Politics of Albania

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Politics of Albania
Coat of arms of Albania.svg
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The Politics of Albania take place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, wherein the Prime Minister is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament, the Assembly of the Republic of Albania Kuvendi i Republikës së Shqipërisë. Since 1991 the introduction of pluralism, the party system is dominated by the Democratic Party of Albania and the post-communist Socialist Party of Albania.

Parliamentary elections are held every four years, the most recent in 2013. Its official journal is the Albanian Official Journal.

Executive branch[edit]


Further information: President of Albania
Kryeministria (Council of Ministers) in Tirana, the official workplace of the Prime Minister of Albania.

The head of state in Albania is the President of the Republic. The President is elected to a 5-year term by the Assembly of the Republic of Albania by secret ballot, requiring a two-thirds majority of the votes of all deputies. Bujar Nishani was on 11 June 2012 elected president by a simple majority of deputies in the assembly, after it had failed on three earlier occasions to agree on a nominee.[1] He took the oath of office on 25 July 2012.[2]

The President has the power to guarantee observation of the constitution and all laws, act as commander in chief of the armed forces, exercise the duties of the Assembly of the Republic of Albania when the Assembly is not in session, and appoint the Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister).

Prime Minister[edit]

Executive power rests with the Council of Ministers (cabinet). The Chairman of the Council (Prime Minister) is appointed by the President; ministers are nominated by the President on the basis of the Prime Minister's recommendation. The People's Assembly must give final approval of the composition of the Council. The Council is responsible for carrying out both foreign and domestic policies. It directs and controls the activities of the ministries and other state organs.

Legislative branch[edit]

Outer Fascade of the Assembly of Albania Building.

The Assembly of the Republic of Albania Kuvendi i Republikës së Shqipërisë is the lawmaking body in Albania. There are 140 deputies in the Assembly, of which 100 are directly elected by an absolute majority of the voters, and 40 are chosen by their parties on the basis of proportional representation. The President of the Assembly has two deputies and chairs the Assembly. There are 15 permanent commissions, or committees. Parliamentary elections are held at least every 4 years. All laws passed by the parliament are published by the Albanian Official Journal (Albanian: Fletorja Zyrtare), the official journal of the government of Albania.[3]

Judicial branch[edit]

Further information: Judiciary of Albania

The court system consists of a Constitutional Court, the Court of Cassation, appeals courts, and district courts. The Constitutional Court comprises nine members appointed by the People's Assembly for maximum 9-year terms. The Constitutional Court interprets the constitution, determines the constitutionality of laws, and resolves disagreements between local and federal authorities. The remaining courts are each divided into three jurisdictions: criminal, civil, and military. The Court of Cassation is the highest court of appeal and consists of 11 members appointed by the People's Assembly and serving 7-year terms. The President of the Republic chairs the High Council of Justice (HCJ) charged with appointing and dismissing other judges. The HCJ was expanded in late 1997 to comprise 13 members from among the various branches of government.

A college of three judges renders Albanian court verdicts; there is no jury trial, although the college is sometimes referred to in the Albanian press as the "jury."

International organization participation[edit]

Albania is a member of the BSEC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICC, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NATO, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO and WTrO (applicant).

Administrative divisions[edit]

Main article: Counties of Albania

Albania is divided into 12 counties or prefectures. Counties are appointed by the Council of Ministers. Each county comprises several districts (Rreths), of which there are 36. Each district has its own local administration and governor. District governors are elected by the District Council, whose members are selected from party lists made public to voters before local elections, on the basis of proportional representation. City mayors are directly elected by voters, while city councils are chosen by proportional representation.

Albania Counties Named Colored.svg

County Capital city or cities
in English in Albanian
Berat County Qarku i Beratit Berat
Dibër County Qarku i Dibrës Peshkopi
Durrës County Qarku i Durrësit Durrës
Elbasan County Qarku i Elbasanit Elbasan
Fier County Qarku i Fierit Fier
Gjirokastër County Qarku i Gjirokastrës Gjirokastër
Korçë County Qarku i Korçës Korçë
Kukës County Qarku i Kukësit Kukës
Lezhë County Qarku i Lezhës Lezhë
Shkodër County Qarku i Shkodrës Shkodër
Tirana County Qarku i Tiranës Tirana
Vlorë County Qarku i Vlorës Vlorë

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Official Sites