potter, Catherine Breillat, Claire Denis and Jane Campion to action movies by Kathryn Bigelow, women now have a stronger voice, but are only too aware of the still lingering gender gap.
Feminism had complex interactions with the major political movements of the twentieth century.
Since the late nineteenth century some feminists have allied with socialism, whereas others have criticized socialist ideology for being insufficiently concerned about women's rights. August Bebel, an early activist of the German Social Democratic Party (SPD), published his work Die Frau und der Sozialismus, juxtaposing the struggle for equal rights between sexes with social equality in general. In 1907 there was an International Conference of Socialist Women in Stuttgart where suffrage was described as a tool of class struggle. Clara Zetkin of the SPD called for women's suffrage to build a "socialist order, the only one that allows for a radical solution to the women's question".
In Britain, the women's movement was allied with the Labour party. In the U.S., Betty Friedan emerged from a radical background to take leadership. Radical Women is the oldest socialist feminist organization in the U.S. and is still active. During the Spanish Civil War, Dolores Ibárruri (La Pasionaria) led the Communist Party of Spain. Although she supported equal rights for women, she opposed women fighting on the front and clashed with the anarcha-feminist Mujeres Libres.
Fascism has been prescribed dubious stances on feminism by its practitioners and by women's groups. Amongst other demands concerning social reform presented in the Fascist manifesto in 1919 was expanding the suffrage to all Italian citizens of age 18 and above, including women (accomplished only in 1946, after the defeat of fascism) and eligibility for all to stand for office from age 25. This demand was particularly championed by special Fascist women's auxiliary groups such as the fasci femminilli and only partly realized in 1925, under pressure from Prime Minister Benito Mussolini's more conservative coalition partners.
Cyprian Blamires states that although feminists were among those who opposed the rise of Adolf Hitler, feminism has a complicated relationship with the Nazi movement as well. While Nazis glorified traditional notions of patriarchal society and its role for women, they claimed to recognize women's equality in employment. However, Hitler and Mussolini declared themselves as opposed to feminism, and after the rise of Nazism in Germany in 1933, there was a rapid dissolution of the political rights and economic opportunities that feminists had fought for during the pre-war period and to some extent during the 1920s. Georges Duby et al. note that in practice fascist society was hierarchical and emphasized male virility, with women maintaining a largely subordinate position. Blamires also notes that Neofascism has since the 1960s been hostile towards feminism and advocates that women accept "their traditional roles".
Civil rights movement and anti-racism
The civil rights movement has influenced and informed the feminist movement and vice versa. Many Western feminists adapted the language and theories of black equality activism and drew parallels between women's rights and the rights of non-white people. Despite the connections between the women's and civil rights movements, some tension arose during the late 1960s and early 1970s as non-white women argued that feminism was predominantly white and middle class, and did not understand and was not concerned with race issues. Similarly, some women argued that the civil rights movement had sexist elements and did not adequately address minority women's concerns. These criticisms created new feminist social theories about the intersections of racism, classism, and sexism, and new feminisms, such as black feminism and Chicana feminism.
Neoliberalism has been criticized by feminist theory for having a negative effect on the female workforce population across the globe, especially in the global south. Masculinist assumptions and objectives continue to dominate economic and geopolitical thinking.:177 Women's experiences in non-industrialized countries reveal often deleterious effects of modernization policies and undercut orthodox claims that development benefits everyone.:175
Proponents of neoliberalism have theorized that by increasing women's participation in the workforce, there will be heightened economic progress, but feminist critics have noted that this participation alone does not further equality in gender relations.:186–98 Neoliberalism has failed to address significant problems such as the devaluation of feminized labour, the structural privileging of men and masculinity, and the politicization of women's subordination in the family and the workplace.:176 The "feminization of employment" refers to a conceptual characterization of deteriorated and devalorized labour conditions that are less desirable, meaningful, safe and secure.:179 Employers in the global south have perceptions about feminine labour and seek workers who are perceived to be undemanding, docile and willing to accept low wages.:180 Social constructs about feminized labour have played a big part in this, for instance, employers often perpetuate ideas about women as 'secondary income earners to justify their lower rates of pay and not deserving of training or promotion.:189
The feminist movement has effected change in Western society, including women's suffrage; greater access to education; more nearly equitable pay with men; the right to initiate divorce proceedings; the right of women to make individual decisions regarding pregnancy (including access to contraceptives and abortion); and the right to own property.
From the 1960s on, the campaign for women's rights was met with mixed results in the U.S. and the U.K. Other countries of the EEC agreed to ensure that discriminatory laws would be phased out across the European Community.
Some feminist campaigning also helped reform attitudes to child sexual abuse. The view that young girls cause men to have sexual intercourse with them was replaced by that of men's responsibility for their own conduct, the men being adults.
In the U.S., the National Organization for Women (NOW) began in 1966 to seek women's equality, including through the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), which did not pass, although some states enacted their own. Reproductive rights in the U.S. centred on the court decision in Roe v. Wade enunciating a woman's right to choose whether to carry a pregnancy to term. Western women gained more reliable birth control, allowing family planning and careers. The movement started in the 1910s in the U.S. under Margaret Sanger and elsewhere under Marie Stopes. In the final three decades of the 20th century, Western women knew a new freedom through birth control, which enabled women to plan their adult lives, often making way for both career and family.
The division of labour within households was affected by the increased entry of women into workplaces in the 20th century. Sociologist Arlie Russell Hochschild found that, in two-career couples, men and women, on average, spend about equal amounts of time working, but women still spend more time on housework, although Cathy Young responded by arguing that women may prevent equal participation by men in housework and parenting. Judith K. Brown writes, "Women are most likely to make a substantial contribution when subsistence activities have the following characteristics: the participant is not obliged to be far from home; the tasks are relatively monotonous and do not require rapt concentration; and the work is not dangerous, can be performed in spite of interruptions, and is easily resumed once interrupted."
In international law, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is an international convention adopted by the United Nations General Assembly and described as an international bill of rights for women. It came into force in those nations ratifying it.
Feminist jurisprudence is a branch of jurisprudence that examines the relationship between women and law. It addresses questions about the history of legal and social biases against women and about the enhancement of their legal rights.
Feminist jurisprudence signifies a reaction to the philosophical approach of modern legal scholars, who typically see law as a process for interpreting and perpetuating a society's universal, gender-neutral ideals. Feminist legal scholars claim that this fails to acknowledge women's values or legal interests or the harms that they may anticipate or experience.
Proponents of gender-neutral language argue that the use of gender-specific language often implies male superiority or reflects an unequal state of society. According to The Handbook of English Linguistics, generic masculine pronouns and gender-specific job titles are instances "where English linguistic convention has historically treated men as prototypical of the human species."
Feminist theology is a movement that reconsiders the traditions, practices, scriptures, and theologies of religions from a feminist perspective. Some of the goals of feminist theology include increasing the role of women among the clergy and religious authorities, reinterpreting male-dominated imagery and language about God, determining women's place in relation to career and motherhood, and studying images of women in the religion's sacred texts.
