Kaiji (manga)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Kaiji
Kaiji.png
Tobaku Mokushiroku Kaiji, Vol. 1
賭博黙示録カイジ
(Tobaku Mokushiroku Kaiji)
Genre Action,[1] gambling,[2] suspense[3]
Manga
Written by Nobuyuki Fukumoto
Published by Kodansha
English publisher
Denpa
Demographic Seinen
Magazine Weekly Young Magazine
Original run February 19, 1996 – present
Volumes 67 (List of volumes)
Series titles

  1. Tobaku Mokushiroku Kaiji (1996 – 1999, 13 volumes)
  2. Tobaku Hakairoku Kaiji (2000 – 2004, 13 volumes)
  3. Tobaku Datenroku Kaiji (2004 – 2008, 13 volumes)
  4. Tobaku Datenroku Kaiji: Kazuya-hen (2009 – 2012, 10 volumes)
  5. Tobaku Datenroku Kaiji: One Poker-hen (2013 – 2017, 16 volumes)
  6. Tobaku Datenroku Kaiji: 24 Oku Dasshutsu-hen (2017 – present)
Anime television series
Kaiji: Ultimate Survivor
Directed by Yūzō Satō
Produced by Toshio Nakatani
Manabu Tamura
Written by Hideo Takayashiki
Music by Hideki Taniuchi
Studio Madhouse
Original network Nippon TV
Original run October 2, 2007 April 1, 2008
Episodes 26 (List of episodes)
Live-action film
Kaiji
Directed by Tōya Satō
Produced by Masatoshi Yamaguchi
Written by Mika Omori
Nobuyuki Fukumoto
Music by Yugo Kanno
Studio Toho
Released October 10, 2009 (2009-10-10)
Runtime 120 Minutes
Anime television series
Kaiji: Against All Rules
Directed by Yūzō Satō
Produced by Toshio Nakatani
Manabu Tamura
Naoki Iwasa (17-26)
Written by Hideo Takayashiki
Music by Hideki Taniuchi
Studio Madhouse
Original network Nippon TV
Original run April 5, 2011 September 27, 2011
Episodes 26 (List of episodes)
Live-action film
Kaiji 2
Directed by Tōya Satō
Produced by Seiji Okuda
Katsu Kamikura
Hiroshi Miyazaki
Written by Junya Yamazaki
Yukiko Oguchi
Music by Yugo Kanno
Studio Toho
Released November 5, 2011 (2011-11-05)
Runtime 133 Minutes
Manga
1-nichi Gaishutsuroku Hanchō
Written by Tensei Hagiwara
Illustrated by Motomu Uehara
Kazuya Arai
Published by Kodansha
Demographic Seinen
Magazine Weekly Young Magazine
Original run 2017 – present
Volumes 3 (List of volumes)
Live-action film
Animal World: Mr. Nobody
Directed by Han Yan
Written by Han Yan
Nobuyuki Fukumoto
Music by Neal Acree
Michael Tuller
Studio CMC Pictures
Lionsgate Films
Columbia Pictures
Licensed by Netflix
Released June 29, 2018 (2018-06-29)
Runtime 133 Minutes
Related

Wikipe-tan face.svg Anime and Manga portal

Tobaku Mokushiroku Kaiji (賭博黙示録カイジ, lit. Gambling Apocalypse Kaiji) is a Japanese manga series about the art of gambling, written and illustrated by Nobuyuki Fukumoto. It is published by Kodansha in Weekly Young Magazine since February 1996. The series has currently been divided into six parts. The current story arc, Tobaku Datenroku Kaiji: 24 Oku Dasshutsu-hen, started in 2017.

The first part of the manga was adapted as a 26-episode anime television series called Kaiji: Ultimate Survivor, which aired between October 2007 and April 2008. A live-action Kaiji movie was released in 2009 in Japan with Tatsuya Fujiwara playing the role of Kaiji Itō, followed by a sequel in 2011. A second anime television series based on the second arc of the manga, entitled Kaiji: Against All Rules, premiered April 2011 and ran until September 2011. A more loosely adapted Chinese live-action movie, titled Animal World: Mr. Nobody, was released on June 29, 2018 in China and other countries.

The first part of the manga has been licensed by Denpa in North America and it will be released in six omnibus volumes in the first quarter of 2019.

Kaiji is a popular series in Japan and the manga has sold over 20 million copies. In 1998, it was the winner of the 22th Kodansha Manga Award in the General category.

Plot[edit]

After graduating from high school in 1996 in Japan, Itō Kaiji moves to Tokyo to get a job, but he fails to find steady employment because the country is mired in its first recession since World War II. Depressed, he festers in his apartment, biding his time with cheap pranks, gambling, liquor and cigarettes. Kaiji is always thinking about money and his perpetual poverty frequently brings him to tears.

Kaiji's unrelenting misery continues for two years until he is paid an unexpected visit from a man named Endō, who wants to collect an outstanding debt that Kaiji has carelessly co-signed for his former co-worker. Endō gives Kaiji two options - either spend ten years to repay this outstanding debt, or board the gambling ship Espoir ("hope" in French) for one night to clear the debt. Using a con, Endō pressures Kaiji into accepting the deal, believing he will never come back from the voyage.

