Silla

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Silla
신라 (新羅)
57 BC–935 AD
Royal seal
Royal seal
Pre-Unified Silla at its height in 576.
Capital Gyeongju (Geumseong, then Seorabeol)
Languages Silla language
(Part of Old Korean)
Religion Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Shamanism
Government Monarchy
King
 •  57 BC – 4 Hyeokgeose (first)
 •  540–576 Jinheung
 •  654–661 Muyeol
 •  661–681 Munmu
 •  681–692 Sinmun
 •  927–935 Gyeongsun (last)
History
 •  Establishment 57 BC
 •  Introduction of Buddhism 530
 •  Campaigns of King Jinheung 551–585
 •  Unified Silla 668–935
 •  Handover to the Goryeo Dynasty 935 AD
Population
 •  7th century[1] est. 894,680 
 •  8th century[1] est. 2,000,000 
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Jinhan confederacy
Gojoseon
Goryeo Dynasty
Today part of  South Korea
 North Korea
Silla
Hangul
Hanja
Revised Romanization Silla
McCune–Reischauer Silla

Silla (57 BC[note 1] – 935 AD) (Hangul신라; Hanja新羅; RRSilla Korean pronunciation: [ɕil.la]) was a kingdom located in southern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula. It was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, together with Baekje and Goguryeo. Silla was also one of the world's longest sustained dynasties. Although it was founded by King Park Hyeokgeose, the dynasty was ruled by the Gyeongju Kim (김, 金) clan for most of its 992-year history. It began as a chiefdom in the Samhan confederacies, once allied with China, but Silla eventually conquered the other two kingdoms, Baekje in 660 and Goguryeo in 668. Thereafter, Unified Silla or Later Silla, as it is often referred to, occupied most of the Korean Peninsula, while the northern part re-emerged as Balhae, a successor-state of Goguryeo. After nearly 1000 years of rule, Silla fragmented into the brief Later Three Kingdoms, Silla, Hubaekje, and Taebong, handing over power to its successor dynasty Goryeo in 935.[2]

Name[edit]

From its founding until its growth into a full-fledged kingdom, Silla was recorded with various hanja phonetically approximating its native Korean name: 斯盧 (사로, Saro), 斯羅 (사라, Sara), 徐那(伐) (서나[벌], Seona[beol]), 徐耶(伐) (서야[벌], Seoya[beol]), 徐羅(伐) (서라[벌], Seora[beol]), and 徐伐 (서벌, Seobeol). In 503, King Jijeung standardized on the characters 新羅(신라), which in Modern Korean is pronounced "Shilla".

An etymological hypothesis (there are various other speculations) suggests that the name Seorabeol might have been the origin of the word Seoul meaning "capital city" and also the name of the present capital of South Korea, a city previously known as Hanseong (漢城) or Hanyang (漢陽). The name of the Silla capital might have been changed into the Late Middle Korean form Syeobeul (셔블) meaning "royal capital city," which soon might have altered into Syeoul (셔울), and finally resulted in Seoul (서울) in the Modern Korean language.

The name of either Silla or its capital Seorabeol was also widely used throughout Northeast Asia as the ethnonym for the people of Silla, appearing as Shiragi in the language of the Yamato Japanese and as Solgo or Solho in the language of the medieval Jurchens and their later descendants, the Manchus, respectively. In the modern Mongolian language, Korea and Koreans are still known as Солонгос Solongos, which seems to be an alteration of Silla influenced by the Mongolian word for "rainbow" (солонго solongo).

Silla was also referred to as Gyerim (鷄林, 계림), literally "chicken forest," a name that has its origins in the forest near the Silla capital where by legend the state's founder was hatched from the egg of a cockatrice (Kor. gyeryong, 雞龍, 계룡, literally "chicken-dragon").

History[edit]

Gold ornament from early Silla.

Scholars have traditionally divided Silla history into three distinct periods: Early (trad. 57 BC–654 AD), Middle (654–780), and Late (780–935).

Shifting of power[edit]

The Park clan held power for three generations before a coup by the Seok clan. During the reign of the first Seok ruler, Talhae of Silla, the Kim clan's presence in Silla is mentioned in the form of a tale in which Kim Alji is born from a golden box that Hogong discovered. The Park and Seok clans constantly fought each other for power and both were eventually overthrown by the Kim clan. The Kim clan then ruled over Silla for many generations with the Park and Seok clans as nobility. The final ruler of Later Silla, King Gyeongsun, was a member of the Kim clan.