Christian feminism is a branch of feminist theology which seeks to interpret and understand Christianity in light of the equality of women and men, and that this interpretation is necessary for a complete understanding of Christianity. While there is no standard set of beliefs among Christian feminists, most agree that God does not discriminate on the basis of sex, and are involved in issues such as the ordination of women, male dominance and the balance of parenting in Christian marriage, claims of moral deficiency and inferiority of women compared to men, and the overall treatment of women in the church. The Christian Bible refers to women in positions of authority in Judges 4:4 and Kings 22:14.[non-primary source needed]
Islamic feminists advocate women's rights, gender equality, and social justice grounded within an Islamic framework. Advocates seek to highlight the deeply rooted teachings of equality in the Quran and encourage a questioning of the patriarchal interpretation of Islamic teaching through the Quran, hadith (sayings of Muhammad), and sharia (law) towards the creation of a more equal and just society. Although rooted in Islam, the movement's pioneers have also utilized secular and Western feminist discourses and recognize the role of Islamic feminism as part of an integrated global feminist movement.
Buddhist feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Buddhism. It is an aspect of feminist theology which seeks to advance and understand the equality of men and women morally, socially, spiritually, and in leadership from a Buddhist perspective. The Buddhist feminist Rita Gross describes Buddhist feminism as "the radical practice of the co-humanity of women and men."
Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women. The main issues for early Jewish feminists in these movements were the exclusion from the all-male prayer group or minyan, the exemption from positive time-bound mitzvot, and women's inability to function as witnesses and to initiate divorce. Many Jewish women have become leaders of feminist movements throughout their history.
Secular or atheist feminists have engaged in feminist criticism of religion, arguing that many religions have oppressive rules towards women and misogynistic themes and elements in religious texts.
Patriarchy is a social system in which society is organized around male authority figures. In this system fathers have authority over women, children, and property. It implies the institutions of male rule and privilege, and is dependent on female subordination. Most forms of feminism characterize patriarchy as an unjust social system that is oppressive to women. Carole Pateman argues that the patriarchal distinction "between masculinity and femininity is the political difference between freedom and subjection." In feminist theory the concept of patriarchy often includes all the social mechanisms that reproduce and exert male dominance over women. Feminist theory typically characterizes patriarchy as a social construction, which can be overcome by revealing and critically analyzing its manifestations. Some radical feminists have proposed that because patriarchy is too deeply rooted in society, separatism is the only viable solution. Other feminists have criticized these views as being anti-men.
Men and masculinity
Feminist theory has explored the social construction of masculinity and its implications for the goal of gender equality. The social construct of masculinity is seen by feminism as problematic because it associates males with aggression and competition, and reinforces patriarchal and unequal gender relations. Patriarchal cultures are criticized for "limiting forms of masculinity" available to men and thus narrowing their life choices. Some feminists are engaged with men's issues activism, such as bringing attention to male rape and spousal battery and addressing negative social expectations for men.
Male participation in feminism is encouraged by feminists and is seen as an important strategy for achieving full societal commitment to gender equality. Many male feminists and pro-feminists are active in both women's rights activism, feminist theory, and masculinity studies. However, some argue that while male engagement with feminism is necessary, it is problematic because of the ingrained social influences of patriarchy in gender relations. The consensus today in feminist and masculinity theories is that both genders can and should cooperate to achieve the larger goals of feminism. It has been proposed that, in large part, this can be achieved through considerations of women's agency.
Different groups of people have responded to feminism, and both men and women have been among its supporters and critics. Among American university students, for both men and women, support for feminist ideas is more common than self-identification as a feminist. The US media tends to portray feminism negatively and feminists "are less often associated with day-to-day work/leisure activities of regular women." However, as recent research has demonstrated, as people are exposed to self-identified feminists and to discussions relating to various forms of feminism, their own self-identification with feminism increases. Roy Baumeister has criticized feminists who "look only at the top of society and draw conclusions about society as a whole. Yes, there are mostly men at the top. But if you look at the bottom, really at the bottom, you'll find mostly men there, too."
Pro-feminism is the support of feminism without implying that the supporter is a member of the feminist movement. The term is most often used in reference to men who are actively supportive of feminism. The activities of pro-feminist men's groups include anti-violence work with boys and young men in schools, offering sexual harassment workshops in workplaces, running community education campaigns, and counselling male perpetrators of violence. Pro-feminist men also may be involved in men's health, activism against pornography including anti-pornography legislation, men's studies, and the development of gender equity curricula in schools. This work is sometimes in collaboration with feminists and women's services, such as domestic violence and rape crisis centres.
Anti-feminism and criticism of feminism
Anti-feminism is opposition to feminism in some or all of its forms.
In the nineteenth century, anti-feminism was mainly focused on opposition to women's suffrage. Later, opponents of women's entry into institutions of higher learning argued that education was too great a physical burden on women. Other anti-feminists opposed women's entry into the labour force, or their right to join unions, to sit on juries, or to obtain birth control and control of their sexuality.
Some people have opposed feminism on the grounds that they believe it is contrary to traditional values or religious beliefs. These anti-feminists argue, for example, that social acceptance of divorce and non-married women is wrong and harmful, and that men and women are fundamentally different and thus their different traditional roles in society should be maintained. Other anti-feminists oppose women's entry into the workforce, political office, and the voting process, as well as the lessening of male authority in families.
Writers such as Camille Paglia, Christina Hoff Sommers, Jean Bethke Elshtain, Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, Lisa Lucile Owens and Daphne Patai oppose some forms of feminism, though they identify as feminists. They argue, for example, that feminism often promotes misandry and the elevation of women's interests above men's, and criticize radical feminist positions as harmful to both men and women. Daphne Patai and Noretta Koertge argue that the term "anti-feminist" is used to silence academic debate about feminism. Lisa Lucile Owens argues that certain rights extended exclusively to women are patriarchal because they relieve women from exercising a crucial aspect of their moral agency.
- Hawkesworth, Mary E. (2006). Globalization and Feminist Activism. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 25–27. ISBN 9780742537835.
- Beasley, Chris (1999). What is Feminism?. New York: Sage. pp. 3–11. ISBN 9780761963356.
- Echols, Alice (1989). Daring to Be Bad: Radical Feminism in America, 1967–1975. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-1787-2.
- Messer-Davidow, Ellen (2002). Disciplining Feminism: From Social Activism to Academic Discourse. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-2843-7.
- hooks, bell (2000). Feminism Is for Everybody: Passionate Politics. Cambridge, Mass.: South End Press. ISBN 0-89608-629-1.
- Chodorow, Nancy (1989). Feminism and Psychoanalytic Theory. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-05116-2.
- Gilligan, Carol (1977). "In a Different Voice: Women's Conceptions of Self and of Morality". Harvard Educational Review. 47 (4): 481–517. Retrieved 8 June 2008.
- Weedon, Chris (2002). "Key Issues in Postcolonial Feminism: A Western Perspective". Gender Forum (1).
- Goldstein, Leslie F. (1982). "Early Feminist Themes in French Utopian Socialism: The St.-Simonians and Fourier". Journal of the History of Ideas. 43 (1): 91–108. doi:10.2307/2709162. JSTOR 2709162.