However, Kaiji survives the gamble and is invited to another gambling night, this time at the Starside Hotel. Although initially wary about the offer, he is spurred by his acquaintance Sahara to go. After being the only survivor of the Human Derby, Kaiji decides to avenge his friends by competing in another gambling match the Teiai Corporation has prepared; E-Card. Kaiji, despite losing an ear, defeats Tonegawa, his opponent in E-Card. He goes all-in once again in a new game. This time, he loses both the money he had won in the E-Card battle and four of his fingers.

Though Kaiji survives the Starside Hotel he now has a debt of over 9.5 million Yen. He contacts Endō in hope of being able to take part in another high-stakes gamble. However Endō betrays Kaiji and sends him to Teiai's underground labour camp, where he will have to work off his debt for 15 years. In the labour camp Kaiji is paid 91,000 pelica per month (10 pelica are equal to 1 Yen) to dig an underground kingdom. This is reduced to 45,000 pelica after Kaiji loses to Ōtsuki in Chinchirorin. However Kaiji allies himself with other 45ers (those earning 45,000 pelica per month) to defeat Ōtsuki and win enough money for the one-day pass.

Although Kaiji manages to get out of the labour camp with 800,000 Yen using the 1-day pass, he only has 20 days to earn the 60 million Yen he needs to buy his freedom and release the other 45ers. Fortunately Kaiji comes across Sakazaki who tells him of a pachinko game known as the Bog in a high-stakes casino where Kaiji can win over 550 million Yen. Kaiji agrees to help Sakazaki beat the Bog. However, the casino is owned by Teiai Corporation, and the Bog has been rigged in several ways to ensure that it won't pay out.

After finally clearing his debt Kaiji has been living with Sakazaki and his family until Sakazaki kicks Kaiji out with 3 million Yen in cash. Kaiji then agrees to help the former 45ers Miyoshi and Maeda beat the president of a casino at his Minefield Mahjong game and win 480 million Yen.

Characters[edit]

Kaiji Itō (伊藤 開司, Itō Kaiji)
The main character of the story. Kaiji is in poverty - he lives by himself in a slum and is constantly in debt. He bides his time by playing cheap gambling games with neighbors, though he always loses. In spite of this, when his life is in danger, he displays a remarkable hidden capacity for gambling, which allows him to endure the hardships he faces in the manga. He is shouldered with a 3,850,000 yen debt at the beginning of the story by a co-worker who convinced him into cosigning a loan, leaving Kaiji with the full weight of the debt compounded over a year.
Masato Hagiwara, the voice of Akagi Shigeru reprises his role as lead in the second anime adaption of a Nobuyuki Fukumoto work, opposite Masane Tsukayama who again plays an elderly, refined villain.
Kazutaka Hyōdō (兵藤 和尊, Hyōdō Kazutaka)
Wealthy socialite and president of the powerful financial consulting firm "Teiai" (帝愛, "Love Emperor"), not to mention owner and sponsor of underground gambling tournaments like those on board Espoir. He is believed to be seventy years old and worth several hundred billion yen. Driven mad by wealth, conventional hobbies fail to entertain him, so he funds gambling tournaments to watch the destitute of society struggle against overwhelming terror and despair. He has no concerns for the suffering of others and his own happiness is all that matters.
He meets Kaiji in the final segment of the first series of manga, where Kaiji is selected by lottery to compete in the "Castle of Despair". Hyōdō's talents for winning in anything have earned him the title of "king" by some, though others merely call him "very lucky". His first full manga appearance was in volume 8 - prior to that, all readers saw of Hyōdō was his finger tapping.
Yūji Endō (遠藤 勇次, Endō Yūji)
A loan shark with ties to the yakuza and the Teiai corporation. He lends large sums of money to desperate people, but charges an extortionate interest rate. After a client of his, Furuhata, disappears without repaying a loan, he tracks down Kaiji who acted as the loan guarantor in an moment of weakness. Aware that Kaiji could never repay the loan, Endō offers him the opportunity to board the gambling ship Espoir, where he may be able repay his debt and make some money as well.
After Kaiji defeats Tonegawa his organization suffers because they now lack any connection to the upper management of Teiai. After Kaiji approaches Endō for another high risk gamble, Endō drugs Kaiji and sends him to an underground labor camp. When Kaiji is released he goes to Endō again for a loan to get enough money to beat the Bog. Endō helps Kaiji borrow 50 million Yen to beat the Bog and helps Kaiji weaken it. During the battle with the Bog Endō loans Kaiji another 10 million Yen at a very high rate of interest. After Kaiji's victory he drugs Kaiji, takes the extra money owed to him, and leaves.