Founding[edit]

During the Proto–Three Kingdoms period, the city-states of central and southern Korea were grouped into three confederacies called Samhan. Silla began as Saro-guk, a statelet within the 12-member confederacy called Jinhan. Saro-guk consisted of six villages and six clans.

According to Korean records, Silla was founded by King Park Hyeokgeose in 57 BC, around present-day Gyeongju. Hyeokgeose is said to have been hatched from an egg laid from a white horse, and when he turned 13 six clans submitted to him as king and established Saro (or Seona)[who?]. He is also the progenitor of the Park (박) clan, now one of the most common family names in Korea.

Although lack of archaeological evidence[citation needed], the Samguk Sagi and History of the Northern Dynasties say that the originally Lelang Commandery area which later became the Jinhan confederacy was the origin of Silla.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]

Early period[edit]

By the 2nd century, Silla existed as a distinct state in the southeastern area of the Korean peninsula. It expanded its influence over neighboring Jinhan chiefdoms, but through the 3rd century was probably no more than the strongest city-state in a loose federation.

To the west, Baekje had centralized into a kingdom by about 250, overtaking the Mahan confederacy. To the southwest, Byeonhan was being replaced by the Gaya confederacy. In northern Korea, Goguryeo, a kingdom by about 50 CE, destroyed the last Chinese commandary in 313 and had grown into a threatening regional power.

Emergence of a centralized monarchy[edit]

A golden inner cap. 5-6th century Silla.

King Naemul (356–402) of the Kim clan established a hereditary monarchy, eliminating the rotating power-sharing scheme, and the leader's now truly royal title became Maripgan (from the native Korean roots mari or meori meaning "head" or "hair" and gan or han meaning "great, grand, many, much," which was previously used for ruling princes in southern Korea, and which may have some relationship with the Mongol/Turkic title Khan). In 377, it sent emissaries to China and established relations with Goguryeo.

Facing pressure from Baekje in the west and Japan in the south,[11] in the later part of the 4th century, Silla allied with Goguryeo. However, when Goguryeo began to expand its territory southward, moving its capital to Pyongyang in 427, Nulji was forced to ally with Baekje.

By the time of King Beopheung (514–540), Silla was a full-fledged kingdom, with Buddhism as state religion, and its own era name systems. Silla absorbed the Gaya confederacy during the Gaya–Silla Wars, annexing Geumgwan Gaya in 532 and conquering Daegaya in 562, thereby expanding its borders to the Nakdong River basin.

King Jinheung (540–576) established a strong military force. Silla helped Baekje drive Goguryeo out of the Han River (Seoul) territory, and then wrested control of the entire strategic region from Baekje in 553, breaching the 120-year Baekje-Silla alliance. Also, King Jinheung established the Hwarang.

The early period ended with the demise of the "hallowed bone" (seonggol) rank with the death of Queen Jindeok.

Korea's and Iran's long-running relationship started with cultural exchanges date back to the Three Kingdoms of Korea era, more than 1600 years ago by the way of the Silk Road. A dark blue glass was found in the Cheonmachong Tomb, one of Silla's royal tombs unearthed in Gyeongju. An exotic golden sword was found in Gyerim-ro, a street also located in Gyeongju. These are all relics that are presumed to be sent to Silla from ancient Iran or Persia through the Silk Road. It was only during the Goryeo Dynasty during King HyeonJong's reign when trade with Persia was officially recorded in Korean history. But in academic circles, it is presumed that both countries had active cultural exchanges during the 7th century Silla era which means the relationship between Korea and Iran began more than 1500 years ago."If a history book written by the Persian scholar Khurdadbid, it states that Silla is located at the eastern end of China and reads 'In this beautiful country Silla, there is much gold, majestetic cities and hardworking people. Their culture is comparable with Persia'.[12]

Later Silla[edit]

An artifact from Silla
Tortoise Shell Comb
Monarchs of Korea
Silla
(Pre-unification)
  1. Hyeokgeose 57 BCE – 4 CE
  2. Namhae 4–24
  3. Yuri 24–57
  4. Talhae 57–80
  5. Pasa 80–112
  6. Jima 112–134
  7. Ilseong 134–154
  8. Adalla 154–184
  9. Beolhyu 184–196
  10. Naehae 196–230
  11. Jobun 230–247
  12. Cheomhae 247–261
  13. Michu 262–284
  14. Yurye 284–298
  15. Girim 298–310
  16. Heulhae 310–356
  17. Naemul 356–402
  18. Silseong 402–417
  19. Nulji 417–458
  20. Jabi 458–479
  21. Soji 479–500
  22. Jijeung 500–514
  23. Beopheung 514–540
  24. Jinheung 540–576
  25. Jinji 576–579
  26. Jinpyeong 579–632
  27. Seondeok 632–647
  28. Jindeok 647–654
  29. Muyeol 654–661
Reliquary from 7th century Silla.