- Dutch feminist pioneer Mina Kruseman in a letter to Alexandre Dumas – in: Maria Grever, Strijd tegen de stilte. Johanna Naber (1859–1941) en de vrouwenstem in geschiedenis (Hilversum 1994) ISBN 90-6550-395-1, p. 31
- Offen, Karen (1987). "Sur l'origine des mots 'féminisme' et 'féministe'". Revue d'histoire moderne et contemporaine (1954–). 34 (3): 492–96. JSTOR 20529317.
- Cott, Nancy F. (1987). The Grounding of Modern Feminism. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0300042283.
- "feminist". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. 2012. (Subscription required (. ))
An advocate or supporter of the rights and equality of women. 1852: De Bow's Review ('Our attention has happened to fall upon Mrs. E. O. Smith, who is, we are informed, among the most moderate of the feminist reformers!')
- "feminism". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. 2012. (Subscription required (. ))
Advocacy of equality of the sexes and the establishment of the political, social, and economic rights of the female sex; the movement associated with this.
- Spender, Dale (1983). There's Always Been a Women's Movement this Century. London: Pandora Press. pp. 1–200.
- Lerner, Gerda (1993). The Creation of Feminist Consciousness From the Middle Ages to Eighteen-seventy. Oxford University Press. pp. 1–20.
- Walters, Margaret (2005). Feminism: A very short introduction. Oxford University. pp. 1–176. ISBN 0-19-280510-X.
- Kinnaird, Joan; Astell, Mary (1983). "Inspired by ideas (1668–1731)". In Spender, Dale. There's always been a women's movement. London: Pandora Press. pp. 29–.
- Witt, Charlotte (2006). "Feminist History of Philosophy". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
- Allen, Ann Taylor (1999). "Feminism, Social Science, and the Meanings of Modernity: The Debate on the Origin of the Family in Europe and the United States, 1860–1914". The American Historical Review. 104 (4): 1085–113. doi:10.1086/ahr/104.4.1085. JSTOR 2649562. PMID 19291893.
- Botting, Eileen Hunt; Houser, Sarah L. (2006). "'Drawing the Line of Equality': Hannah Mather Crocker on Women's Rights". The American Political Science Review. 100 (2): 265–78. doi:10.1017/S0003055406062150. JSTOR 27644349.
- Humm, Maggie. 1995. The Dictionary of Feminist Theory. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, p. 251
- Walker, Rebecca (January–February 1992). "Becoming the Third Wave". Ms.: 39–41.
- Krolokke, Charlotte; Sorensen, Anne Scott (2005). "Three Waves of Feminism: From Suffragettes to Grrls". Gender Communication Theories and Analyses: From Silence to Performance. Sage. p. 24. ISBN 0-7619-2918-5.
- Wroath, John (1998). Until They Are Seven, The Origins of Women's Legal Rights. Waterside Press. ISBN 1 872 870 57 0.
- Mitchell, L. G. (1997). Lord Melbourne, 1779–1848. Oxford University Press.
- Perkins, Jane Gray (1909). The Life of the Honourable Mrs. Norton. John Murray.
- "Married Women's Property Act 1882". legislation.gov.uk. UK Government. 1882. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
- Freedman, Estelle B. (2003). No Turning Back : The History of Feminism and the Future of Women. Ballantine Books. p. 464. ISBN 0-345-45053-1.
- "Votes for Women Electoral Commission". Elections New Zealand. 13 April 2005. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- "Women and the right to vote in Australia". Australian Electoral Commission. 28 January 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
- Phillips, Melanie (2004). The Ascent of Woman: A History of the Suffragette Movement and the Ideas Behind it. London: Abacus. pp. 1–370. ISBN 978-0-349-11660-0.
- Warner, Marina (14 June 1999). "Emmeline Pankhurst – Time 100 People of the Century". Time Magazine.
- Ruether, Rosemary Radford (2012). Women and Redemption: A Theological History (2nd ed.). Minneapolis: Fortress Press. pp. 112–18, 136–39. ISBN 0-8006-9816-9.
- DuBois, Ellen Carol (1997). Harriot Stanton Blatch and the Winning of Woman Suffrage. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-06562-0.
- Flexner, Eleanor (1996). Century of Struggle: The Woman's Rights Movement in the United States. The Belknap Press. pp. xxviii–xxx. ISBN 978-0-674-10653-6.
- Wheeler, Marjorie W. (1995). One Woman, One Vote: Rediscovering the Woman Suffrage Movement. Troutdale, OR: NewSage Press. p. 127. ISBN 0-939165-26-0.
- Stevens, Doris; O'Hare, Carol (1995). Jailed for Freedom: American Women Win the Vote. Troutdale, OR: NewSage Press. pp. 1–388. ISBN 0-939165-25-2.
- Ko, Dorothy; Haboush, JaHyun Kim; Piggott, Joan R. (2003). Women and Confucian cultures in premodern China, Korea, and Japan. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23138-4.[page needed]
- Ma, Yuxin (2010). Women journalists and feminism in China, 1898–1937. Cambria Press. ISBN 1-60497-660-8.[page needed]
- Farris, Catherine S.; Lee, Anru; Rubinstein, Murray A. (2004). Women in the new Taiwan: gender roles and gender consciousness in a changing society. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-0814-6.[page needed]
- Dooling, Amy D. (2005). Women's literary feminism in 20th-century China. Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6733-4.[page needed]
- Stange, Mary Zeiss; Oyster, Carol K.; Sloan, Jane E. (2011). Encyclopedia of Women in Today's World. SAGE. pp. 79–81. ISBN 1-4129-7685-5.
- Golley, Nawar Al-Hassan (2003). Reading Arab women's autobiographies: Shahrazad tells her story. University of Texas Press. pp. 30–50. ISBN 0-292-70545-X.
- Ettehadieh, Mansoureh (2004). "The Origins and Development of the Women's Movement in Iran, 1906–41". In Beck, Lois; Nashat, Guity. Women in Iran from 1800 to the Islamic Republic. University of Illinois Press. pp. 85–106. ISBN 978-0-252-07189-8.
- Gheytanchi, Elham (2000). "Chronology of Events Regarding Women in Iran since the Revolution of 1979". In Mack, Arien. Iran since the Revolution. Social Research, Volume 67, No. 2.
- Bard, Christine (May–June 2007). "Les premières femmes au Gouvernement (France, 1936–1981)" [First Women in Government (France, 1936–1981)]. Histoire@Politique (in French) (1).
- "The Long Way to Women's Right to Vote in Switzerland: a Chronology". History-switzerland.geschichte-schweiz.ch. Retrieved 2011-01-08.
- "United Nations press release of a meeting of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), issued on 14 January 2003". Un.org. Retrieved 2011-09-02.
- Guillaumin, Colette (1994). Racism, Sexism, Power, and Ideology. pp. 193–95.
- Meltzer, Françoise (1995). Hot Property: The Stakes and Claims of Literary Originality. p. 88.
- Allison, Julie A. (1995). Rape: The Misunderstood Crime. p. 89.