Part 1 - The Ship of Hope, Espoir[edit]

Jōji Funai (船井 譲次, Funai Jōji)
One of the veterans of previous voyages on the Espoir, Funai is an excellent conman and uses the fears and worries of the other competitors to his advantage. He "befriends" Kaiji during his first night and explains the unofficial rules to him, and the two agree to form an alliance - both will exhaust their number of gesture cards without having to lose any star pendants. However, at the last minute, Funai backstabs Kaiji and scams him out of two star pendants, leaving him with a single card and a hopeless situation. He is defeated by Kaiji and loses five star pendants to him in a sudden death gamble near the end of the voyage.
Takeshi Furuhata (古畑 武志, Furuhata Takeshi)
Debtor and one-time coworker of Kaiji. One year before the first tournament on the Espoir, he lured Kaiji into cosigning a loan for him, making Kaiji liable in case Furuhata did not repay the loan. Although believed to have disappeared, Kaiji discovers him on Espoir and makes an alliance with him after Funai's betrayal. Furuhata is the sharper of Kaiji's allies, and is able to follow and quickly adapt to Kaiji's strategies. Furuhata betrays Kaiji and attempts to use his funds to escape the ship.
Mamoru Andō (安藤 守, Andō Mamoru)
A bespectacled, fat man who forms an alliance with Kaiji and Furuhata after losing all of his gesture cards. Unlike Furuhata, Andō is more opportunistic and tried to backstab the group within minutes of it forming. He usually has to have Kaiji's strategies explained to him by Furuhata. After the gamble of Restricted Rock, Paper, Scissors ends, he betrays Kaiji, and has no regrets about it.
Kitami (北見)
A clear-headed man who came up with a strategy of buying up all the rock cards and holding them constant; as the other cards deplete, he and his men then prey on those who have scissors. However, he was surprised to learn that Kaiji discovered the same strategy and purchased all the rocks, so in turn he purchased all the paper cards, effectively making Kaiji's strategy useless. After defeating Andō and Furuhata, Kitami approaches Kaiji and admits he was impressed another contestant figured how to manipulate the game, offering him the honor of being his final opponent. He is outsmarted by Kaiji, then blackmailed into selling all of his paper cards to him.
Yukio Tonegawa (利根川 幸雄, Tonegawa Yukio)
A powerful business magnate and the second highest ranking executive in the financial firm Teiai (Love Emperor). He serves as the host and overseer for both the Restricted Rock, Paper, Scissors on the ship Espoir and Human Derby games at the Starside Hotel while acting as the opponent for the E-Card gamble. A stout man of middle-age, Tonegawa is a staunch realist, believing those who risk their lives in Love Emperor's tournaments to be street trash at the mercy of society and those with superior abilities and initiative. By reputation Tonegawa is a master of human psychology and the art of observation, displaying acts of insight so profound his abilities appear supernatural. He is defeated by Kaiji in E-Card, forced to undergo the Roasting Kneeling (焼き土下座) punishment and thrown out of power by Kazutaka Hyōdō. With his downfall, a power vacuum appears in Love Emperor's inner circle, leading to chaos among the management. Many of those who are loyal to Tonegawa's faction within the company, notably Kaiji's debtor Endō Yuuji, disappear without a trace. Tonegawa himself is led away after his defeat and is not seen again.

Part 2 - The Skyscraper of Darkness, Starside Hotel[edit]

Kōji Ishida (石田 光司, Ishida Kōji)
A debt-ridden man who opted to participate on Espoir in an effort to clear his debts, but failed. He was saved from death on a whim by Kaiji, but to spare his wife and son from debt he agreed to participate in another gambling tournament, the Human Derby. In the first leg of the race, Ishida accomplished second place, earning a certificate redeemable for 10,000,000¥. During the second part of the race, while overcome by immense fear, Ishida recognized that he was not a man born to be a success in this world, and entrusted his certificate to Kaiji, who he felt had the skill, power and confidence to survive. He urges Kaiji to go forward and not look back, and while Kaiji is concentrating on maintaining his balance, Ishida falls from the steel bridge, covering his mouth so Kaiji would not hear his screams.
Makoto Sahara (佐原 誠, Sahara Makoto)
Kaiji's younger co-worker at a convenience store he found employment at following his survival of Espoir. Sahara dreams of finding his big break in life, and like Kaiji feels he is getting nowhere with his dead-end job. He begs Endō to permit him to participate in the Human Derby, despite warnings from Kaiji. Sahara's youthful strength and impulsiveness benefit him greatly in the gamble, and he gets a strong lead on the other racers, earning first place in Kaiji's block and receiving a certificate redeemable for ¥20,000,000. In the second leg of the race, Sahara is the first to reach the other side of the second bridge - however, before he can cash his earnings from the Starside Hotel, he falls into a trap set up by Kazutaka Hyōdō and is killed.

