List of heads of state of Argentina

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President of the Argentine Nation
Presidente de la Nación Argentina
Standard of the President of Argentina.svg
Presidential Standard
Mauricio Macri 2016.jpg
Incumbent
Mauricio Macri

since 10 December 2015
Style Excelentísimo Señor (m) Excelentísima Señora (f)
Residence Casa Rosada (government office)
Quinta de Olivos (official residence)
Chapadmalal Residence (summer house)
Term length Four years, renewable once
Inaugural holder Bernardino Rivadavia
Formation first: 1826 Constitution
current: 1853 Constitution, (amended in 1994).
Salary 77,855.65 Argentine pesos[1] (as of February 2016)
Website Office of the President
Coat of arms of Argentina.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Argentina
Foreign relations

Argentina has had many different types of heads of state, as well as many different types of government. During Pre-Columbian times the territories that today form Argentina were inhabited by nomadic tribes, without any defined government. During the Spanish colonization of the Americas, the King of Spain retained the ultimate authority over the territories conquered in the New World, appointing viceroys for local government. The territories that would later become Argentina were first part of the Viceroyalty of Peru, and then the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. The May Revolution started the Argentine War of Independence by replacing the viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros with the first national government. It was the Primera Junta, a junta of several members, which would grow into the Junta Grande with the incorporation of provincial deputies. The size of the Juntas gave room to internal political disputes among their members, so they were replaced by the First and Second Triumvirate, of three members. The Assembly of the Year XIII created a new executive authority, with attributions similar to that of a head of state, called the Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. A second Assembly, the Congress of Tucumán, declared independence in 1816 and promulgated the Argentine Constitution of 1819. However, this constitution was repealed during armed conflicts between the central government and the Federal League Provinces. This started a period known as the Anarchy of the Year XX, when Argentina lacked any type of head of state.

There was a new attempt to organize a central government in 1826. A new congress wrote a new constitution, and elected Bernardino Rivadavia as president in the process.[2] Thus Rivadavia was the first president of Argentina. However, he resigned shortly after, and the 1826 constitution was repealed. The Argentine provinces then organized themselves as a confederation, without a central head of state. In this organization, the governors of Buenos Aires province took some duties such as the payment of external debt or the administration of the foreign relations in the name of all provinces.[3] Those governors were appointed by the Buenos Aires legislature, with the only exception of Juan Lavalle. Juan Manuel de Rosas kept the governor office for seventeen consecutive years, until Justo José de Urquiza defeated him at the 1852 Battle of Caseros. Urquiza then called for a new Constitutional Assembly, and promulgated the Argentine Constitution of 1853, which is the current Constitution of Argentina through amendments. In 1854, Urquiza became the first President of modern Argentina, acting both as head of government and head of state.[4] However, the Buenos Aires Province had rejected the Constitution and became an independent state until the aftermath of the 1859 Battle of Cepeda, although the internecine conflict continued. Only after the subsequent Battle of Pavón, in 1861, the former bonaerense leader Bartolomé Mitre became the first president of an unified Argentine Republic.[5]

The succession line of constitutional presidents run uninterrupted until 1930, when José Félix Uriburu took government through a civic-military coup d'état. For many decades, there was an alternance between legitimate Presidents and others that took government through illegitimate means. Those means included coups d'état, but also proscriptions of major political parties[6] and electoral fraud.[6][7] The last coup d'état occurred in 1976, and resulted in the National Reorganization Process, which ended in 1983. The retrospective recognition as presidents or heads of state of any de facto ruler that exercised its authority outside the Constitutional mandate is a controversial and relevant issue in Argentine politics.[8][9][10] However, their government actions were recognized as valid following the de facto government doctrine that used to legitimize them.[11] This doctrine was rejected by the 1994 amendment, and wouldn't be applicable for potential future coups. The current head of state is President Mauricio Macri, who took office on 10 December 2015.

Affiliation Keys[edit]