- Bland, Lucy (2002). Banishing the Beast: Feminism, Sex and Morality. pp. 135–49. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
- Palczewski, Catherine Helen (1995-10-01). "Voltairine de Cleyre: Sexual Slavery and Sexual Pleasure in the Nineteenth Century". NWSA Journal. 7 (3): 54–68 . ISSN 1040-0656. JSTOR 4316402.
- Crowell, Nancy A.; Burgess, Ann W. (1997). Understanding Violence Against Women. p. 127.
- Bergoffen, Debra (16 August 2010) [17 August 2004]. "Simone de Beauvoir". Metaphysics Research Lab, CSLI, Stanford University. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- Whelehan, Imelda (1995). Modern Feminist Thought: From the Second Wave to 'Post-Feminism'. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 25–43. ISBN 978-0-7486-0621-4.
- Hanisch, Carol (1 January 2006). "Hanisch, New Intro to 'The Personal is Political' – Second Wave and Beyond". The Personal Is Political. Archived from the original on 15 May 2008. Retrieved 8 June 2008.
- Badran, Margot (1996). Feminists, Islam, and nation: gender and the making of modern Egypt. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-02605-X.[page needed]
- Smith, Bonnie G. (2000). Global feminisms since 1945. Psychology Press. ISBN 0-415-18491-6.
- "'Islamic feminism means justice to women'". The Mili Gazette. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- Parpart, Jane L.; Connelly, M. Patricia; Connelly, Patricia; Barriteau, V. Eudine; Barriteau, Eudine (2000). Theoretical Perspectives on Gender and Development. Ottawa, Canada: International Development Research Centre. p. 215. ISBN 0-88936-910-0.
- Hunt, Michael (2016). The World Transformed. New York City: Oxford. pp. 220–223. ISBN 978-0-19-937102-0.
- Holt, Douglas; Cameron, Douglas (2010). Cultural Strategy: Using Innovative Ideologies to Build Breakthrough Brands. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-958740-7.
- Henry, Astrid (2004). Not my mother's sister: generational conflict and third-wave feminism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. pp. 1–288. ISBN 978-0-253-21713-4.
- Gillis, Stacy; Howie, Gillian; Munford, Rebecca (2007). Third wave feminism: a critical exploration. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. xxviii, 275–76. ISBN 978-0-230-52174-2.
- Faludi, Susan (1992). Backlash: the undeclared war against women. London: Vintage. ISBN 978-0-09-922271-2.[page needed]
- Walker, Alice (1983). In Search of Our Mothers' Gardens: Womanist Prose. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. p. 397. ISBN 0-15-144525-7.
- Leslie, Heywood; Drake, Jennifer (1997). Third Wave Agenda: Being Feminist, Doing Feminism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-3005-4.[page needed]
- Gilligan, Carol (1993). In a different voice: psychological theory and women's development. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. p. 184. ISBN 0-674-44544-9.
- "standpoint theory | feminism". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
- Hill Collins, P. (2000). Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. New York: Routledge. pp. 1–335.
- Harding, Sandra (2003). The Feminist Standpoint Theory Reader: Intellectual and Political Controversies. London: Routledge. pp. 1–16, 67–80. ISBN 978-0-415-94501-1.
- Wright, Elizabeth (2000). Lacan and Postfeminism (Postmodern Encounters). Totem Books. ISBN 1-84046-182-9.
- Modleski, Tania (1991). Feminism without women: culture and criticism in a 'postfeminist' age. New York: Routledge. p. 188. ISBN 0-415-90416-1.
- Jones, Amelia (1994). "Postfeminism, Feminist Pleasures, and Embodied Theories of Art". In Frueh, Joana; Langer, Cassandra L.; Raven, Arlene. New Feminist Criticism: Art, Identity, Action. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 16–41, 20.
- Chunn, D. (2007). "Take it easy girls": Feminism, equality, and social change in the media. In D. Chunn, S. Boyd, & H. Lessard (Eds.), Reaction and resistance: Feminism, law, and social change (pp. 31). Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.
- Zajko, Vanda; Leonard, Miriam (2006). Laughing with Medusa: classical myth and feminist thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 445. ISBN 0-19-927438-X.
- Howe, Mica; Aguiar, Sarah Appleton (2001). He said, she says: an RSVP to the male text. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 292. ISBN 0-8386-3915-1.
- Pollock, Griselda (2007). Encounters in the Virtual Feminist Museum: Time, Space and the Archive. Routledge. pp. 1–262.
- Ettinger, Bracha; Judith Butler; Brian Massumi; Griselda Pollock (2006). The matrixial borderspace. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. p. 245. ISBN 0-8166-3587-0.
- Brabeck, M. and Brown, L. (With Christian, L., Espin, O., Hare-Mustin, R., Kaplan, A., Kaschak, E., Miller, D., Phillips, E., Ferns, T., and Van Ormer, A.). (1997). Feminist theory and psychological practice. In J. Worell and N. Johnson (Eds.) Shaping the future of feminist psychology: Education, research, and practice (pp.15–35). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
- Florence, Penny; Foster, Nicola (2001). Differential aesthetics: art practices, philosophy and feminist understandings. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate. p. 360. ISBN 0-7546-1493-X.
- Showalter, Elaine (1979). "Towards a Feminist Poetics". In Jacobus, M. Women Writing about Women. Croom Helm. pp. 25–36. ISBN 978-0-85664-745-1.
- Ettinger, Bracha, 'The Matrixial Borderspace'. (Essays from 1994–99), University of Minnesota Press 2006. ISBN 0-8166-3587-0.
- Kristeva, Julia; Moi, Toril (1986). The Kristeva reader. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 328. ISBN 0-231-06325-3.
- E.g., Owens, Lisa Lucile (2003). "Coerced Parenthood as Family Policy: Feminism, the Moral Agency of Women, and Men's 'Right to Choose'". Alabama Civil Rights & Civil Liberties Law Review. 5: 1. SSRN .
- Catherine Rottenberg, "The Rise of Neoliberal Feminism", Cultural Studies. (2014) Vol. 28 (3), pgs. 424
- "Liberal Feminism". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
- Biehl, Janet (1991). Rethinking eco-feminist politics. Cambridge, Mass.: South End Press. ISBN 978-0-89608-392-9.
- Hennessy, Rosemary; Ingraham, Chrys (1997). Materialist feminism: a reader in class, difference, and women's lives. London: Routledge. pp. 1–13. ISBN 978-0-415-91634-9.
- Bottomore, T.B. (1991). A Dictionary of Marxist thought. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 215. ISBN 978-0-631-18082-1.
- Barbara Ehrenreich. "What is Socialist Feminism?". feministezine.com. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
- Dunbar-Ortiz, Roxanne (2002). Quiet Rumours. AK Press. pp. 11–13. ISBN 978-1-902593-40-1.
- Ahmed, Sarta (2000). Transformations: thinking through feminism. London: Routledge. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-415-22066-8.
- Narayan, Uma (1997). Dislocating Cultures: Identities, Traditions, and Third-World Feminism. New York: Routledge. pp. 20–28, 113, 161–87. ISBN 0-415-91418-3.
- Ogunyemi, Chikwenye Okonjo (1985). "Womanism: The Dynamics of the Contemporary Black Female Novel in English". Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. 11 (1): 63–80. doi:10.1086/494200. JSTOR 3174287.