In the 7th century Silla allied itself with the Chinese Tang dynasty. In 660, under King Muyeol (654-661), Silla subjugated Baekje. In 668, under King Munmu (King Muyeol's successor) and the General Kim Yu-shin, Silla conquered Goguryeo to its north. Silla then fought for nearly a decade to expel Chinese forces on the peninsula intent on creating Tang colonies there to finally establish a unified kingdom as far north as modern Pyongyang.[13] The northern region of the defunct Goguryeo state later reemerged as Balhae.

Silla's middle period is characterized by the rising power of the monarchy at the expense of the jingol nobility. This was made possible by the new wealth and prestige garnered as a result of Silla's unification of the peninsula, as well as the monarchy's successful suppression of several armed aristocratic revolts following early upon unification, which afforded the king the opportunity of purging the most powerful families and rivals to central authority. Further, for a brief period of about a century from the late 7th to late 8th centuries the monarchy made an attempt to divest aristocratic officialdom of their landed base by instituting a system of salary payments, or office land (jikjeon, 직전, 職田), in lieu of the former system whereby aristocratic officials were given grants of land to exploit as salary (the so–called tax villages, or nogeup, 녹읍, 祿邑).

By the late 8th century, however, these royal initiatives had failed to check the power of the entrenched aristocracy. The mid to late 8th century saw renewed revolts led by branches of the Kim clan which effectively limited royal authority. Most prominent of these was a revolt led by Kim Daegong that persisted for three years. One key evidence of the erosion of kingly authority was the rescinding of the office land system and the re-institution of the former tax village system as salary land for aristocratic officialdom in 757.

The middle period of Silla came to an end with the assassination of King Hyegong in 780, terminating the kingly line of succession of King Muyeol, the architect of Silla's unification of the peninsula. Hyegong‘s demise was a bloody one, the culmination of an extended civil war involving most of the kingdom‘s high–ranking noble families. With Hyegong‘s death, during the remaining years of Silla the king was reduced to little more than a figurehead as powerful aristocratic families became increasingly independent of central control.

Thereafter the Silla kingship was fixed in the house of King Wonseong (785–798), though the office itself was continually contested among various branches of the Kim lineage.

Nevertheless, the middle period of Silla witnessed the state at its zenith, the brief consolidation of royal power, and the attempt to institute a Chinese style bureaucratic system.

Decline and fall[edit]

The last king of Silla, King Gyeongsun (r. 927–935).

The final century and a half of the Silla state was one of nearly constant upheaval and civil war as the king was reduced to little more than a figurehead and powerful aristocratic families rose to actual dominance outside the capital and royal court.

The tail end of this period, called the Later Three Kingdoms period, briefly saw the emergence of the kingdoms of Later Baekje and Later Goguryeo, which were really composed of military forces capitalizing on their respective region's historic background, and Silla's submission to the Goryeo dynasty.

Society and politics[edit]

A crown from late 5th or early 6th Silla.
Monarchs of Korea
Silla
(Post-unification)
  1. Munmu 661–681
  2. Sinmun 681–691
  3. Hyoso 692–702
  4. Seongdeok 702–737
  5. Hyoseong 737–742
  6. Gyeongdeok 742–765
  7. Hyegong 765–780
  8. Seondeok 780–785
  9. Wonseong 785–798
  10. Soseong 798–800
  11. Aejang 800–809
  12. Heondeok 809–826
  13. Heungdeok 826–836
  14. Huigang 836–838
  15. Minae 838–839
  16. Sinmu 839
  17. Munseong 839–857
  18. Heonan 857–861
  19. Gyeongmun 861–875
  20. Heongang 875–886
  21. Jeonggang 886–887
  22. Jinseong 887–897
  23. Hyogong 897–912
  24. Sindeok 912–917
  25. Gyeongmyeong 917–924
  26. Gyeongae 924–927
  27. Gyeongsun 927–935

From at least the 6th century, when Silla acquired a detailed system of law and governance, social status and official advancement were dictated by the bone rank system. This rigid lineage-based system also dictated clothing, house size and the permitted range of marriage.