Abbreviation Party name (English) Party name (Spanish) Years
Unitarian Unitarian Unitarios 1826–1827, 1828-1829
Federal Federal Federales 1827-1828, 1829-1861
Liberal Liberal Party Partido Liberal 1862-1868
Independent Independent politician Político independiente 1868-1874
National National Party Partido Nacional 1874-1880
PAN National Autonomist Party Partido Autonomista Nacional 1880-1910, 1914-1916
PAN-Modernist National Autonomist Party - Modernist Line Partido Autonomista Nacional - Línea Modernista 1910-1914
UCR Radical Civic Union Unión Cívica Radical 1916-1930, 1983-1989, 1999-2001
Military Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic Fuerzas Armadas de la República Argentina 1930-1932, 1943-1946, 1955-1958, 1966-1973, 1976-1983
Concordancia Concordancia Concordancia 1932-1943
PDN National Democratic Party Partido Demócrata Nacional 1932-1938, 1942-1943
UCR-A Antipersonalist Radical Civic Union Unión Cívica Radical Antipersonalista 1938-1942
Labour Labour Party Partido Laborista 1946-1952
UCR-JR Radical Civic Union Renewal Board Unión Cívica Radical Junta Renovadora 1946-1952
Independent Independent Party Partido Independiente 1946-1952
Peronist Peronist Party Partido Peronista 1952-1955
UCR-I Intransigent Radical Civic Union Unión Cívica Radical Intransigente 1958-1963
UCR-P People's Radical Civic Union Unión Cívica Radical del Pueblo 1963-1966
PJ Justicialist Party Partido Justicialista 1973-1976, 1989-1999, 2001–2015
FREJULI Justicialist Liberation Front Frente Justicialista de Liberación 1973-1976
FREJUPO Justicialist Front of Popular Unity Frente Justicialista de Unidad Popular 1989-1995
UCD Union of the Democratic Centre Unión del Centro Democrático 1995-1999
Alianza Alliance for Work, Justice and Education Alianza para el Trabajo, la Justicia y la Educación 1999-2001
FPV Front for Victory Frente para la Victoria 2003-2015
PRO Republican Proposal Propuesta Republicana 2015–present
Cambiemos Cambiemos Cambiemos 2015–present

United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata (1810–1831)[edit]

Junta presidents (1810–1811)[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Notes
R.
Start End
Saavedra 2.jpg Cornelio Saavedra
(1759–1829)
25 May 1810 18 December 1810 President of the Primera Junta, at the beginning of the Argentine War of Independence. He is regarded as the first president of a national government.[12] [13]
18 December 1810 26 August 1811 President of the Junta Grande. Left to serve in the Army of the North.
Matheu.jpg Domingo Matheu
(1765–1831)
26 August 1811 23 September 1811 President of the Junta Grande, from Saavedra's departure to the dissolution of it. [14]

Triumvirates (1811–1814)[edit]

First Triumvirate
23 September 1811 – 8 October 1812
23 September 1811 – 23 March 1812 23 March 1812 – 8 October 1812
FelicianoChiclana.jpg
Feliciano Chiclana
(1761–1826)
Manuel de Sarratea.jpg
Manuel de Sarratea
(1774–1849)
Juanjpaso.jpg
Juan José Paso
(1758–1833)
Juan Martin de Pueyrredon por Villar.jpg
Juan Martín de Pueyrredón
(1776–1850)
Second Triumvirate
8 October 1812 – 31 January 1814
8 October 1812 – 20 February 1813 20 February 1813 – 19 August 1813 19 August 1813 – 5 November 1813 5 November 1813 – 31 January 1814
NRodriguez.jpg
Nicolás Rodríguez Peña
(1775–1853)
AntonioAlvarezJonte.jpg
Antonio Álvarez Jonte
(1784–1820)
Posadas.jpg
Gervasio Antonio de Posadas
(1757–1833)
Juanjpaso.jpg
Juan José Paso
(1758–1833)
José Julián Pérez
(1770–1840)
Juan Larrea.jpg
Juan Larrea
(1782–1847)

Supreme Directors (1814–1820)[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Notes
R.
Start End
Posadas.jpg Gervasio Antonio de Posadas
(1757–1833)
31 January 1814 9 January 1815 Chosen by the Assembly of the Year 1813. [15]
CarlosAlvearcolor.jpg Carlos María de Alvear
(1789–1852)
9 January 1815 18 April 1815 Forced to resign by a mutiny. [16]
Retrato más canónico de José de San Martín.jpg
Matiasdeirigoyen.jpg
Manuel de Sarratea.jpg
José de San Martín
(1778-1850)

Matías de Irigoyen
(1781-1839)

Manuel de Sarratea
(1774–1849)
18 April 1815 20 April 1815 Third Triumvirate. Interim government until the appointment of a new Supreme Director.
Jose Rondeau.jpg José Rondeau
(1773–1844)
20 April 1815 21 April 1815 Appointed successor of Alvear, could not take office because he was in command of the Army of the North [17]
Alvarez thomas.jpg Ignacio Álvarez Thomas
(1787–1857)
21 April 1815 16 April 1816 Acting, for Rondeau. Convened the Congress of Tucumán, that would declare Independence. [18]
Antonio Gonzalez Balcarce.jpg Antonio González de Balcarce
(1774–1819)
16 April 1816 9 July 1816 Interim. [19]
Juan Martin de Pueyrredon por Villar.jpg Juan Martín de Pueyrredón
(1776–1850)
9 July 1816 9 June 1819 First Argentine Head of State after the Argentine Declaration of Independence. Supported the Crossing of the Andes. [20]
Jose Rondeau.jpg José Rondeau
(1773–1844)
9 June 1819 1 February 1820 Decisively defeated at the Battle of Cepeda by Federalist forces opposed to the 1819 centralist Constitution. [21]
Juan Pedro Aguirre.jpg Juan Pedro Aguirre
(1781–1837)
1 February 1820 11 February 1820 Interim. Dissolved the National Congress and endorsed the Buenos Aires Cabildo to choose a Governor for Buenos Aires Province instead of the previous post of Governor Mayor.