Part 3 - The Bog of Desire[edit]

Yoshihiro Kurosaki (黒崎 義裕, Kurosaki Yoshihiro)
Kurosaki has served in Teiai Group for years and is a friend of Hyōdō. He was promoted to the position of second-in-command of Teiai Group one year after Kaiji defeats Tonegawa; replacing Tonegawa's faction as the dominant faction. Kurosaki seems to be more friendly that Tonegawa as he praised Ōtsuki for his Chinchirorin rules but states that because Ōtsuki failed to think of a worst case scenario this caused him to be defeated. He also promotes fairness, such as refusing to let Ōtsuki back out of his bet, rather than threatening people.
Kurosaki appears to be in charge of the underground labor camp where Kaiji is sent and resides nearby. This was demonstrated when he was shown watching Kaiji gambling with Ōtsuki at Chinchirorin but was able to travel to the labor camp and arrive after Ōtsuki got his safe.
Ōtsuki (大槻, Ōtsuki)
Foreman for group E in the underground labor camp and Kaiji's supervisor. Together with Isawa and Numagawa he makes a lot of money selling food, alcohol, and tobacco at twice their retail price to those in the labor camp and by winning at Chinchirorin. Though he was initially friendly to Kaiji this was a ruse to encourage Kaiji to spend his all money buying food and alcohol from Ōtsuki. Ōtsuki then loans Kaiji some money to play Chinchirorin, then wins this money back from him, and forces him to work for half-pay to repay his debt. After Kaiji figures out that Ōtsuki is cheating by using 4-5-6 dice (dice without the number 1, 2, or 3 on them) he exposes Ōtsuki in front of everyone. Ōtsuki then agrees to let Kaiji and the other 45ers use rigged dice against him thinking he will only have to pay 2 or 3 times the amount bet, however Kaiji and the 45ers uses rigged dice that only roll 1 so Ōtsuki has to pay 5 times the amount bet (under Ōtsuki's rules if the 3 dice all show 1 the player wins 5 times their bet). After being dealer for 2 rounds Ōtsuki loses over 18 million pelica.
Tomohiro Miyoshi (三好 智広, Miyoshi Tomohiro)
Another person in group E paying off their debts by working in the underground labor camps. He keeps a record of all the wins in Chinchirorin which makes Kaiji realize how Ōtsuki is cheating. He and several others earning 45,000 pelica help Kaiji defeat Ōtsuki.
Kōtarō Sakazaki (坂崎 孝太郎, Sakazaki Kōtarō)
A middle aged man who seeks to beat the Bog and win enough money to buy a house so his wife and daughter will return to him. At first he wants Kaiji to help him beat the Bog but later helps Kaiji defeat the Bog.
Ichijō (一条)
Manager of the casino that owns the Bog. He has worked at Teiai Group for many years and is one of the subordinates of Yohishiro Kurosaki. He is well manicured and with a cautious personality (he increases security around the Bog to prevent Kaiji tampering with it). After Kaiji beats the Bog Hyōdō demands that Ichijou pay back the 700 million Yen Kaiji won by working for 1050 years in the labor camp. As Ichijou is dragged away Kaiji encourages him to return and challenge him again.

Part 4 - Minefield Mahjong[edit]

Takashi Muraoka (村岡 隆, Muraoka Takashi)
The casino president employs Miyoshi and Maeda. He has Miyoshi and Maeda convince Kaiji to gamble against him in Minefield Mahjong, which he has rigged in his favor by having Maeda looks at Kaiji's tiles while Miyoshi gives Kaiji false information. Though Kaiji initially loses all his money Kazuya Hyōdō loans him more money so the game can continue. After several draws where the wager is doubled the wager reaches 160 million Yen. By tricking the casino president into thinking he had another tile, Kaiji is able to win 480 million due to him having ura-dora.
Kazuya Hyōdō (兵藤 和也, Hyōdō Kazuya)
Son of Kazutaka Hyōdō, he enjoys gambles as much as his father. After Kaiji loses all of his money he keeps loaning Kaiji money so Kaiji can continue to gamble; however, he tells Kaiji that if Kaiji cannot repay the debt then Kaiji will either be sent back to the underground labor camp or will have his body parts removed (which body part will be removed is determined by a lottery wheel). He reveals to Kaiji that he detests the life he leads, and claims to not know true friendship or love, as everyone he meets kisses up to him due to the influence of his father. As a result, he thinks human beings are naturally detestable and likely to betray others, and additionally he finds no issue in wasting money for his gambles and schemes, and instead wants to be an author. As a means of finding out if true bonds actually exist, Kazuya sets up a series of deadly games designed to test the bonds between people, which influence the ideas for his novels. In addition, he runs a company called "Kazuya Corporation", which deals in covering up murders under the guise of suicides or construction accidents.