Since its emergence as a centralized polity Silla society had been characterized by its strict aristocratic makeup. Silla had two royal classes: "sacred bone" (seonggol, 성골, 聖骨) and "true bone" (jingol, 진골, 眞骨). Up until the reign of King Muyeol this aristocracy had been divided into "sacred bone" and "true bone" aristocrats, with the former differentiated by their eligibility to attain the kingship. This duality had ended when Queen Jindeok, the last ruler from the "sacred bone" class, died in 654.[14] The numbers of "sacred bone" aristocrats had been decreasing for generations, as the title was only conferred to those whose parents were both "sacred bones", whereas children of a "sacred" and a "true bone" parent were considered as "true bones". There were also many ways for a "sacred bone" to be demoted to a "true bone", thus making the entire system even more likely to collapse eventually.

The king (or queen) theoretically was an absolute monarch, but royal powers were somewhat constrained by a strong aristocracy.

The "Hwabaek" (화백-和白) served as royal council with decision-making authorities on some vital issues like succession to the throne or declarations of war. The Hwabaek was headed by a person (Sangdaedeung) chosen from the "sacred bone" rank. One of the key decisions of this royal council was the adoption of Buddhism as state religion.[15]

Following unification Silla began to rely more upon Chinese models of bureaucracy to administer its greatly expanded territory. This was a marked change from pre-unification days when the Silla monarchy stressed Buddhism, and the Silla monarch's role as a "Buddha-king". Another salient factor in post-unification politics were the increasing tensions between the Korean monarchy and aristocracy.

Other items uncovered during the excavation include a silver bowl engraved with an image of the Persian goddess Anahita; a golden dagger from Persia; clay busts; and figurines portraying Middle Eastern merchants. Samguk Sagi—the official chronicle of the Three Kingdoms era, compiled in 1145—contains further descriptions of commercial items sold by Middle Eastern merchants and widely used in Silla society. The influence of Iranian peoples culture was profoundly felt in other ways as well, most notably in the fields of music, visual arts, and literature. The popularity of Iranian designs in Korea can be seen in the widespread use of pearl-studded roundels and symmetrical, zoomorphic patterns. An ancient Persian epic poem, the Kushnameh, contains detailed descriptions of Silla.[16]

Military[edit]

The early Silla military was built around a small number of Silla royal guards designed to protect royalty and nobility and in times of war served as the primary military force if needed. Due to the frequency of conflicts between Baekje and Goguryeo as well as Yamato Japan, Silla created six local garrisons one for each district. The royal guards eventually morphed into "sworn banner" or Sodang units. In 625 another group of Sodang was created. Garrison soldiers were responsible for local defense and also served as a police force.

A number of Silla's greatest generals and military leaders were Hwarang (equivalent to the Western knights or chevaliers). Originally a social group, due to the continuous military rivalry between the Three Kingdoms of Korea, they eventually transformed from a group of elite male aristocratic youth into soldiers and military leaders. Hwarang were key in the fall of Goguryeo (which resulted in the unification of the Korean Peninsula under Unified Silla) and the Silla–Tang Wars, which expelled Tang forces in the other two Korean kingdoms.

Culture[edit]

The Silla bell was cast in 771 CE.

The capital of the Silla kingdom was Gyeongju. A great number of Silla tombs can still be found in the centre of Gyeongju. Silla tombs took the form of a stone chamber which was surrounded by a soil mound.The historic area around Gyeongju was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 2000.[17] Much of it is also protected as part of Gyeongju National Park. Additionally, two villages near Gyeongju area names of which are Hahoe and Yangdong would be submitted for UNESCO heritages in 2008 or later by related cities and the South Korean government.[18] Since the tombs were harder to break into than those of Baekje, a larger amount of objects has been preserved.[19] Notable amongst these are Silla's elaborate gold crowns and jewelry.

The Bronze Bell of King Seongdeok the Great attracts a large number of tourists. The bell produces a distinctive sound, about which there is a legend. Cheomseongdae near Gyeongju is the oldest extant astronomical observatory in East Asia, while some disagree on its exact functions. It was built during the reign of Queen Seondeok (632–647).

Muslim traders brought the name "Silla" to the world outside the traditional East Asian sphere through the Silk Road. Geographers of the Arab and Persian world, including ibn Khurdadhbih, al-Masudi, Dimashiki, Al-Nuwayri, and al-Maqrizi, left records about Silla.

