Lingwa de planeta
|Lingwa de planeta |
|Created by||Dimitri Ivanov, Aleksandr Lysenko, etc.|
|Setting and usage||International auxiliary language|
|Sources||Vocabulary from ten representative languages, namely Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Hindi, Persian, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish.|
|ISO 639-3||None (|
Lingwa de planeta (also Lidepla or LdP) is a constructed international auxiliary language based on widely spoken languages of the world, including Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Hindi, Persian, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish.
The main idea of Lidepla is a harmonious whole on the base of the most widespread and influential national languages. The intention is also for it to have something in common with the native languages of most of the people. With the various source languages from across the globe, it is one of the a posteriori languages.
Development of the language began in 2006 in Saint-Petersburg, Russia, by a group of enthusiasts, with Dmitri Ivanov being the project leader. The basic version of the language was published in June 2010.
Alphabet and pronunciation
|IPA phonemes||a||b||t͡ʃ||d||e||f||g||x~h||i||d͡ʒ||k||l||m||n||o||p||r||s||t||u||v (w)||w||k͡s~ɡ͡z (s)||i||d͡z|
- There is no preferred sound for /r/; any rhotic sound is equally acceptable.
The letter q is not used, and c occurs only in the digraph “ch”. The letter y represents the same vowel as “i”, but is never stressed. The following digraphs and letters are pronounced as follows, with examples:
- ch – /t͡ʃ/ as in “cheese”: chay — tea
- -ng, at the end of a word – /ŋ/ as in fang: feng — wind
- sh – /ʃ/ as in “shoes”: shi — ten
- j – /d͡ʒ/ as in “Jack”: jan — to know
- z – /d͡z/: zun — to go in for
- x – /ks/ as in “extra”: examen — exam
-ng- in the middle of a word is pronounced /ŋg/ (as is “ng” in finger). v and ending -ng may alternatively be pronounced as /w/ (as in wood) and /n/ (nose), respectively. x between two vowels may be slightly voiced,[clarification needed] and x before a consonant may be pronounced as /s/.
Some learning material uses /h/ for the letter h. The grammar allows that pronunciation, but gives /x/ as ch in German Fach as the primary.
For more details on the phonology, see the section Phonology below.
The general rule regarding the stress is:
- the vowel before the last consonant (or “y”) is stressed: máta (mother), família (family), akshám (evening), ruchéy (brook)
Lidepla tries to preserve the original sounding of the international words, though, so there are some exceptions, as follows, in short:
- some endings (-um, -us, -er, -en; -ik-, -ul-, and most but not all suffixes) are never stressed
- the doubled vowel is always stressed (like in adyoo, “bye”)
Description and grammar
The main idea behind Lidepla was to create a harmonious whole on the base of the most widespread and influential national languages of the planet. That results in the Lidepla vocabulary containing a fairly significant amount of non-European words, which makes Lidepla a World language. A general design principle for Lidepla was to have something in common with the native languages of most of the people on Earth.
The Lidepla grammar is based on 3 rules: the rule of the constant form, the rule of belonging to a word class, and the rule of direct word order.
Rule of the constant form
- me lubi – I love
- li lubi – they love
- yu ve lubi – you will love
- me wud lubi – I would love
- lubi (ba) – love!
The only two exceptions are:
- the plural of nouns, which is made by adding the suffix -s: kitaba (book) — kitabas (books), flor (flower) — flores (flowers), and
- the verb to be, which has its own forms:
- bi for the indefinite
- es for the present
- bin for the past
Rule of belonging to a word class
- lubi – to love (verb)
- luba – love (noun)
- lubi-she – loving (adjective)
- lubi-shem – lovingly, with love (adverb)
There are no fixed endings for the word classes, there are preferable, though. Thus most verbs end in i, but there are some exceptions (for example: jan – to know, shwo – to talk, etc).
By means of affixes and particles new words can be made up, both of the same class and of the other. For example:
|somni – to sleep||somni-she – sleeping|
|en-somni – to fall asleep||somni-shem – sleepingly, as if while asleep|
|somni-ki – to doze||somnishil – sleepy|
|gro-somni – to be dead to the world||somnilok – sleeping place|
|ek-somni-ki – to take a nap||somninik – sleepyhead|
|-ney||yes||yes||suffix||pronoun, noun||adjective||creates adjectives||mata-ney (mother's)|
|-ge||yes||yes||suffix||noun||noun||piece, single item||doga-ge (a single dog)|
|(e)s||yes||no||suffix||noun||noun||plurality (in a countable sense. Not needed if preceded by a plural quantifier like "mucho")||lingwas (languages)
|man-||yes||yes||prefix||noun||noun||masculine||man-doga (male dog)|
|gin-||yes||yes||prefix||noun||noun||feminine||gin-doga (female dog)|
|o||yes||no||suffix||noun||noun||masculine||dogo (male dog)|
|ina||yes||no||suffix||noun||noun||feminine||dogina (female dog)|
|(s)a||yes||no||suffix||verb||noun||Act and its manifestation/instance/result/resulting state||ada (addition)|
|ing||yes||no||suffix||verb||noun||The very action as process; repeated action; occupation, hobby, sport||swiming (swimming)|
|(i)ka||yes||no (with monosyllabic i-verbs, -ika is added with a hyphen)||no||suffix||verb||noun||object, thing, something concrete||novika (something new, novelty)
|tura||yes||no||suffix||verb||noun||end result/product of action||mixtura (mixture)|
|wat||yes||no||suffix||verb||noun||object of action||piwat (beverage)|
|er||yes||no||suffix||verb, noun||noun||both doer (person) and tool/ device/appliance||zwoer (doer)
|or, ator||no||no||suffix||doer or tool|
|-sha||yes||yes||suffix||verb||noun||doing person (noun form of the active participle marker -she)||lekti-sha (reader person)|
|ista||yes||no||suffix||noun||noun||person in relation to a certain doctrine (‘ism’) or profession||dentista (dentist)|
Principle of necessity
- Yeri me miti ela – “Yesterday I met her”, and
- Manya me miti ela – “Tomorrow I'll meet her”
both lack particles indicating time, because it is already obvious from “yesterday” and “tomorrow”. In the same manner:
- Me vidi mucho kinda – “I see a lot of children”
lacks the plural indicating ending -s, because plural is already indicated by mucho, in contrast to:
- Me vidi kindas – “I see children”
that uses the plural -s ending.