Gambles[edit]

Series 1

Restricted Rock, Paper, Scissors (限定ジャンケン, Gentei Janken)
The gambling tournament the first night Kaiji spends on Espoir, has an average survival rate of 50%. The rules were outlined after the issuing of war funds, which were done a minimum of 1,000,000¥ and 10,000,000¥. The money was in effect a loan, equaling the debt of the contestant and compounded at 1.5% every ten minutes for the four-hour voyage; contestants who hold onto their funds for the length of the trip would have to pay 140% of what they invested, thus putting an incentive to finish games early. Money that exceeded the amount needed to repay the loan to the Espoir hosts would be pocketed by the contestant.
The rules of the game are similar to the original Rock, Paper, Scissors game but with a twist - the hand gestures are represented by cards, and contestants are given twelve cards, four of each gesture. Contestants are also given three plastic stars as collateral to bet on each round of play - whenever a player loses a round, the winner gets a star from the loser. To survive the night, contestants must retain their three star pendants and use all of their gesture cards. Cards cannot be destroyed or thrown away, to do so is subject to instant disqualification.
Due to the simple nature of the game, single matches can be completed within ten seconds, and players can win or lose in a matter of minutes. Winners are allowed to go upstairs, where any extra star pendants are exchanged for cash and they lounge in a small cafe. In the event of a loss, individuals are taken to away to a back room by men in black suits.
Steel Frame Crossing (鉄骨渡り, Tekkotsu Watari)
The gamble seen during Kaiji's competition at the Starside Hotel, consisting of two parts – Human Derby (人間競馬, Ningen Keiba) and Electric Current Steel Frame Crossing (電流鉄骨渡り, Denryū Tekkotsu Watari). In contrast to Restricted Rock, Paper, Scissors, contestants are not briefed on the rules of the Human Derby, and are unaware of the nature of the gamble until they accept participating in it. Contestants are loaded into numbered "coffins" and are elevated several floors up the Starside Hotel to a platform overlooking a concrete courtyard. Contestants are expected to walk across four long, steel beams - the first to arrive on the other side of the beam nets 20,000,000¥, the second place finisher 10,000,000¥. The steel beams become more narrow as the contestants begin to cross them, though touching the beam with hands at any time disqualifies the contestant. The pushing of contestants to get out of the way is not condoned but is in fact encouraged, since the contestants (the "horses") are being bet on by spectators below, who enjoy the struggle to the other side. Contestants who fall from the beams suffer severe injury - depending on how and where they land, their injuries can range from serious to fatal.
Once the winners of the first leg of the race have been identified, they are given coupons redeemable for their prize with a set time limit. To cash the coupons, the contestants must cross similar but more dangerous steel beams twenty two stories or 75 meters above the ground and 25 meters long. Falling from this narrow bridge means instant death. Since the hosts concluded that the crossing of the bridge would not be entertaining if the contestants could give up and use their hands to assist in their retreat off the bridge, a strong electric current is run through the steel beams - while not powerful enough to cause serious injury or be fatal, the current is enough to stun contestants, causing them to lose balance and fall from the bridge. Psychologically, this bridge is much more challenging because of the greater peril involved. What's more the end of the bridge is not the end goal. Rather a glass stairway is set up at the end that reveals the true end goal but due to the dark lighting, it's hard to make out and requires a leap of faith in order to reach.
E-Card (Eカード, Ī Kādo)
E-Card (Emperor Card) is a card game similar to Restricted Rock, Paper, Scissors in that it uses three card types: the Emperor (koutei), the Citizen (shimin), and the Slave (dorei). The game is meant to be a simplification of society that Kazutaka Hyōdō refers to right before the game begins. The Emperor has ultimate power to give money (ie. most powerful card). Citizens cannot disobey him because they want money (i.e. Emperor card beats the Citizen card). The Slave has nothing to lose and has no use of money, therefore the slave can defeat the Emperor (i.e. Slave card beats the Emperor card but loses to the Citizen card). Each hand is played with one side having four Citizen cards and an Emperor card (Emperor side). The other side having four Citizen cards and a Slave card (Slave side). Since it is much harder for the slave side to win (as Slave cards can only defeat Emperor cards) the players of the Slave side get five times more winnings. The game consists of 12 matches, 4 sets of three, where the players alternate between the Slave side and the Emperor side. In each set of 3 rounds, each player must place down one of the 5 cards in their hand until one emerges as the winner of that match. As Kaiji did not have enough money to match the bet, he was given the choice of losing an eye or an ear instead.
Tissue Box Raffle (ティッシュ箱くじ引き, Tisshubako Kujibiki)
Unlike the other gambles, this gamble is made by Kaiji himself. After completing E-Card he prepares to leave the hotel but then steps on a tissue box and notices that its sides are open, which he finds fascinating. Upon further investigation of the box Kaiji decide to challenge the Chairman to a raffle gamble with the tissue box as the container for the lots made of small torn squares of paper towel. The winning piece had a circle drawn on it.

Series 2

Underground Chinchiro (地下チンチロリン, Chika Chinchirorin)
A variation on the dice game, Chinchirorin, this game was crafted by Ōtsuki, the foreman of Kaiji's work team in the underground labor camp. Notable rule variations include that the dealer is not fixed and each player can take a turn as dealer. However, each player may opt to pass their turn as dealer, but if they agree to play dealer, then they must be dealer two consecutive times.
Pachinko "The Bog" (パチンコ「沼」, Pachinko Numa)
An elaborate Pachinko game in a high-stakes casino featuring a payout of 100% of the earnings from the machine. Taking this into consideration the house has set up state-of-the-art countermeasures to ensure victory; such as tightening the nails to ensure only 1 in 100 balls go in, using flippers to knock away balls, and tilting the three bottom plates to prevent any balls dropping through the winning holes. Previously only two people have ever beaten the Bog; Hyōdō and Tonegawa. Each ball is worth 1000 times more than a normal Pachinko machine, ¥4000 (around $39), but the payout is 100 million Pachinko balls, each worth ¥4000 (around $39). When Kaiji first comes across the Bog the jackpot is ¥550 million but when he plays it, the jackpot has risen to over ¥700 million.