- Kolawole, Mary Ebun Modupe (1997). Womanism and African Consciousness. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press. p. 216. ISBN 0-86543-540-5.
- Obianuju Acholonu, Catherine (1995). Motherism: The Afrocentric Alternative to Feminism. Afa Publ. p. 144. ISBN 978-31997-1-4.
- Ogundipe-Leslie, Molara (1994). Re-creating Ourselves: African Women & Critical Transformations. Africa World Press. p. 262. ISBN 0-86543-412-3.
- Nnaemeka, Obioma (1995). "Feminism, Rebellious Women, and Cultural Boundaries: Rereading Flora Nwapa and Her Compatriots". Research in African Literatures. 26 (2): 80–113. JSTOR 3820273.
- Hudson-Weems, Clenora (1994). Africana Womanism: Reclaiming Ourselves. Troy, Mich.: Bedford Publishers. p. 158. ISBN 0-911557-11-3.
- Butler, Judith (1999). Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-92499-3.
- West, Candace; Zimmerman, Don H. (June 1987), "Doing Gender", Gender and Society, 1 (2): 26, doi:10.1177/0891243287001002002
- Benhabib, Seyla (1995), "From Identity Politics to Social Feminism: A Plea for the Nineties", Philosophy of Education, 1 (2): 14
- Randall, Vicky (2010). "'Feminism'". In Marsh, David; Stoker, Gerry. Theory and Methods in Political Science. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillian. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-415-92499-3.
- Abbott, Pamela; Wallace, Claire; Tyler, Melissa (1996). An Introduction to Sociology: Feminist Perspectives (2nd ed.). London: Routledge. p. 380. ISBN 978-1-134-38245-3.
- Rowe-Finkbeiner, Kristin (2004). The F-Word: Feminism In Jeopardy – Women, Politics and the Future. Seal Press. ISBN 1-58005-114-6.
- Rosenberg, Jessica; Gitana Garofalo (Spring 1998). "Riot Grrrl: Revolutions from within". Signs. 23 (3 – Feminisms and Youth Cultures): 809. doi:10.1086/495289. JSTOR 3175311.
- Code, Lorraine (2004). Encyclopedia of Feminist Theories. London: Routledge. p. 560. ISBN 0-415-30885-2.
- Scanlon, Jennifer (2009). Bad girls go everywhere: the life of Helen Gurley Brown. Oxford University Press. pp. 94–111. ISBN 0-19-534205-4.
- Hollows, Joanne; Moseley, Rachel (2006). Feminism in popular culture. Berg Publishers. p. 84. ISBN 978-1-84520-223-1.
- Allum, Cynthia (9 April 2015). "82 percent of Americans don't consider themselves feminists, poll shows". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 August 2016.
- Clark, Julia (2014). "Can Men Be Feminists Too? Half (48%) of Men in 15 Country Survey Seem to Think So". Retrieved 26 August 2016.
- Duggan, Lisa; Hunter, Nan D. (1995). Sex wars: sexual dissent and political culture. New York: Routledge. pp. 1–14. ISBN 0-415-91036-6.
- Hansen, Karen Tranberg; Philipson, Ilene J. (1990). Women, class, and the feminist imagination: a socialist-feminist reader. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. ISBN 0-87722-630-X.
- Gerhard, Jane F. (2001). Desiring revolution: second-wave feminism and the rewriting of American sexual thought, 1920 to 1982. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11204-1.
- Leidholdt, Dorchen; Raymond, Janice G. (1990). The Sexual liberals and the attack on feminism. New York: Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-037457-3.
- Vance, Carole S. Pleasure and Danger: Exploring Female Sexuality. Thorsons Publishers. ISBN 0-04-440593-6.
- McBride, Andrew. "Lesbian History".
- O'Neill, Maggie (2001). Prostitution and Feminism. Cambridge: Polity Press. pp. 14–16.
- Rohana Ariffin; Women's Crisis Centre (Pinang, Malaysia) (1997). Shame, secrecy, and silence: study on rape in Penang. Women's Crisis Centre. ISBN 978-983-99348-0-9. Retrieved 1 October 2011.
- Bennett L, Manderson L, Astbury J. Mapping a global pandemic: review of current literature on rape, sexual assault and sexual harassment of women. University of Melbourne, 2000.
- Jewkes R, Abrahams N (2002). "The epidemiology of rape and sexual coercion in South Africa: an overview". Social science & medicine (1982). 55 (7): 1231–44. doi:10.1016/s0277-9536(01)00242-8. PMID 12365533.
- Sen P. Ending the presumption of consent: nonconsensual sex in marriage. London, Centre for Health and Gender Equity, 1999
- Jeffries, Stuart (2006-04-12). "Stuart Jeffries talks to leading feminist Catharine MacKinnon". The Guardian. London.
- Harding, Sandra (1989). "Is There a Feminist Method". In Nancy Tuana. Feminism & Science. Indiana University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-253-20525-4.
- Hubbard, Ruth (1990). The Politics of Women's Biology. Rutgers University Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-8135-1490-8.
- Lindlof, Thomas R.; Taylor, Bryan C. (2002). Qualitative Communication Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications. p. 357. ISBN 978-0-7619-2493-7.
- Holloway, Marguerite (26 September 2005). "The Beauty of Branes". Scientific American. Nature America. p. 2. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- Hankinson Nelson, Lynn (1990). Who Knows: from Quine To a Feminist Empiricism. Temple University Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-87722-647-5.
- Cortina, L. M.; Curtin, N.; Stewart, A. J. (2012). "Where Is Social Structure in Personality Research? A Feminist Analysis of Publication Trends". Psychology of Women Quarterly. 36 (3): 259–73. doi:10.1177/0361684312448056.
- Hankinson Nelson, Lynn (1997). Feminism, Science, and the Philosophy of Science. Springer. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-7923-4611-1.
- Anderson, Elizabeth (2011). Edward N. Zalta, ed. "Feminist Epistemology and Philosophy of Science". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2011). Retrieved 6 December 2011.
- Code, Lorraine (2000). Encyclopedia of feminist theories. Taylor & Francis. p. 89. ISBN 0-415-13274-6.
- Bern, Sandra L., The lenses of gender: transforming the debate on sexual inequality, Yale University Press, 1993, ISBN 0-300-05676-1, p. 6.
- Fausto-Sterling, Anne (1992). Myths of Gender: Biological Theories About Women and Men. New York, New York: BasicBooks. ISBN 0-465-04792-0.
- Fine, Cordelia (2010). Delusions of Gender: How Our Minds, Society, and Neurosexism Create Difference. W. W. Norton & Company.[page needed]
- Worell, Judith (September 2000). "Feminism in Psychology: Revolution or Evolution?" (PDF). The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 571: 183–96. doi:10.1177/0002716200571001013. JSTOR 1049142. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- "Psychology's Feminist Voices". Psychology's Feminist Voices. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- Mathur, Piyush (1998). "The archigenderic territories: Mansfield park and a handful of dust". Women's Writing. 5 (1): 71–81. doi:10.1080/09699089800200034.