Rule of direct word order
If the word order is changed, it is shown by the use of special particles. For example, den is put before the object, like this:
- Ela lubi lu – “She loves him”, versus
- Den lu ela lubi, with the same meaning (literally “Him she loves”) – where the object lu is marked by placing den before it.
The basic personal pronouns of Lidepla are:
person singular plural 1 me nu 2 yu yu 3 ta li it
There is a distinction in third person singular between animate and inanimate: ta is used for humans and animals (corresponding to he/him, she/her, and it when used about an animal), and it about things and objects. If the speaker wishes to distinguish gender, there is also third person singular ela (she, her) and lu (he, him).
Just as in English, second person plural (you, you all) and singular (you) are both the same word: yu. Lidepla also has an indefinite personal pronoun: oni (one, they as in “they say that...”, and “one does not...”).
The short form of the possessive pronouns looks like this:
person singular plural 1 may nuy 2 yur yur 3 suy ley
The third person singular suy is universal and can be used as the possessive form for both ta, it, ela and lu – for ela and lu there's also the forms elay and luy.
The suffix -ney is used to form adjectives from nouns. Therefore, it is also possible to form longer possessive pronouns with the base form and the suffix -ney: mi-ney, yu-ney, etc.
Verb roots never change in Lidepla. Verbs belong to one of two types:
|1||i-verbs||end in consonant+i||vidi — to see
dumi — to think
fobisi — to frighten
pri — to like
chi — to eat
pi — to drink.
|1.1||monosyllabic i-verbs||subtype, in derivation their -i is always preserved||chi — chier, chiing
pi — pier, piing
|2||other||Ending in anything other than consonant+i.
fa-syao — to diminish, become smaller (syao small)
fa-muhim — to become more important (muhim important)
mah-hao — make better, improve (hao good).
|jan — to know
gun — to work
go — to go
yao — to want
lwo — to fall
krai — to cry
prei — to pray
joi — to rejoice, be happy
jui — to enjoy, revel in
emploi — to employ
kontinu — to continue.
Tense are formed by particles, or by suffixes.
|Present||Continuous||zai + verb||zai chi (s eating)|
|Present||Passive||gei + verb||gei chi (is being eaten)|
|Present||Conditional||wud + verb||wud chi (would eat)|
|Present||Perfect||he + verb||he vidi (have seen)
he chi (have eaten)
he gun (have worked)
|Past||Perfect||he + verb-te||he kuki-te (had cooked)|
|Past||Remote||gwo + verb||some time ago, earlier in life, have been to somewhere or used to do something|
|Past||Immediate||yus + verb||have just done something (the word yus means just)|
|Past||Continuous||zai + verb-te||zai chi-te (was eating)|
|Future||Simple||ve + verb||will do something, going to do something||ve shwo (will speak)|
|Future||Immediate||sal + verb||to be about to do something||sal go (about to go)
sal chifan (about to have a meal)
|Future||Perfect||ve he + verb||ve he chi (will have eaten)|
|Future||Continuous||ve zai + verb||ve zai chi (will be eating)|
Most Lidepla vocabulary is made up of international words of Latin origin. The most frequent words, though, are of English, Russian, Chinese, Arabic and Hindi origin. There are not definite endings for different parts of speech, so nearly any word can be easily incorporated. The words are adapted to Lidepla phonology and do not preserve original orthography – the pronunciation is preserved in first hand, not the spelling.
As of 2014, the Lidepla vocabulary had about 4,000 entries, meaning about 10,000 individual words, with an increasing number. For a word to be incorporated, the following principles are taken into account:
- short words without consonant clusters are preferred
- the word has to be widespread and/or phonetically familiar for speakers of at least a few different national languages. For example, the word darba (strike), of Arabic origin, is close to Russian "удар" (udar; strike), Chinese "打" (dǎ; to strike), and even English "drub".