Series 3

Mine Field Game “17 Steps” (地雷ゲーム「17歩」, Jirai Gēmu “17-ho”)
A variation on Mahjong where the game is played with two players who make their best hand from a random draw of 34 tiles. Players do not draw a tile as usual, but instead take turns discarding tiles. Since a win can only be declared with a hand in conjunction with a discard, 'ron' is the only way a player may win. If neither player achieves ron after 17 turns, the game is considered a draw, the tiles are reshuffled, the current wager is doubled.

Series 4

Salvation game
A life-or-death game designed by Kazuya to test if the friendship between three men indebted to Kazuya--Mario, from the Philippines, Chang, from China, and Mitsuyama, from Japan--is a true bond. The three men sit in a stair case formation, strapped to their seats with seat belts which can only be released one at a time with a release button, and are not allowed to look behind them. They each wear a helmet with a light on the top. At the start of each round of the game, the current pot is doubled, and of the three men, one "savior" and two "hostages" is decided via the light on their helmets. The savior must release their seat belt after 30 seconds, but before 60, and press a button across the room, otherwise the helmets of the two hostages will crush their heads. They must use the powers of deduction and observation to determine if they are the savior or the hostage--the player at the top of the staircase is in the best position for this, as he can see the two other players' lights. Halfway through the game, Kazuya reveals that, if the savior fails to rescue the two hostages, he gets double the entire pot of the current round. Kaiji is brought in as an observer to this game, and frequently cheers on the three men and challenges Kazuya's corrupted view of human nature.

Series 5

One Poker
A card game using two standard decks of playing cards, designed by Kazuya. Rather than deciding the victor via hands such as Straight, Flush, etc., each hand consists of just one card and is ranked according to its normal value, suits not factoring into the value at all. In addition, like in the earlier E-Card game, the absolute weakest card actually beats the absolute strongest card--a 2 is the absolute weakest, and an ace is the absolute strongest, so the 2 wins against an ace. If both players play a card of equal value, it is a tie. At the start of each round, players have two cards, and must play one of them, the most valuable card being the winner. Lights in front of each player indicate whether their cards are "up" (higher value) or "down" (lower value). Standard poker betting rules apply and the cards of both players are always revealed after betting even if one player folds (but they don't affect the outcome in that case). In addition, all of this is played at the top of a large tower, on a mechanical shuffling table Kazuya has designed, which he names "Mother Sophie". The table is placed on a set of tracks, and moves towards the loser's side's edge with each loss.

Media[edit]

Manga[edit]

Written and illustrated by Nobuyuki Fukumoto, Kaiji is published in Kodansha's Weekly Young Magazine since February 19, 1996.[9] The manga has currently been divided into six parts so far:

  • Tobaku Mokushiroku Kaiji (賭博黙示録カイジ, lit. "Gambling Apocalypse Kaiji") (1996 – 1999, 13 volumes)
  • Tobaku Hakairoku Kaiji (賭博破戒録カイジ, lit. "Gambling Maverick Kaiji") (2000 – 2004, 13 volumes)
  • Tobaku Datenroku Kaiji (賭博堕天録カイジ, lit. "Gambling Advent Chronicle Kaiji") (2004 – 2008, 13 volumes)
  • Tobaku Datenroku Kaiji: Kazuya-hen (賭博堕天録カイジ 和也編, lit. "Gambling Advent Chronicle Kaiji: The Kazuya Arc") (2009 – 2012, 10 volumes)
  • Tobaku Datenroku Kaiji: One Poker-hen (賭博堕天録カイジ ワン・ポーカー編, lit. "Gambling Advent Chronicle Kaiji: One Poker Arc") (2013 – 2017, 16 volumes)
  • Tobaku Datenroku Kaiji: 24 Oku Dasshutsu-hen (賭博堕天録カイジ 24億脱出編, lit."Gambling Advent Chronicle Kaiji: 2.4 Billion Escape Arc") (2017 – present)[10]

In August 2018, it was announcend at Otakon that a new North American manga publishing company named Denpa has licensed the first part of the manga, Tobaku Mokushiroku Kaiji, and it will be released in six omnibus volumes with 500+ pages each beginning in the first quarter of 2019.[11][12][13]

Spin-offs[edit]

A spin-off, titled Chūkan Kanriroku Tonegawa (中間管理録トネガワ, lit. "Middle Management Chronicle Tonegawa") began serialization in Monthly Young Magazine on July 20, 2015, and later moved to Kodansha's Comic Days manga app on March 5, 2018.[14] The manga is written by Tensei Hagiwara and illustrated by Tomohiro Hashimoto and Tomoki Miyoshi.[15]