The current descendants to the Silla dynasty fall under the Kim name. Family records since the last ruler have been provided, but these records have yet to be fully verified. "The Kushnameh, that tells of a Persian prince who went to Silla in the seventh century and got married with a Korean princess, thus forming a royal marriage.” Park Geun-hye said during a Festival celebrating Iran and Korea’s 1500’s years of shared cultural ties.[20]

Buddhism[edit]

This standing statue of the Bhaisajyaguru Buddha is made of gilt bronze, made in the Silla period.

Buddhism was introduced to Silla in 528.[21] Silla had, however, been exposed to the religion for over a century during which the faith had certainly made inroads into the native populace. It was the Buddhist monk Ado who first exposed Silla to Buddhism when he arrived to proselytize from Goguryeo in the mid 5th century.[22] However, according to legend, the Silla monarchy was convinced to adopt the faith by the martyrdom of the Silla court noble Ichadon, who was executed for his Buddhist faith by the Silla king in 527 only to have his blood flow the color of milk.

The importance of Buddhism in Silla society of the late early period is difficult to exaggerate. From King Beopheung and for the following six reigns Silla kings adopted Buddhist names and came to portray themselves as Buddhist–kings.[23] Buddhism in Silla was, more so than in the case of Baekje and Goguryeo, an officially sponsored faith. Its state–protection aspects were emphasized. The Hwarang corps, an elite corps of youthful warriors that would play a central role in Silla unification of the peninsula, had strong connections to Buddhism, particularly the worship of the Maitreya Buddha. The late early period of Silla saw Buddhism‘s apogee there. A great number of temples were built, often financed and sponsored by high-ranking nobility, the most notable being Hwangnyongsa, Bulguksa and Seokguram. Hwangyongsa (Imperial Dragon) temple in particular emphasized the power of the monarchy and Buddhism‘s role in state protection and aggrandizement. The nine stories of its wooden pagoda, perhaps the tallest manmade structure in East Asia of the period, were said to symbolize the nine nations destined to submit to Silla rule. Silla attached great importance to the pagoda, building them of stone as well as wood.

With Silla unification Buddhism came to play a less perceptible role in politics as the monarchy attempted to adopt Chinese Confucian institutions of statecraft to govern an enlarged state and to curb the power of the aristocratic families. Nevertheless, Buddhism still enjoyed a central place in larger Silla society. Hundreds of Silla monks traveled to Tang China in search of education and for the procurement of much needed Buddhism sutras.

Silla's strong Buddhist nature is also reflected by the thousands of remnant Buddhist stone figures and carvings, mostly importantly on Namsan. The international influence of the Tang Dynasty on these figures and carvings can be witnessed in the hallmarks of a round full form, a stern expression of the face, and drapery that clings to the body, but stylistic elements of native Korean culture can still be identified. [24]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ 57 BC according to the Samguk Sagi; however Seth 2010 notes that "these dates are dutifully given in many textbooks and published materials in Korea today, but their basis is in myth; only Goguryeo may be traced back to a time period that is anywhere near its legendary founding."

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b 박용운 (1996). 고려시대 개경연구 147~156쪽. 
  2. ^ http://www.shilla.or.kr/shilla_culture/ Retrieved on 2008-03-08
  3. ^ Horesh, N. (2014). Asian Thought on China's Changing International Relations. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 175. ISBN 978-1137299321.  "According to the Samguksagi entry for the 38th year of King Bak Hyeogeose of Silla, it is claimed that refugees from Qin settled in Jinhan, that is south-eastern Korea."
  4. ^

    History of the Northern Dynasties Volume 94, History of Silla

    English

    Silla is descendent of Jinhan confederacy. Its land is in southeast of Goguryeo and it is old land of Lelang Commandery of Hang dynasty. It is called Jinhan or Qinhan. According to Xiangyun (相伝), founders were fugitives who came in avoiding hardship during the period of Qing dynasty. Mahan gave east land to them and made those Qing people live there. Therefore, this is called Qinghan. Their language and name are similar to Chinese.

    Classical Chinese

    新罗者,其先本辰韩种也。地在高丽东南,居汉时乐浪地。辰韩亦曰秦韩。相传言秦世亡人避役来适,马韩割其 东界居之,以秦人,故名之曰秦韩。其言语名物,有似中国人。....其文字、甲兵,同于中国。
    北史 卷94 列傳第82 四夷
  5. ^

    Samgungnyusa volume 1

    English

    The History of the Later Han Dynasty writes, "An old person from Chenhan State said that some refugees came to Korea from the Chinese Empire of Qin, and Mahan gave them some land of her eastern border.