- Echols (1989), pp. 269–278.
- Hogan, Kristen (2016). The Feminist Bookstore Movement: Lesbian Antiracism and Feminist Accountability. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press.
- Blake Gopnik (22 April 2007). "What Is Feminist Art?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
- Hoban, Phoebe (December 2009). "The Feminist Evolution". ARTnews. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- Ferrando, Francesca (2016). "A feminist genealogy of posthuman aesthetics in the visual arts". Palgrave Communications. 2 (16011). doi:10.1057/palcomms.2016.11. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
- Blain, Virginia; Clements, Patricia; Grundy, Isobel (1990). The feminist companion to literature in English: women writers from the Middle Ages to the present. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. vii–x. ISBN 0-300-04854-8.
- Gilbert, Sandra M. (4 May 1986). "Paperbacks: From Our Mothers' Libraries: women who created the novel". The New York Times.
- Buck, Claire, ed. (1992). The Bloomsbury Guide to Women's Literature. Prentice Hall. p. vix.
- Salzman, Paul (2000). "Introduction". Early Modern Women's Writing. Oxford UP. pp. ix–x.
- Term coined by Ellen Moers in Literary Women: The Great Writers (New York: Doubleday, 1976). See also Juliann E. Fleenor, ed., The Female Gothic (Montreal: Eden Press, 1983) and Gary Kelly, ed., Varieties of Female Gothic 6 Vols. (London: Pickering & Chatto, 2002).
- Helford, Elyce Rae (2005). "Feminist Science Fiction". In Westfahl, Gary. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy. Greenwood Press. pp. 289–291. ISBN 0-300-04854-8.
- Lips, Hilary M. (1990). "Using Science Fiction to Teach the Psychology of Sex and Gender". Teaching of Psychology. 17 (3): 197–98. doi:10.1207/s15328023top1703_17.
- Lont, Cynthia (1992). "Women's Music: No Longer a Small Private Party". In Garofalo, Reebee. Rockin' the Boat: Mass Music & Mass Movements. Cambridge, MA: South End Press. p. 242. ISBN 0-89608-427-2.
- Peraino, Judith A. (2001). "Girls with guitars and other strange stories". Journal of the American Musicological Society. 54 (3): 692–709. doi:10.1525/jams.2001.54.3.692.
- Mosbacher, Dee (2002). Radical Harmonies – A Woman Vision Film. OCLC 53071762.
- Beard, David; Gload, Kenneth. 2005. Musicology : The Key Concepts. London and New York: Routledge.
- Duchen, Jessica (28 February 2015). "Why the male domination of classical music might be coming to an end". The Guardian.
- Ncube, Rosina (September 2013). "Sounding Off: Why So Few Women in Audio?". Sound on Sound.
- Hayward S, Cinema Studies – The Key Concepts 3rd ed. Routledge 2006;134–5.
- Erens P, Issues in Feminist Film Criticism. Wiley & Sons 1991;270.
- Kuhn, A.; Radstone, S., eds. (1990). Women's Companion to International Film. Virago. p. 153.
- Derr, Holly L. (13 November 2013). "What really makes a feminist film?". The Atlantic.
- Giannetti L, Understanding Movies, 7th ed. Prentice-Hall 1996;416.
- "Assessing the Gender Gap in the Film Industry".
- Badia, Gilbert (1994). Zetkin. Femminista senza frontiere. University of Michigan. p. 320. ISBN 88-85378-53-6.
- Duby, Georges; Perrot, Michelle; Schmitt Pantel, Pauline (1994). A history of women in the West. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 600. ISBN 0-674-40369-X.
- The Radical Women Manifesto: Socialist Feminist Theory, Program and Organizational Structure. Seattle, WA: Red Letter Press. 2001. ISBN 0-932323-11-1.
- Ibárruri, Dolores (1938). Speeches & Articles, 1936–1938. University of Michigan. p. 263.
- Hägg, Göran (2008). Mussolini: En studie i makt [A study in power] (in Swedish). Stockholm: Norstedt. ISBN 978-91-1-301949-9.
- Passmore, Kevin (2003). Women, Gender and Fascism in Europe, 1919–45. Piscataway, N.J.: Rutgers Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-3308-7.
- Blamires, Cyprian. World Fascism: A Historical Encyclopedia. 1. ABC-CLIO. pp. 232–33. ISBN 978-1-57607-940-9.
- Levy, Peter (1998). The Civil Rights Movement. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-29854-8.
- Code, Lorraine (2000). "Civil rights". Encyclopedia of Feminist Theories. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-13274-6.
- Roth, Benita (2004). Separate Roads to Feminism: Black, Chicana, and White feminist movements in America's second wave. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-52972-7.
- Winddance Twine, France; Blee, Kathleen M. (2001). Feminism and Antiracism: International struggles for justice. NYU Press. ISBN 0-8147-9855-1.[page needed]
- Peterson, V. Spike (2014). "International/Global Political Economy". In Shepherd, Laura J. Gender Matters in Global Politics (2 ed.). Routledge.
- Elias, Juanita; Ferguson, Lucy (2014). "Production, Employment, and Consumption". In Shepherd, Laura J. Gender Matters in Global Politics. Routledge.
- Lockwood, Bert B. (2006). Women's Rights: A Human Rights Quarterly Reader. The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8374-3.
- "FROM SUFFRAGE TO WOMEN'S LIBERATION: FEMINISM IN TWENTIETH CENTURY AMERICA by Jo Freeman".
- Rush, Florence (1988). The Best Kept Secret: Sexual Abuse of Children. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0070542236.
- "The National Organization for Women's 1966 Statement of Purpose".
- "Margaret Sanger".
- Hochschild, Arlie Russell; Machung, Anne (2003). The Second Shift. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-200292-6.
- Hochschild, Arlie Russell (2001). The Time Bind: When Work Becomes Home and Home Becomes Work. New York: Henry Holt & Co. ISBN 978-0-8050-6643-2.
- Young, Cathy. "The Mama Lion at the Gate". Salon.com. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- Brown, Judith K. (October 1970). "A Note on the Division of Labor by Sex". American Anthropologist. 72 (5). pp. 1073–78. Retrieved 2015-03-17.
- "Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women New York, 18 December 1979". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- Garner, Bryan, ed. (2014). Black's Law Dictionary (10th ed.). St. Paul, Minn.: Thomson Reuters. p. 985. ISBN 978-0-314-61300-4.
Feminist jurisprudence examines ... the history of legal and social biases against women, the elimination of those biases in modern law, and the enhancement of women's legal rights and recognition [status] in society.
- Minda, Gary (1995). Postmodern Legal Movements: Law and Jurisprudence at Century's End. N.Y.C.: NYU Press. pp. 129–30. ISBN 978-0814755105.
Feminist legal scholars, despite their differences, appear united in claiming that 'masculine' jurisprudence ... fails to acknowledge, let alone respond to, the interests, values, fears, and harms experienced by women.
- Miller, Casey; Swift, Kate (1988). The Handbook of Nonsexist Writing. N.Y.C.: Harper & Row. pp. 45, 64, 66. ISBN 0061816027.