A second spin-off series, titled 1-nichi Gaishutsuroku Hanchō (1日外出録ハンチョウ, lit. "One-Day Outing Chronicle Leader") began serialization in combined 4th and 5th issue of Weekly Young Magazine in 2017. The manga is written by Tensei Hagiwara and illustrated by Motomu Uehara and Kazuya Arai.[16]

Anime[edit]

In 2007, in issue #35 of Kodansha's Weekly Young Magazine was announced an anime adaptation of the first part of the manga, titled Gyakkyō Burai Kaiji: Ultimate Survivor (逆境無頼カイジ Ultimate Survivor, lit. Suffering Outcast Kaiji: Ultimate Survivor),[17] known simply as Kaiji: Ultimate Survivor.[18] The series is directed by Yūzō Satō and co-produced by Nippon Television, D.N. Dream Partners, VAP and Madhouse.[19] The series aired between October 2, 2007 and April 1, 2008, on Nippon TV,[20] and the 26 episodes were collected into nine DVDs, released by VAP between January 3 and September 26, 2008.[21][22] VAP re-released all the episodes in a DVD box set on October 7, 2009.[23] The opening theme is "Mirai wa Bokura no Te no Naka" (未来は僕らの手の中, The Future is in Our Hands) (based on The Blue Hearts' song of the same name) by Kaiji with Redbourn Cherries, and the ending theme is "Makeinutachi no Requiem" (負け犬達のレクイエム, Requiem of the Underdogs) by Hakūryū.[24]

A second season titled Gyakkyō Burai Kaiji: Hakairoku-hen (逆境無頼カイジ 破戒録篇, lit. Suffering Outcast Kaiji: Maverick Arc), also known as Kaiji: Against All Rules,[25] was announced in the issue #9 of Weekly Young Magazine in 2011.[26] Based on the second arc of the manga, Tobaku Hakairoku Kaiji, it premiered on April 5, 2011[27] and ran until September 27, 2011[28] on Nippon TV. The 26 episodes were collected into nine DVDs, released by VAP between June 22, 2011 and February 22, 2012.[29] VAP also re-released all the episodes in 2 DVD box sets on September 21, 2011 and February 22, 2012.[30][31] The anime opening theme for the second season is "Chase the Light!" by Fear, and Loathing in Las Vegas, and the ending theme is "C Kara Hajimaru ABC" (CからはじまるABC, The ABC's Starting from C) by Wasurerannē Yo.[32]

Live-action films[edit]

Kaiji has been adapted into two live-action films. The first, Kaiji (Kaiji: Jinsei Gyakuten Game), released on October 10, 2009 in Japan. Directed by Tōya Satō, starring Tatsuya Fujiwara, Yūki Amami and Teruyuki Kagawa.[33][34][35] Two songs, "It's All Too Much" and "Never Say Die" by Japanese pop singer-songwriter Yui were used as a theme song and insert song respectively.[4] A sequel, Kaiji 2 (Kaiji 2: Jinsei Dakkai Game), was released on November 5, 2011. Directed by Tōya Satō, starring Tatsuya Fujiwara, Yūsuke Iseya, Yuriko Yoshitaka, Katsuhisa Namase and Teruyuki Kagawa.[36][37] Both movies are a little different, both having alternate choices of what Kaiji did in the manga/anime, but all have the same settings and events in different orders and rule changes in each gamble.

A more loosely adapted Chinese live-action movie, Animal World: Mr. Nobody, starring Li Yifeng, was released on June 29, 2018 in China and other countries. Netflix has acquired the global digital rights to the film.[38][39]

Reception[edit]