Governors of Buenos Aires Province managing international relations (1820–1826)[edit]

Between 1820 and 1826, the United Provinces functioned as a loose alliance of autonomous provinces put together by pacts and treaties (v.g. Treaty of Pilar, Treaty of Benegas, Quadrilateral Treaty) but lacking any actual central government until the 1825 Constitutional Congress.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Notes
R.
Start End
Matiasdeirigoyen.jpg Matías de Irigoyen
(1781–1839)
11 February 1820 18 February 1820 He had been Governor Mayor from 9 to 11 February 1820 and was promoted interim as Governor until the appointment of Manuel de Sarratea.
Sarratea.gif Manuel de Sarratea
(1774–1849)
18 February 1820 6 March 1820 The political crisis that existed in the country led to his government lacked support from both Buenos Aires and the other provinces. Thus he resigned shortly afterwards.
JuanRamonGonzalezBalcarce.gif Juan Ramón González Balcarce
(1773–1836)
6 March 1820 11 March 1820 Interim. Resigned.
Sarratea.gif Manuel de Sarratea
(1774–1849)
11 March 1820 2 May 1820 He returned to office after the end of the brief government of Balcarce. The circumstances did not improve and ended up resigning a second time.
Iramosmexia.jpg Ildefonso Ramos Mexía
(1769–1854)
2 May 1820 20 June 1820
Cabildo-Buenos-Aires.jpg Ildefonso Ramos Mexía and Miguel Estanislao Soler 20 June 1820 23 June 1820 They took power simultaneously.
M E Soler por Bettinoti.jpg Miguel Estanislao Soler
(1783–1849)
23 June 1820 29 June 1820 He assumed de facto, after an armed uprising, but his government lasted a few days, when the Board of Representatives appointed Manuel Dorrego.
Manuel Dorrego.jpg Manuel Dorrego
(1787–1828)
29 June 1820 20 September 1820 Interim.
Martín Rodríguez 2.JPG Martín Rodríguez
(1771–1845)
20 September 1820 2 April 1824 He signed the Treaty of Benegas and the Quadrilateral.
General Juan Gregorio Las Heras.jpg Juan Gregorio de Las Heras
(1780–1866)
2 April 1824 7 February 1826 He called a Constituent Congress that enacted several laws for which the Unitary Republic was proclaimed. He resigned because of that republic.

First presidential government (1826–1827)[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political
party
Notes
R.
Start End
Bernardino Rivadavia 2.jpg Bernardino Rivadavia
(1780–1845)
8 February 1826 27 June 1827 Unitarian Elected by the Constituent Assembly of 1826, before the promulgation of the 1826 constitution.[2] Waged the Cisplatine War. Resigned as the Constitution was rejected by the provinces and the outcome of the war generated popular discontent. [2]:23–32
Vicente Lopez 1860.jpg Vicente López y Planes
(1785–1856)
7 July 1827 18 August 1827 - Elected as interim president by the Constituent Assembly of 1826. His mandate was limited to close the Assembly and call for elections for a new governor of Buenos Aires. [2]

Governors of Buenos Aires Province managing international relations (1827–1831)[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political
party
Notes
R.
Start End
Dorrego a color.jpg Manuel Dorrego
(1787–1828)
18 August 1827 1 December 1828 Federal Ended the Cisplatine War. Deposed and executed by Juan Lavalle. [22]
Lavalle.jpg Juan Lavalle
(1797–1841)
1 December 1828 26 June 1829 Unitarian Coup d'état. Defeated in battle, resigned under siege [23]
Viamonte.jpg Juan José Viamonte
(1774–1843)
26 June 1829 6 December 1829 Federal Interim. [24]
Juan Manuel de Rosas.jpg Juan Manuel de Rosas
(1793–1877)
6 December 1829 4 January 1831 Federal First term. Convened the Federal Pact and waged war against the Unitarian League. [25]

Argentine Confederation (1831–1861)[edit]