    Classical Chinese

    後漢書云。辰韓耆老自言。秦之亡人來適韓國。而馬韓割東界地以與之。相呼為徒。有似秦語。故或名之為秦韓。
    三國遺事 卷1
  6. ^

    Samguk Sagi volume 1

    English

    The location of Jinhan is east of Mahan. In old saying, they are old fugitives who came to Korea to avoid hardship from Qing dynasty. And Mahan said they gave them east land.

    Classical Chinese

    前此 中國之人 苦秦亂東來者衆 多處馬韓東 與辰韓雜居 至是寖盛 故馬韓忌之 有責焉
    三國史記 新羅本紀 卷1 赫居世居西干
  7. ^

    Ri Zhi Lu Volume 29

    English

    The location of Jinhan is east of Mahan. They are fugitives who came to Korea to avoid hardship of Qing dynasty. Mahan said they gave east land to them. They set up castle fences and their language is similar to the one in Qing dynasty. It is also called as Qinghan.

    Classical Chinese

    辰韩亦曰秦韩,相传言秦世亡人避役来适,马韩割其东界居之。以秦人故,名之曰秦韩。其言语名物有似中国人。
    日知錄 卷29
  8. ^

    Record of the Three Kingdoms Book of Wei, Volume 30, History of Jinhan

    English

    The location of Jinhan is east of Mahan. In old saying, they are old fugitives who came to Korea to avoid hardship from Qing dynasty. And Mahan said they gave them east land.

    Classical Chinese

    辰韓在馬韓之東,其耆老傳世,自言古之亡人避秦役來適韓國,馬韓割其東界地與之。
    三國志 魏書卷30辰韓伝
  9. ^

    Book of the Later Han Volume 85, History of Jinhan

    English

    People of Jinhan are old fugitives who came to Korea to avoid hardship of Qing dynasty. Mahan said they gave east land to them. In Jinhan, country is called “Bang (邦)”,arrow is called “Hu (弧)”, thief is called “Kou (寇)” ,”Xingjiu (行酒)” called as “Xingshang (行觴)” (Turning cups of alcoholic drink) and they call each other as “Tu (徒)”. Their language is similar to language of Qing. So, this place is also called as Qinghan.

    Classical Chinese

    耆老自言秦之亡人,避苦役,適韓國,馬韓割東界地與之。其名國為邦,弓为弧,賊為寇,行酒為行觴,相呼為徒,有似秦語,故或名之為秦韓。
    後漢書 卷85辰韓伝
  10. ^

    Book of Jin Volume 97, History of Jinhan

    English

    The location of Jinhan is east of Mahan. They are fugitives who came to Korea to avoid hardship of Qing dynasty. Mahan said they gave east land to them. They set up castle fences and their language is similar to the one in Qing dynasty. It is also called as Qinghan.

    Classical Chinese

    辰韓在馬韓之東,自言秦之亡人避役入韓,韓割東界以居之,立城柵,言語有類秦人,由是或謂之爲秦韓。
    晋書 巻97辰韓伝
  11. ^ [1]
  12. ^ "Cultural ties put Iran, S Korea closer than ever for cooperation". Tehran Times. 2016-05-05. Retrieved 2017-04-13. 
  13. ^ Encyclopedia of World History, Vol II, P371 Silla Dynasty, Edited by Marsha E. Ackermann, Michael J. Schroeder, Janice J. Terry, Jiu-Hwa Lo Upshur, Mark F. Whitters, ISBN 978-0-8160-6386-4
  14. ^ "성골 [聖骨]". Empas Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2006-08-29. 
  15. ^ The Bone Ranks and Hwabaek
  16. ^ "1,500 Years of Contact between Korea and the Middle East". Middle East Institute. Retrieved 2017-04-13. 
  17. ^ 매일신문
  18. ^ '하회마을·양동마을 세계문화유산 추진
  19. ^ Connor p. 268
  20. ^ "Cultural ties put Iran, S Korea closer than ever for cooperation". Tehran Times. 2016-05-05. Retrieved 2017-04-13. 
  21. ^ Park, Jin Y. article "Buddhism in Korea" in Keown and Prebish 2010 : 449.
  22. ^ Buddhism of Silla http://www.shilla.or.kr/shilla_culture/shilla_bulgeo.asp
  23. ^ http://www.koreandb.net/Buddhism/buddhist1-main2.htm Retrieved on 2008-03-08
  24. ^ Birmingham Museum of Art (2010). Birmingham Museum of Art : guide to the collection. [Birmingham, Ala]: Birmingham Museum of Art. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-904832-77-5. 

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