Kaiji is a popular series in Japan and the manga has sold over 20 million copies as of July 2012.[40][41] In 1998, it was the winner of the 22th Kodansha Manga Award in the General category.[42]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Live-Action Film of Kaiji Manga to Open Next Summer". Anime News Network. Retrieved June 18, 2018. 
  2. ^ "Kaiji Gambling Manga to Resume After 14-Month Break". Anime News Network. Retrieved June 18, 2018. 
  3. ^ Meek, Bradley. "Kaiji". THEM Anime Reviews. Retrieved July 13, 2018. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "カイジ 人生逆転ゲーム - 金曜ロードショー" (in Japanese). Nippon Television. Archived from the original on August 14, 2018. Retrieved August 14, 2018. 
  5. ^ "Tonegawa Anime Reveals Staff, Opening Theme Artist, New Cast Member, July 3 Premiere". Anime News Network. Retrieved June 22, 2018. 
  6. ^ "Kaiji Spinoff Tonegawa Anime Casts Toshiyuki Morikawa, Premieres in July". Anime News Network. Retrieved June 22, 2018. 
  7. ^ "Mr. Tonegawa Middle Management Blues Official DUBCAST℠ Edition Cast List". HIDIVE. August 3, 2018. Retrieved August 7, 2018. 
  8. ^ a b c d e "カイジ2~人生奪回ゲーム~ - 金曜ロードSHOW!" (in Japanese). Nippon Television. Archived from the original on August 14, 2018. Retrieved August 14, 2018. 
  9. ^ "福本伸行先生がアシスタントを募集しているようです - ざわめきフェノメノン". d.hatena.ne.jp (in Japanese). Hatena. Retrieved June 22, 2018. 
  10. ^ "Kaiji's Fukumoto Collaborates on New Manga About Social Media". Anime News Network. Retrieved July 26, 2018. 
  11. ^ "New Book Publisher DENPA Announces 'Kaiji', 'Inside Mari' and More!". Anime UK News. August 12, 2018. Retrieved August 12, 2018. 
  12. ^ "New Manga Publishing Company Denpa Launches, Licenses Kaiji, Inside Mari, More". Anime News Network. August 14, 2018. Retrieved August 14, 2018. 
  13. ^ "Kaiji and More Coming from New Manga Publisher Denpa". Crunchyroll. August 13, 2018. Retrieved August 14, 2018. 
  14. ^ "Tonegawa Manga Transfers to Comic Days App". Anime News Network. Retrieved June 22, 2018. 
  15. ^ "Kaiji's Fukumoto to Collaborate on Spinoff Manga Starring Tonegawa". Anime News Network. Retrieved June 22, 2018. 
  16. ^ "Kaiji Manga Gets New Spinoff About Ōtsuki". Anime News Network. Retrieved June 22, 2018. 
  17. ^ "Naisho no Tsubomi, Kaiji, Noramimi TV Anime Announced". Anime News Network. July 31, 2007. Retrieved July 26, 2018. 
  18. ^ "Kaiji -Ultimate Survivor-". Nippon Television. Retrieved August 13, 2018. 
  19. ^ "カイジ" (in Japanese). Nippon Television. Retrieved July 26, 2018. 
  20. ^ "逆境無頼カイジ" (in Japanese). Amazon Video. Retrieved July 26, 2018. 
  21. ^ "逆境無頼 カイジ 1" (in Japanese). VAP. Retrieved July 26, 2018. 
  22. ^ "逆境無頼 カイジ 9" (in Japanese). VAP. Retrieved July 26, 2018. 
  23. ^ "逆境無頼 カイジ DVD-BOX" (in Japanese). VAP. Retrieved July 26, 2018. 
  24. ^ "逆境無頼カイジ" (in Japanese). VAP. Retrieved July 26, 2018. 
  25. ^ "Kaiji - Against All Rules -". Nippon Television. Retrieved August 13, 2018. 
  26. ^ "Kaiji Gambling Manga Gets 2nd TV Anime Series". Anime News Network. January 27, 2011. Retrieved July 26, 2018. 
  27. ^ "Bet.1 「地の獄」" (in Japanese). Nippon Television. Retrieved July 26, 2018. 
  28. ^ "Bet.26「未来は僕らの…」" (in Japanese). Nippon Television. Retrieved July 26, 2018. 
  29. ^ "『逆境無頼カイジ 破戒録篇』" (in Japanese). VAP. Retrieved July 26, 2018. 
  30. ^ "逆境無頼カイジ 破戒録篇 DVD-BOX I" (in Japanese). VAP. Retrieved July 26, 2018. 
  31. ^ "逆境無頼カイジ 破戒録篇 DVD-BOX II" (in Japanese). VAP. Retrieved July 26, 2018. 
  32. ^ "逆境無頼カイジ 破戒録篇 ミュージック" (in Japanese). Nippon Television. Retrieved July 27, 2018. 
  33. ^ "Gambling Manga "Kaiji" adapted to Live-Action Film starring Tatsuya Fujiwara - GIGAZINE". en.gigazine.net. Retrieved 2017-10-23. 
  34. ^ Nippon Cinema Kaiji Movie 2009
  35. ^ "KAIJI". Nippon Television. Archived from the original on August 14, 2018. Retrieved August 14, 2018. 
  36. ^ Satô, Tôya (2011-11-05), Kaiji 2: Jinsei dakkai gêmu, Tatsuya Fujiwara, Yûsuke Iseya, Yuriko Yoshitaka, retrieved 2017-10-23 
  37. ^ "KAIJI 2". Nippon Television. Archived from the original on August 14, 2018. Retrieved August 14, 2018. 
  38. ^ "Nobuyuki Fukumoto's Kaiji Manga Inspires Chinese Live-Action Film". Anime News Network. Retrieved July 26, 2018. 
  39. ^ "'Animal World': Film Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 13, 2018. 
  40. ^ Cabrera, David (October 2, 2011). "Figma Kaiji Itou - Astro Toy". Anime News Network. Retrieved August 14, 2018. 
  41. ^ 人気マンガ家が語る "原稿料&印税"収入について (in Japanese). Livedoor. July 18, 2012. Retrieved August 14, 2018. 
  42. ^ Joel Hahn. "Kodansha Manga Awards". Comic Book Awards Almanac. Archived from the original on June 30, 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-06. 

External links[edit]