Governors managing international relations (1831–1852)[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political
party
Notes
R.
Start End
Juan Manuel de Rosas.jpg Juan Manuel de Rosas
(1793–1877)
4 January 1831 17 December 1832 Federal Governor of Buenos Aires Province. First term. Convened the Federal Pact and waged war against the Unitarian League. Resigned. [25]
JuanRamonGonzalezBalcarce.gif Juan Ramón Balcarce
(1773–1836)
17 December 1832 4 November 1833 Federal Governor of Buenos Aires Province. Ousted by the Revolution of the Restorers. [26]
Viamonte.jpg Juan José Viamonte
(1774–1843)
4 November 1833 27 June 1834 Federal Governor of Buenos Aires Province. Interim. [27]
Vicente Maza.jpg Manuel Vicente Maza
(1779–1839)
27 June 1834 7 March 1835 Federal Governor of Buenos Aires Province. Interim. [28]
Juan Manuel de Rosas.jpg Juan Manuel de Rosas
(1793–1877)
7 March 1835 3 February 1852 Federal Governor of Buenos Aires Province with the sum of public power. Waged the Argentine and Uruguayan Civil Wars, the War of the Confederation and the French and Anglo-French blockade of the Río de la Plata. Designated "Supreme Chief of the Argentine Confederation" in 1851. Defeated by Justo José de Urquiza at the Battle of Caseros. Resigned. [29]
Vicente Lopez 1860.jpg Vicente López y Planes
(1785–1856)
3 February 1852 6 April 1852 - Governor of Buenos Aires Province. Interim. Governor of Buenos Aires Province without national powers until 26 July 1852.
Urquiza.jpg Justo José de Urquiza
(1801–1870)
6 April 1852 31 May 1852 Federal Governor of Entre Ríos Province.

Presidents (1852–1861)[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Elections Political
party
Notes
R.
Start End
Urquiza.jpg Justo José de Urquiza
(1801–1870)
31 May 1852 5 March 1854 - Federal Provisional Director of the Argentine Confederation. Governor of Buenos Aires Province between 26 July 1852 and 4 September 1852. [30]
5 March 1854 5 March 1860 1854 Elected by the electoral college. President of the Argentine Confederation. The reincoporation of the State of Buenos Aires was negotiated after the 1859 Battle of Cepeda. First constitutional President of Argentina.
Santiago Derqui 1860.JPG Santiago Derqui
(1809–1867)
5 March 1860 4 November 1861 1860 Federal Indirect elections. On October 18, 1860, a Constitutional reform is adopted, proclaiming the Argentine Republic. Resigned after the national government lost the Battle of Pavón to Buenos Aires. [31]
JEPedernera.jpg Juan Esteban Pedernera
(1796–1886)
4 November 1861 12 December 1861 - Unitarian Vice-president under Derqui, assumed the presidency after his resignation. Resigned on the dissolution of the national government. [31]

Argentine Republic (1861–present)[edit]

Presidents (1861–present)[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Elections Political
party
(Coalition)
Notes
R.
Start End
Bartolomé Mitre.jpg Bartolomé Mitre
(1821–1906)
12 December 1861 12 October 1862 - Liberal Governor of State of Buenos Aires. Acting President of Argentina after the Battle of Pavón. Confirmed as Interim President by the National Congress in 12 April 1862. [32]
12 October 1862 12 October 1868 1862 Indirect elections. First president of the unified country. Waged the War of the Triple Alliance.
Marcos Paz2.jpg Marcos Paz
(1811-1868)
12 June 1865 2 January 1868 - Liberal Vice-president under Mitre. Acting president as Mitre commanded the army in the War of the Triple Alliance. Died in office.
Domingo Faustino Sarmiento 6.jpg Domingo Faustino Sarmiento
(1811–1888)
12 October 1868 12 October 1874 1868 Independent Indirect elections. Ended the War of the Triple Alliance. [32]
Nicolás Avellaneda 2.jpg Nicolás Avellaneda
(1837–1885)
12 October 1874 12 October 1880 1874 National Indirect elections. Federalization of Buenos Aires City in September 1880. [32]
Alejo Julio Argentino Roca.JPG Julio Argentino Roca
(1843–1914)
12 October 1880 12 October 1886 1880 PAN Indirect elections. First term. [33]
Juarez celman president.jpg Miguel Juárez Celman
(1844–1909)
12 October 1886 6 August 1890 1886 PAN Indirect elections. Resigned following the Revolution of the Park. [34]
Retrato de Carlos Pellegrini.jpg Carlos Pellegrini
(1846–1906)
6 August 1890 12 October 1892 - PAN Vice-president under Juárez Celman, assumed the presidency after his resignation. [34]
Luis Sáenz Peña painting.jpg Luis Sáenz Peña
(1822–1907)
12 October 1892 22 January 1895 1892 PAN Indirect elections. Resigned. [35]
JEUriburu 2.jpg José Evaristo Uriburu
(1831–1914)
22 January 1895 12 October 1898 - PAN Vice-president under Sáenz Peña, assumed the presidency after his resignation. [35]
Roca, second mandate.jpg Julio Argentino Roca
(1843–1914)
12 October 1898 12 October 1904 1898 PAN Indirect elections. Second term. [36]
Manuel A Quintana.jpg Manuel Quintana
(1835–1906)
12 October 1904 12 March 1906 1904 PAN Indirect elections. Died in office. [37]
José Figueroa Alcorta.jpg José Figueroa Alcorta
(1860–1931)
25 January 1906 12 March 1906 - PAN Vice-president under Quintana. Acting president during his illness. [37]
12 March 1906 12 October 1910 - Vice-president under Quintana, assumed the presidency after his death.
Roque S Peña.jpg Roque Sáenz Peña
(1851–1914)
12 October 1910 9 August 1914 1910 PAN
Modernist
Indirect elections. Promoted the Sáenz Peña law, which allowed secret, universal and mandatory suffrage. Died in office. [38]
Victorino de la Plaza.JPG Victorino de la Plaza
(1840–1919)
9 August 1914 12 October 1916 - PAN Vice-president under Sáenz Peña, assumed the presidency after his death. [38]
Foto yrigoyen - presidente -presidenciagovar.jpg Hipólito Yrigoyen
(1852–1933)
12 October 1916 12 October 1922 1916 UCR Free indirect elections. First president elected under the Sáenz Peña law. First term. Maintained neutrality during World War I. [39]
MTAlvear-1922.jpg Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear
(1868–1942)
12 October 1922 12 October 1928 1922 UCR Free indirect elections. [39]
Yrigoyen en ventanilla del ferrocarril viaje a Santa Fe campaña electoral de 1926..jpg Hipólito Yrigoyen
(1852–1933)
12 October 1928 6 September 1930 1928 UCR Free indirect elections. Second term, ousted from office by a coup d'état. [40]
Dr Enrique Martinez.JPG Enrique Martínez
(1887-1938)
5 September 1930 6 September 1930 - UCR Vice-president under Yrigoyen. Acting president during his illness. Ousted from office by a coup d'état
José Félix Uriburu.jpg José Félix Uriburu
(1868–1932)
6 September 1930 20 February 1932 - Military First coup d'état in modern Argentine history. Beginning of the Infamous Decade. [41]
Agustín P. Justo.jpg Agustín Pedro Justo
(1876–1943)
20 February 1932 20 February 1938 1931 PDN
(Concordancia)
Indirect elections held with fraud, the UCR was proscribed.[6] [42]
Robertomortiz.jpg Roberto María Ortiz
(1886–1942)
20 February 1938 27 June 1942 1937 UCR-A
(Concordancia)
Indirect elections held with fraud.[7] Resigned for health reasons, died one month later. [43]
Ramoncastillo.jpg Ramón Castillo
(1873–1944)
3 July 1940 27 June 1942 - PDN
(Concordancia)
Vice-president under Ortiz. Acting president during his illness. [7]
27 June 1942 4 June 1943 - Vice-president under Ortiz, assumed the presidency after his resignation. Deposed in a coup d'état. End of the Infamous Decade.
Gral. Arturo Rawson.jpg Arturo Rawson
(1885–1952)
4 June 1943 7 June 1943 - Military Coup d'état. Beginning of the Revolution of '43. Ousted from office.[44] [7]
Pedro-p-ramirez.jpg Pedro Pablo Ramírez
(1884–1962)
7 June 1943 9 March 1944 - Military Coup d'état. On 25 February 1944, Ramírez temporarily delegated powers to Edelmiro Farrell. Resigned. [7]
Farrel.jpg Edelmiro Julián Farrell
(1887–1980)
25 February 1944 9 March 1944 - Military Acting president. [7]
9 March 1944 4 June 1946 - Declared war to the Axis powers. Called elections. End of the Revolution of '43.
Juan Peron con banda de presidente.jpg Juan Domingo Perón
(1895–1974)
4 June 1946 4 June 1952 1946 Labour
UCR-JR
Independent
Free indirect elections. First term. Reelection enabled by the Constitution of 1949. [45]
4 June 1952 20 September 1955 1951 Peronist Free direct elections. Second term. First election to allow women's suffrage. Victory with 62.49% of votes, highest victory in Argentine elections. Ousted from office by a coup d'état.
- - 20 September 1955 23 November 1955 - - During fighting between loyalist forces and rebels there was no clear president
GralEduardoLonardi.jpg Eduardo Lonardi
(1896–1956)
23 September 1955 13 November 1955 - Military Coup d'état. Beginning of the Revolución Libertadora. Ousted from office. [46]
PEAramburu.jpg Pedro Eugenio Aramburu
(1903–1970)
13 November 1955 1 May 1958 - Military Coup d'état. The 1949 Constitution is repealed and the 1853 Constitution is restored. Call for elections with Peronism proscribed. End of the Revolución Libertadora. [46]
Arturo Frondizi.jpg Arturo Frondizi
(1908–1995)
1 May 1958 29 March 1962 1958 UCR-I Indirect elections with Peronism proscribed. Ousted from office by a coup d'état. [47]
Jose Maria Guido icono.JPG José María Guido
(1910–1975)
29 March 1962 12 October 1963 - UCR-I Provisional President of the Senate exercising the Executive Power, as the civil procedures to replace the deposed president were followed and Vice President Alejandro Gómez had resigned in 1958.[48] [47]
Illia banda presidencial.jpg Arturo Umberto Illia
(1900–1983)
12 October 1963 28 June 1966 1963 UCR-P Indirect elections with Peronism proscribed. Ousted from office by a coup d'état. [49]
Teniente General(R)PistariniPascual.jpg
Alte. Benigno Varela.JPG
Brig. Gral. Adolfo Teodoro Álvarez Melendi.JPG
Pascual Pistarini
(1915-1999)

Benigno Ignacio Varela
(1917-1996)

Adolfo Teodoro Álvarez
(1919-2012)
28 June 1966 29 June 1966 - Military Military Junta. Beginning of the Revolución Argentina.
Saludo militar de Onganía.jpg Juan Carlos Onganía
(1914–1995)
29 June 1966 8 June 1970 - Military Coup d'état. Ousted from office. [49]
Alte. Pedro Gnavi.jpg Pedro Alberto José Gnavi
(1917–1990)
8 June 1970 18 June 1970 - Military Chairman of the Junta of Commanders of the Armed Forces.
Levingston de civil.jpg Roberto Levingston
(1920–2015)
18 June 1970 23 March 1971 - Military Coup d'état. Ousted from office. [49]
Alejandro Agustín Lanusse.jpg Alejandro Lanusse
(1918–1996)
23 March 1971 26 March 1971 - Military Chairman of the Junta of Commanders of the Armed Forces.
26 March 1971 25 May 1973 - Coup d'état. Last ruler of the Revolución Argentina. Called for elections. Peronism proscription lifted.
Héctor José Cámpora (1973) - 2.jpg Héctor José Cámpora
(1909–1980)
25 May 1973 13 July 1973 March
1973
PJ
(FREJULI)
Free direct elections. First Peronist president after the proscription. Cámpora annulled the proscription that remained specifically over Juan Perón, and resigned. The Vice President, Vicente Solano Lima, resigned with him. [50]
RaulLastiri.jpg Raúl Alberto Lastiri
(1915–1978)
13 July 1973 12 October 1973 - PJ Interim. President of the Chamber of Deputies, assumed the presidency after Cámpora's and Solano Lima's resignations. Alejandro Díaz Bialet, President of the Senate and ahead of Lastiri in the succession line, was on a diplomatic mission in Africa at that time.[51] [50]
Perón de traje (1973).jpg Juan Domingo Perón
(1895–1974)
12 October 1973 1 July 1974 Sept.
1973
PJ
(FREJULI)
Free direct elections. Third term. Died in office. [50]
Isabelita ícono.jpg Isabel Martínez de Perón
(1931–)
29 June 1974 1 July 1974 - PJ
(FREJULI)
Vice-president under Juan Perón. Acting president during his illness. [52]
1 July 1974 24 March 1976 - Vice-president of Juan Perón, assumed the presidency after his death. First female president in the Americas. Ousted from office by a coup d'état.
Ítalo Argentino Luder.jpg Ítalo Lúder
(1916–2008)
13 September 1975 16 October 1975 - PJ Provisional President of the Senate. Acting president during Isabel Perón illness.
Jorge Rafael Videla 1976.PNG
Emilio Eduardo Massera.png
Brig.Gral.Agosti.jpg
Jorge Rafael Videla
(1925-2013)

Emilio Eduardo Massera
(1925-2010)

Orlando Ramón Agosti
(1924-1997)
24 March 1976 29 March 1976 - Military Military Junta. Beginning of the National Reorganization Process.
Jorge Rafael Videla 1976.PNG Jorge Rafael Videla
(1925–2013)
29 March 1976 29 March 1981 - Military Coup d'état. President of the Military Junta. Longest government of a de facto ruler. [53]
Roberto Viola con banda presidencial.jpg Roberto Eduardo Viola
(1924–1994)
29 March 1981 11 December 1981 - Military Appointed by Videla as President of the Military Junta. Powers and duties suspended on 21 November 1981 due to health problems. Ousted from office. [53]
Horacio Tomás Liendo
(1924–2007)
21 November 1981 11 December 1981 - Military Acting president during Viola suspension.
VicealmiranteLacoste.jpg Carlos Alberto Lacoste
(1929–2004)
11 December 1981 22 December 1981 - Military Interim president.
Galtieri.jpg Leopoldo Galtieri
(1926–2003)
22 December 1981 18 June 1982 - Military Coup d'état. President of the Military Junta. Waged the Falklands War (Spanish: Guerra de las Malvinas). Ousted from office. [53]
Al.St.Jean.JPG Alfredo Oscar Saint-Jean
(1926–1987)
18 June 1982 1 July 1982 - Military Interim president.
RBignone.jpg Reynaldo Bignone
(1928–)
1 July 1982 10 December 1983 - Military Coup d'état. Last ruler of the National Reorganization Process. Called for elections. [53]
Raúl Alfonsin.jpg Raúl Alfonsín
(1927–2009)
10 December 1983 8 July 1989 1983 UCR Free indirect elections. The 1989 presidential elections were anticipated. Alfonsín resigned during the transition and gave power to Carlos Menem six months in advance. [54]
Menem con banda presidencial.jpg Carlos Menem
(1930–)
8 July 1989 8 July 1995 1989 PJ
(FREJUPO)
Free indirect elections. First term. The 1994 amendment of the Argentine Constitution reduced the presidential term to four years and allowed a single consecutive reelection. [55]
8 July 1995 10 December 1999 1995 PJ
UCD
Free direct elections. Second term.
Fernando de la Rúa con bastón y banda de presidente.jpg Fernando de la Rúa
(1937–)
10 December 1999 20 December 2001 1999 UCR
(Alianza)
Free direct elections. Faced a severe economic crisis. Resigned after the December 2001 riots. Because his Vice-president Carlos Álvarez had resigned in October 2000 the Congress selected a new President. [56]
Ramón Puerta 90.jpg Ramón Puerta
(1951–)
20 December 2001 22 December 2001 - PJ Provisional President of the Senate exercising the Executive Power.
Adolfo Rodríguez Saá.jpg Adolfo Rodríguez Saá
(1947–)
22 December 2001 30 December 2001 - PJ Elected by the Congress for three months, with instructions to call for elections. Resigned. [57]
Eduardo Camaño.jpg Eduardo Camaño
(1946–)
30 December 2001 2 January 2002 - PJ President of the Chamber of Deputies exercising the Executive Power.
Eduardo duhalde presidente.jpg Eduardo Duhalde
(1941–)
2 January 2002 25 May 2003 - PJ Elected by the Congress, with instructions to complete De la Rúa's term. Called early elections for 27 April 2003. [57]
Nestor-Kirchner.jpg Néstor Kirchner
(1950–2010)
25 May 2003 10 December 2007 2003 PJ
(FPV)
Free direct elections. Completed the remaining months of De la Rúa's term. Kirchner finished second to Carlos Menem in the first round, but Menem forfeited the runoff that was to follow. [58]
Xi Jinping y Cristina Fernández en Argentina (cropped).jpg Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
(1953–)
10 December 2007 10 December 2011 2007 PJ
(FPV)
Free direct elections. First term. First female president of Argentina elected as head of the list. [59]
[60]
10 December 2011 9 December 2015 2011 PJ
(FPV)
Free direct elections. Second term. By judicial ruling, her mandate ended 9 December 2015 at 24:00 hs.
President Macri (2016).jpg Mauricio Macri
(1959–)
10 December 2015 Incumbent 2015 PRO
(Cambiemos)
Free direct elections. First president elected in a ballotage, defeating Daniel Scioli.

Timeline of Head of States of Argentina by affiliation[edit]

2010
2020
2030
2040
2050
2060
2070
2080
2090
2100
2110

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Iván Ruiz and Maia Jastreblansky (February 11, 2016). "El primer sueldo de Mauricio Macri como Presidente: $131.421 brutos" [The first salary of Mauricio Macri as president: $ 131,421 gross] (in Spanish). La Nación. Retrieved February 11, 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c d Mendelevich, p. 28
  3. ^ Mendelevich, p. 33
  4. ^ Mendelevich, p. 24
  5. ^ Mendelevich, p. 46
  6. ^ a b c Mendelevich, p. 130—131
  7. ^ a b c d e f Mendelevich, p. 136
  8. ^ Braslavsky, Guido (25 September 2008). "Alfonsín vuelve a la Casa Rosada para inaugurar su propia estatua" [Alfonsín returns to the Casa Rosada to open his own statue] (in Spanish). Clarín (newspaper). Retrieved November 7, 2010. 
  9. ^ "Quieren quitar los nombres de militares de las calles" [They want to removemilitary names from the streets] (in Spanish). El Argentino. 21 November 2008. Retrieved November 7, 2010. 
  10. ^ Ginzberg, Victoria (19 January 2003). "Los protocolos y las decisiones políticas" [Protocols and political rulings] (in Spanish). Página/12. Retrieved November 7, 2010. 
  11. ^ Groisman, Enrique. "Los gobiernos de facto en el derecho argentino" [De facto governments in Argentine law] (PDF) (in Spanish). Centro de estudios políticos y constitucionales. Retrieved November 7, 2010. 
  12. ^ "Buenos Aires, diciembre 16 de 1829.- El primer comandante de Patricios, el primer presidente de un gobierno patrio, pudo sólo quedar olvidado en su fallecimiento por las circunstancias calamitosas en que el país se hallaba. Después que ellas han terminado, sería una ingratitud negar a ciudadano tan eminente el tributo de honor rendido a su mérito, y a una vida ilustrada con tantas virtudes, que supo consagrar entera al servicio de su patria. El gobierno, para cumplir un deber tan sagrado, acuerda y decreta: Artículo 1º: En el cementerio del Norte se levantará, por cuenta del gobierno, un monumento en que se depositarán los restos del brigadier general D. Cornelio Saavedra. Artículo 2º: Se archivará en la Biblioteca Pública un manuscrito autógrafo del mismo brigadier general, con arreglo a lo que previene el decreto de 6 de octubre de 1821. Artículo 3º: Comuníquese y publíquese. Rosas – Tomás Guido".
  13. ^ Rosa, vol. II, p.199-306
  14. ^ Rosa, vol. II, p. 306-319
  15. ^ Rosa, Vol. III, p. 75-114
  16. ^ Rosa, vol. III, p. 114-129
  17. ^ Rosa, vol. III, p. 143
  18. ^ Rosa, vol. III, p. 143-160
  19. ^ Rosa, vol. III, p. 160
  20. ^ Rosa, vol. III, p. 161-242
  21. ^ Rosa, vol. III, p. 242-253
  22. ^ Rosa, vol. V, p.73-97
  23. ^ Rosa, vol. IV, p.97-117
  24. ^ Rosa, vol. IV, p 127-129
  25. ^ a b Rosa, vol. IV, p. 129-171
  26. ^ Rosa. vol. IV, p. 186-196
  27. ^ Rosa, vol. IV, p. 198-204
  28. ^ Rosa, vol. IV, p. 206-213
  29. ^ Rosa, vol. IV p. 219 - vol. V p. 489
  30. ^ Mendelevich, p. 38-41
  31. ^ a b Mendelevich, p. 42-45
  32. ^ a b c Mendelevich, p.46-52
  33. ^ Mendelevich, p. 53-56
  34. ^ a b Mendelevich, p. 57-65
  35. ^ a b Mendelevich, p. 66-72
  36. ^ Mendelevich, p. 73-79
  37. ^ a b Mendelevich, p. 80-88
  38. ^ a b Mendelevich, p. 89-101
  39. ^ a b Mendelevich, p. 102-112
  40. ^ Mendelevich, p. 113-125
  41. ^ Mendelevich, p. 126-129
  42. ^ Mendelevich, p. 130-135
  43. ^ Mendelevich, p. 136–155
  44. ^ Mendelevich, p. 145
  45. ^ Mendelevich, p. 156-176
  46. ^ a b Mendelevich, p. 177-186
  47. ^ a b Mendelevich, p. 187-195
  48. ^ Mendelevich, p. 193
  49. ^ a b c Mendelevich, p. 196-214
  50. ^ a b c Mendelevich, p. 215-228
  51. ^ Mendelevich, p. 223
  52. ^ Mendelevich, p. 229-235
  53. ^ a b c d Mendelevich, p. 236-241
  54. ^ Mendelevich, p. 242-245
  55. ^ Mendelevich, p. 247-252
  56. ^ Mendelevich, p. 253-262
  57. ^ a b Mendelevich, p. 263-277
  58. ^ Mendelevich, p. 278-282
  59. ^ Mendelevich, p. 283-292
  60. ^ La Nación - Servini de Cubría confirmó que el mandato de Cristina finaliza a las 23.59 de hoy

External links[edit]