- Aarts, Bas; McMahon, April, eds. (2006). The Handbook of English Linguistics. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell. ISBN 978-1405113823.
- Bundesen, Lynne. The Feminine Spirit: Recapturing the Heart of Scripture. Jossey-Bass. ISBN 978-0-7879-8495-3.
- Haddad, Mimi (2006). "Egalitarian Pioneers: Betty Friedan or Catherine Booth?" (PDF). Priscilla Papers. 20 (4).
- Anderson, Pamela Sue; Clack, Beverley (2004). Feminist philosophy of religion: critical readings. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-25749-2.
- Judges 4:4
- 2 Kings 22:14
- Badran, Margot (17–23 January 2002). "Islamic Feminism: What's in a Name?". Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- Catalonian Islamic Board (24–27 October 2008). "II International Congress on Islamic Feminism". feminismeislamic.org. Archived from the original on 14 January 2007. Retrieved 9 July 2008.
- Gross, Rita M. (1992). Buddhism After Patriarchy: A Feminist History, Analysis, and Reconstruction of Buddhism. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. p. 127. ISBN 0-7914-1403-5. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
- Plaskow, Judith (2003). "Jewish Feminist Thought". In Frank, Daniel H. History of Jewish philosophy. Leaman, Oliver. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-32469-6.
- Marjorie Ingall (November 18, 2005). "Why are there so many Jewish feminists?". Forward Magazine. Retrieved May 31, 2015.
- Wisdom's Feast: Sophia in Study and Celebration, p. 9, Susan Cole, Marian Ronan, Hal Taussig. 1996
- Gaylor, Annie Laurie, Woe to the Women: The Bible Tells Me So, Freedom From Religion Foundation, Inc. (1 July 1981) ISBN 1-877733-02-4
- Ali, Ayaan Hirsi The Caged Virgin: A Muslim Woman's Cry for Reason, Free Press 2004, ISBN 978-0-7432-8833-0
- Miles, Rosalind, Who cooked the Last Supper?,Random House Digital, Inc., 2001, ISBN 0-609-80695-5
- Encyclopedia of sex and gender. Detroit, Mich.: Macmillan Reference. 2007.
- Pateman, Carole (1988). The Sexual Contract, Stanford: Stanford University Press, p. 207.
- Tickner, Ann J. (2001). "Patriarchy". Routledge Encyclopedia of International Political Economy: Entries PZ. Taylor & Francis. pp. 1197–98. ISBN 978-0-415-24352-0.
- Sarah Hoagland, Lesbian Ethics: toward new value
- Friedan, Betty. The Second Stage: With a New Introduction. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1981 1986 1991 1998, 1st Harvard Univ. Press pbk. ed. (ISBN 0-674-79655-1) 1998.
- Bullough, Vern L. Human sexuality: an encyclopedia, Taylor & Francis, 1994, ISBN 0-8240-7972-8
- Echols 1989, p. 78 & n. 124 ("124. Interview with Cindy Cisler.") and see p. 119
- Tong, Rosemarie Putnam (1998). Feminist Thought: A More Comprehensive Introduction (2nd ed.). Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. p. 70. ISBN 0-8133-3295-8.
- Gardiner, Judith Kegan (2002). Masculinity studies and feminist theory. Columbia University Press. pp. 96, 153. ISBN 0-231-12278-0.
- Uviller, Rena K. (1978). "Fathers' Rights and Feminism: The Maternal Presumption Revisited". Harv. Women's L.J.: 107.
- Shanley, Mary (January 1995). "Unwed fathers' rights, adoption, and sex equality: Gender-neutrality and the perpetuation of patriarchy". Columbia Law Review. 95: 60–103. doi:10.2307/1123127. JSTOR 1123127.
- Levit, Nancy (1996). "Feminism for Men: Legal Ideology and the Construction of Maleness". UCLA Law Review. 43 (4). SSRN .
- Digby, Tom (1998). Men Doing Feminism. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-91625-7.
- Phillips, Layli, The Womanist reader, CRC Press, 2006, ISBN 0-415-95411-8
- Jardine, Alice, Paul Smith, Men in feminism , ISBN 0-415-90251-7
- Owens, Lisa Lucile (May 2014). "Coerced parenthood as family policy: feminism, the moral agency of women, and men's 'Right to Choose'". Alabama Civil Rights & Civil Liberties Law Review. University of Alabama School of Law. 5 (1). SSRN .
- Zucker, Alyssa N. (2004). "Disavowing Social Identities: What It Means when Women Say, 'I'm Not a Feminist, but ...'". Psychology of Women Quarterly. 28 (4): 423–35. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2004.00159.x.
- Burn, Shawn Meghan; Aboud, Roger; Moyles, Carey (2000). "The Relationship Between Gender Social Identity and Support for Feminism". Sex Roles. 42 (11/12): 1081–89. doi:10.1023/A:1007044802798.
- Renzetti, Claire M. (1987). "New wave or second stage? Attitudes of college women toward feminism". Sex Roles. 16 (5–6): 265–77. doi:10.1007/BF00289954.
- Lind, Rebecca Ann; Salo, Colleen (2002). "The Framing of Feminists and Feminism in News and Public Affairs Programs in U.S. Electronic Media". Journal of Communication. 52: 211–28. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2002.tb02540.x.
- Roy, Robin E.; Weibust, Kristin S.; Miller, Carol T. (2007). "Effects of Stereotypes About Feminists on Feminist Self-Identification". Psychology of Women Quarterly. 31 (2): 146–56. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2007.00348.x.
- Moradi, B.; Martin, A.; Brewster, M. E. (2012). "Disarming the threat to feminist identification: An application of personal construct theory to measurement and intervention". Psychology of Women Quarterly. 36: 197–209. doi:10.1177/0361684312440959.
- Storr, Will (March 2014). "The man who destroyed America's ego". Matter. medium.com. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
- Lingard, Bob; Douglas, Peter (1999). Men Engaging Feminisms: Pro-Feminism, Backlashes and Schooling. Buckingham, England: Open University Press. p. 192. ISBN 0-335-19818-X.
- Kimmel, Michael S.; Mosmiller, Thomas E. (1992). Against the Tide: Pro-Feminist Men in the United States, 1776–1990: A Documentary History. Boston: Beacon Press. ISBN 978-0-8070-6767-3.[page needed]
- Simpson, John A.; Weiner, Edmund S.C. (1989), "Anti-feminist", in Simpson, John A.; Weiner, Edmund S. C., The Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.), Oxford New York: Clarendon Press Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780198611868.
- Kimmel, Michael; Aronson, Amy (2004), "Antifeminism", in Kimmel, Michael; Aronson, Amy, Men and masculinities a social, cultural, and historical encyclopedia, Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, pp. 35–37, ISBN 9781576077740.
- Lukas, Carrie (2006), "Marriage: happier ever after", in Lukas, Carrie, The politically incorrect guide to women, sex, and feminism, Washington, DC Lanham, Maryland: Regency Publishing, p. 75, ISBN 9781596980037,
Feminists' assault on marriage also has played a role in devaluing marriage. Radical feminists view marriage as a cruel trap for women, perpetuating patriarchy, and keeping women subservient to men. They lament the roles that women and men tend to assume in traditional marriages, believing that women get the worse deal from the marriage contract.