- Brata snova dumi om to is similar to its equivalent in Russian (The brother is thinking about it again)
- Ta bu yao shwo to Chinese Tā bù yào shuō (They don't want to talk)
- Way yu go bak? to English Why do you go back? or Why are you going back?
- Me jan ke mata pri pi chay to Hindi[example needed](I know that mother likes to drink tea), and
- Pa sabah me safari is similar to Arabic في الصباح أسافر fi'ṣ-ṣabāḥ usāfir (In the morning I travel)
Distinction of the sounds w — v, d͡ʒ — t͡ʃ is not obligatory, that is they may be pronounced in the same way, as there are no minimal pairs for them. The ŋ sound is the same as in English (in -ing ending).
|Affricate||d͡z||t͡ʃ / d͡ʒ|
There are 5 vowels (a, e, i, o, u) in the language.
Development and use
The project is led by the psychologist Dmitri Ivanov. He laid the foundation of the language, using mainly the ideas of Otto Jespersen on the Novial language, and also the facts of Creole language development and structure, while linguists A. Vinogradova and E. Ivanova helped a lot during the early period of development. In 2007 A. Lysenko joined and became the main linguist of the project.
From the very beginning the project was open and widely discussed in a number of conlanger groups. As of 2014, more than 15 people contributed to the language considerably (that is, worked on vocabulary and grammar, translated and wrote original texts, including songs), not speaking about those who participated in discussions.
The basic version of the language was published on June 1, 2010. In some sources, the date of creation of Lidepla is stated to be 2006. It is thus important to clarify that the "basic version" of the language – that is, the version after which the basics of the language is not to be changed – was not published until 2010.
At the moment the language is used mainly on the Internet, when it comes to direct communication. About 10–15 people have mastered the language, and about 50 can use it in communication. A lot of texts have been translated, including rather spacious texts like Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll, and Sailor Ruterford in Maori captivity by Nikolay Chukovsky (son of Korney Chukovsky; translated from Russian), and also some tales. There are songs both written and translated, including an album by musician Jonny M, and subtitles made for cartoons and movies (like the popular Russian film Ivan Vasilievich: Back to the Future).
In 2017, a request was sent to the International Organization for Standardization as an attempt to obtain an ISO 639-3 language code for Lingwa de planeta, which was rejected the next year for the language "not appearing to be used in a variety of domains nor for communication within a community that includes all ages ."
Pater Noster in Lingwa de planeta:
Nuy Patra kel es pa swarga,
Our Father, which art in heaven,
- Статья в журнале СПбГУ (№ 13 (3855) 26 ОКТЯБРЯ 2012) (in Russian)
- Journal of Universal Language Archived 2014-05-19 at the Wayback Machine
- Grammar with examples, sections:
- English Wikibooks course, and: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RfItYf-cAig, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KUz_mjfqBIY
- Do note that -fula is an ending on its own, not containing the -ul- ending, and thus receives normal stress
- -ney is also used to form passive/past active participe
- Yahoo discussion group: “ ... While borrowing a word, we usually save its pronunciation, not spelling...”
- for example
- Libert, Alan Reed / Moskovsky, Christo (2011). Aspects of the Grammar and Lexica of Artificial Languages (PDF). Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Wien. p. 180. ISBN 978-3-631-59678-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-24.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- L. Carroll (2014) [Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland]. Alisa-ney Aventura in Divalanda (1 ed.). Cnoc Sceichín, Leac an Anfa, Cathair na Mart, Co. Mhaigh Eo, Éire: Evertype. p. 150. ISBN 978-1-78201-071-5.
- "Change Request Documentation: 2017-033".
- В. Кириллов (2012). "Лингва де планета (всепланетный language)" (in Russian). 13 (3855) (Журнал СПбГУ ed.): 23–24. Cite journal requires
- Alan Reed Libert (2013). "The Representation of Uralic Languages in Artificial International Auxiliary Languages" (PDF). Journal of Universal Language. 1 (14): 128–130. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-05-13.
- Alan Reed Libert (2012). "The Representation of Korean and Other Altaic Languages in Artificial International Auxiliary Languages" (PDF). 1 (13) (Journal of Universal Language ed.): 142–145. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-05-19. Cite journal requires
- Libert, Alan Reed; Moskovsky, Christo (2011). Aspects of the Grammar and Lexica of Artificial Languages (PDF). Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Wien. p. 180. ISBN 978-3-631-59678-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-24.
- Silvano La Lacerto Auclair (2011). "Lingwa de Planeta, ĉu hodiaŭa Esperanto?" (PDF) (in Esperanto) (105) (Riverego ed.): 17–20. Cite journal requires
- "Вы говорите на лидепла?". январь (Костер ed.). 2013. Cite journal requires
- Язык будущего (in Russian). 40 (1665) (Аргументы и Факты ed.). 2012. Cite journal requires
- О лидепла (radio report) (Петербурское радио ed.)
|Look up Appendix:Lingwa de Planeta Swadesh list in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikibooks has more on the topic of: Lingwa de planeta|
- Grammar with examples
- Dictionary (with a short grammar)
- Lingwa de Planeta – Neutral language for international communication