Lingwa de planeta
|Lingwa de planeta (Lidepla)|
|Created by||D.Ivanov, A.Lysenko and others|
|Setting and usage||International auxiliary language|
|Sources||Vocabulary from ten representative languages, namely English, Spanish, Portuguese, French, German, Russian, Arabic, Hindi, Chinese, Persian.|
|ISO 639-3||None (
Lingwa de planeta (also Lidepla, LdP) is a constructed international auxiliary language, whose development began in 2006 in Saint-Petersburg, Russia, by a group of enthusiasts, with Dmitri Ivanov being the project leader. The basic version of the language was published in 2010. Lidepla is based on the most widely spoken languages of the world, including Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Hindi, Persian, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish.
- 1 Concept
- 2 Project team and use of the language
- 3 Description of the language
- 4 Sample text
- 5 References
- 6 Literature
- 7 External links
The main idea was to create a harmonious whole on the base of the most widespread and influential national languages of the planet. That results in the Lidepla vocabulary containing a fairly significant amount of non-European words, making Lidepla a worldlang. A general design principle for Lidepla was to have something in common with the native languages of most of the people on Earth.
Project team and use of the language
The project leader is a psychologist, Dmitri Ivanov. He laid the foundation of the language. Linguists A. Vinogradova and E. Ivanova helped a lot during the early period of Lidepla development. In 2007 A. Lysenko joined and became the main linguist of the project.
From the very beginning the project was open and widely discussed in a number of conlanger groups. As of 2014, more than 15 people contributed to the language considerably (that is, worked on vocabulary and grammar, translated and wrote original texts, including songs), not speaking about those who participated in discussions.
At the moment the language is used in real communication, mainly in Internet (facebook, yahoo, Boards.net etc.). About 10-15 people master the language, about 50 can use it in communication. There are a lot of texts translated, including rather spacious texts like Alice's Adventures in Wonderland Lewis Carroll, and "Sailor Ruterford in Maori captivity" (by Nikolay Chukovsky, son of Korney Chukovsky, translated from Russian), and also some fairy-tales and tales. There are songs written/translated and sung, including an album of professional musician eo:Jonny M, and subtitles made for cartoons and films (like popular Russian film "Ivan Vasilievich: Back to the Future").
Description of the language
In some sources  the date of creation of Lidepla is stated to be 2006. It is important to say, though, that the "basic version" of the language was published only in 2010. The basics of the language is not to be changed after that.
Distinction of the sounds w — v, d͡ʒ — t͡ʃ is not obligatory, that is they may be pronounced in the same way, as there are no minimal pairs for them. The ŋ sound is the same as in English (in -ing ending).
|Affricate||d͡z||t͡ʃ / d͡ʒ|
There are 5 vowels (a, e, i, o, u) in the language.
Alphabet and pronunciation
- letter C c occurs only in Ch ch,
- letter Q q is not used,
- letter y means the same vowel as i, but is never stressed,
- letters ch, j, z mean affricates t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, d͡z, respectively: chay — tea, jan — to know, zun — to go in for,
- letter X x means the gs combination (between vowels may be pronounced as s): examen — exam,
- the sh combination means the ʃ consonant (like in "shoes'): shi — ten,
- the ng combination in the end of the word means the (optional) velar nasal (ŋ): feng — wind.
The general rule regarding the stress is: the vowel before the last consonant (or "y") is stressed: máta (mother), família (family), akshám (evening), ruchéy (brook). Lidepla tries to preserve the original sounding of the international words, though, so there are some exceptions, as follows:
- some endings (-um, -us, -er, -en; -ika, -ike, -ula) are never stressed,
- the doubled vowel is always stressed (like in adyoo (bye)).
Most Lidepla vocabulary is made up of international words of Latin origin. The part of the most frequent words are of English, Russian, Chinese, Arabic and Hindi origin, though. There are not definite endings for different parts of speech, so nearly any word can be easily incorporated (the words are adapted to Lidepla phonology and don't preserve original orthography).
As of 2014, in the Lidepla vocabulary there are about 4,000 entries, meaning about 10,000 individual words. The number is constantly increasing. For a word to be incorporated, the following principles are taken into account:
- the short words without consonant clusters are best
- the word has to be widespread and / or phonetically familiar for speakers of at least a few different national languages. For example, the word "darba", being of Arabic origin, is close to Russian "удар" ([udar]) and Chinese "da". Some resemblance may be found also as regarding English "strike" and Hindi "prahar".
- Brata snova dumi om to. The brother is thinking about it again. (Rus.)
- Ta bu yao shwo. He doesn't want to talk. (Chin. Tā bù yào shuō)
- Way yu go bak? Why do you go back? Why are you going back?
- Me jan ke mata pri pi chay. I know that mother likes to drink tea. (Hindi)
- Pa sabah me safari. In the morning I travel. (Arab.)
" ... While borrowing a word, we usually save its pronunciation, not spelling..."
The Lidepla grammar is based on 3 rules.
Rule of belonging to a word class
- lubi (to love)
- luba (love)
- lubi-she (loving)
- lubi-shem (lovingly, with love)
There are no fixed endings for the word classes, there are preferable, though. Thus most verbs end in "i", but there are some exceptions (jan (to know), shwo (to talk) etc.).
By means of affixes and particles new words can be made up, both of the same class and of the other. For example:
- somni (to sleep)
- en-somni (to fall asleep)
- somni-ki (to doze)
- ek-somni-ki (to take a nap)
- gro-somni (to be dead to the world)
- mah-somni, somnisi (to lull to sleep)
- somni-she (sleeping)
- somni-shem (sleepingly, as if while asleep)
- somni-ney (having taken a nap)
- somni-nem (sleepily)
- somni-yen (while sleeping)
- somnishil (sleepy)
- somnilok (sleeping place)
- somninik (sleepyhead).
Rule of the constant form
- me lubi (I love)
- li lubi (they love)
- yu ve lubi (you will love)
- me wud lubi (I would love)
- lubi (ba) (love!).
The only two exceptions are:
- the plural of nouns (kitaba (book) — kitabas (books), flor (flower) — flores (flowers),
- the verb "to be" has its own forms: bi / es / bin.
Principle of necessity
- Yeri me miti ela (Yesterday I met her). Manya me miti ela (Tomorrow I'll meet her).
- Me vidi mucho kinda (I see a lot of children). Me vidi kindas (I see children).
Rule of direct word order
If the word order is changed, it is shown by the use of special particles, for example "den" (is put before the object), for example: Ela lubi lu. Den lu ela lubi. — She loves him.
(Pater Noster, the Lord's prayer)
Nuy Patra kel es pa swarga,
hay Yur nam fa-sante,
hay Yur reging lai,
hay yur vola fulfil
i pa arda i pa swarga.
Dai ba a nu nuy pan fo jivi sedey
e pardoni ba a nu nuy deba,
kom nu pardoni toy-las kel debi a nu.
Bye dukti nu inu temta
e protekti nu fon bada.
- Статья в журнале СПбГУ (№ 13 (3855) 26 ОКТЯБРЯ 2012)
- Journal of Universal Language
- using mainly the ideas of Otto Jespersen on the Novial language, and also the facts of Creole language development and structure
- for example
- L. Carroll (2014) [Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland]. Alisa-ney Aventura in Divalanda (1 ed.). Cnoc Sceichín, Leac an Anfa, Cathair na Mart, Co. Mhaigh Eo, Éire: Evertype. p. 150. ISBN 978-1-78201-071-5.
- for example, Libert, Alan Reed / Moskovsky, Christo (2011). Aspects of the Grammar and Lexica of Artificial Languages (PDF). Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Wien. p. 180. ISBN 978-3-631-59678-4.
- Yahoo discussion group
- В. Кириллов (2012). "Лингва де планета (всепланетный language)" (in Russian). 13 (3855) (Журнал СПбГУ ed.): 23–24.
- Alan Reed Libert (2013). "The Representation of Uralic Languages in Artificial International Auxiliary Languages" (PDF). Journal of Universal Language. 1 (14): 128–130.
- Alan Reed Libert (2012). "The Representation of Korean and Other Altaic Languages in Artificial International Auxiliary Languages" (PDF). 1 (13) (Journal of Universal Language ed.): 142–145.
- Libert, Alan Reed; Moskovsky, Christo (2011). Aspects of the Grammar and Lexica of Artificial Languages (PDF). Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Wien. p. 180. ISBN 978-3-631-59678-4.
- Silvano La Lacerto Auclair (2011). "Lingwa de Planeta, ĉu hodiaŭa Esperanto?" (PDF) (in Esperanto) (105) (Riverego ed.): 17–20.
- "Вы говорите на лидепла?". январь (Костер ed.). 2013.
- Язык будущего (in Russian). 40 (1665) (Аргументы и Факты ed.). 2012.
- О лидепла (radio report) (Петербурское радио ed.)
|Wikibooks has more on the topic of: Lingwa de planeta|
- Lingwa de planeta--a step towards the global language (the main site of the project) (Older version)
- Site «Lideplandia»
- The Journal "Jive" ("Life") in Lidepla
- Classified word list (with English, Russian, German, Esperanto and Novial translations) (according to ULD, Rick Harrison)
- Automatic Esperanto-Lidepla translator. The characteristic feature of the program is that one can follow the whole translation process in all details.