- Kassian, Mary (2005), "Introduction: the tsunami of feminism", in Kassian, Mary, The feminist
mystiquemistake: the radical impact of feminism on church and culture (2nd ed.), Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway Books, p. 10, ISBN 9781581345704,
The feminist assault on traditional gender roles and families began in earnest in the 1960s and increasingly turned radical in the 1970s.
- Schlafly, Phyllis (1977). "Understanding the difference". In Schlafly, Phyllis. The power of the positive woman. New Rochelle, New York: Arlington House. p. 12. ISBN 9780870003738.
The second dogma of the women's liberationists is that, of all the injustices perpetuated upon women through the centuries, the most oppressive is the cruel fact that women have babies and men do not. Within the confines of the women's liberationist ideology, therefore, the abolition of this overriding inequality of women becomes the primary goal. This goal must be achieved at any at all costs – to the woman herself, to the baby, to the family, and to society. Women must be made equal to men in their ability not to become pregnant and not to be expected to care for babies they may bring into the world.
- Gottfried, Paul (21 April 2001). "The trouble with feminism". LewRockwell.com (web magazine). Lew Rockwell. Retrieved 30 September 2006.
- al-Qaradawi, Yusuf (2008), "Women and family in Islamist discourses: 'When Islam prohibits something, it closes all the avenues of approach to it'", in Calvert, John, Islamism: a documentary and reference guide, Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, p. 62, ISBN 9780313338564,
Islamists are aggrieved at the support of ostensibly Muslim governments for the 'alleged' legal emancipation of women, including granting women the right to vote and hold public office, in addition to limited rights to initiate divorce. Although many Muslim women take pride in the fact that they now perform jobs and enter professions once reserved for men, for most Islamists female employment and legal emancipation are dangerous trends that lead to the dissolution of traditional gender roles associated with the extended family.
- "Department of Sociology: Lisa Lucile Owens". Columbia University in the City of New York. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
- Sommers, Christina Hoff (1995). Who Stole Feminism? How Women Have Betrayed Women. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 320. ISBN 0-684-80156-6.
- Patai, Daphne (2003), "Policing the academy: 'Anti-feminist intellectual harassment'", in Patai, Daphne; Koertge, Noretta, Professing feminism: education and indoctrination in women's studies, Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books, pp. 278–79, ISBN 9780739104552,
...the book [Antifeminism in the Academy by Clark, Vévé et al] attempts to extend an already dubious concept – hostile environment harassment – to encompass a whole new range of thought and behavior. Delineating the many types of alleged anti-feminist practices perpetrated in colleges, universities, and publishing houses around the country, contributors to this book propose in all seriousness that measures be taken against a new and pervasive kind of offense: 'antifeminst intellectual harassment.'
- Danowitz Sagaria, Mary Ann (January 1999). "Review: Reviewed Work: Antifeminism in the Academy by Vévé Clark, Shirley Nelson Garner, Margaret Higonnet, Ketu H. Katrak". The Journal of Higher Education. Ohio State University Press. 70 (1): 110–12. doi:10.2307/2649121. JSTOR 2649121.
- Assiter, Alison (1989). Pornography, feminism, and the individual. London Winchester, Mass: Pluto Press. ISBN 9780745303192.
- DuBois, Ellen Carol (1997). Harriot Stanton Blatch and the Winning of Woman Suffrage. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-06562-0.
- Flexner, Eleanor (1996). Century of Struggle: The Woman's Rights Movement in the United States. The Belknap Press. ISBN 978-0-674-10653-6.
- Goodman, Robin Truth (2010). Feminist Theory in Pursuit of the Public: Women and the 'Re-Privatization' of Labor. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
- Hemmings, Clare (September 2016). "Is Gender Studies Singular? Stories of Queer/Feminist Difference and Displacement". differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies. Duke University Press. 27 (2): 79–102. doi:10.1215/10407391-3621721.
- Hewlett, Sylvia Ann (1986). A Lesser Life: the Myth of Women's Liberation in America. First ed. New York: W. Morrow and Co. ISBN 0-688-04855-2
- Lyndon, Neil (1992). No More Sex Wars: the Failures of Feminism. London: Mandarin, 1993, cop. 1992. ISBN 0-7493-1565-2
- Orleck, Annelise (2015). Rethinking American Women's Activism. New York: Routledge, 2015.
- Richard, Janet Radcliffe (1980). The Sceptical Feminist: a Philosophical Enquiry, in series, Pelican Books. Harmondsworth, Eng.: Penguin Books, 1982, cop. 1980. Without ISBN
- Mathur, Piyush (1998). "The archigenderic territories: Mansfield park and a handful of dust". Women's Writing. 5 (1): 71–81. doi:10.1080/09699089800200034.
- McElroy, Wendy (2008). "Feminism and Women's Rights". In Hamowy, Ronald. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE; Cato Institute. pp. 173–76. doi:10.4135/9781412965811.n106. ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4. LCCN 2008009151. OCLC 750831024.
- Mitchell, Brian (1998). Women in the Military: Flirting with Disaster. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing. xvii, 390 p. 0-89526-376-9
- Pollock, Griselda (September 2016). "Is feminism a trauma, a bad memory, or a virtual future?". differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies. Duke University Press. 27 (2): 27–61. doi:10.1215/10407391-3621697.
- Pulkkinen, Tuija (September 2016). "Feelings of Injustice: The Institutionalization of Gender Studies and the Pluralization of Feminism". differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies. Duke University Press. 27 (2): 103–124. doi:10.1215/10407391-3621733.
- Schroder, Iris; Schuler, Anja (Spring 2004). "'In Labor Alone is Happiness': Women's Work, Social Work, and Feminist Reform Endeavors in Wilhelmine Germany – A Transatlantic Perspective". Journal of Women's History. Johns Hopkins University Press. 16 (1): 127–147. doi:10.1353/jowh.2004.0036.
- Schroder, Iris; Schuler, Anja (September 2016). "Is feminism a trauma, a bad memory, or a virtual future?". differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies. Duke University Press. 27 (2): 27–61. doi:10.1215/10407391-3621697.
- Stansell, Christine (2010). The Feminist Promise: 1792 to the Present. ISBN 978-0-679-64314-2.
- Steichen, Donna (1991). Ungodly Rage: the Hidden Face of Catholic Feminism. San Francisco, Calif.: Ignatius Press. ISBN 0-89870-348-4
- Stevens, Doris; O'Hare, Carol (1995). Jailed for Freedom: American Women Win the Vote. Troutdale, OR: NewSage Press. ISBN 0-939165-25-2.
- Wheeler, Marjorie W. (1995). One Woman, One Vote: Rediscovering the Woman Suffrage Movement. Troutdale, OR: NewSage Press. ISBN 0-939165-26-0.
- "Interface volume 3 issue 2: Feminism, women's movements and women in movement". December 13, 2011.
|Look up feminism or feminist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Library resources about
- Feminist.com directory
- Psychology's Feminist Voices
- Topics in Feminism, at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy