List of most massive stars

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This is a list of the most massive stars so far discovered, in solar masses (M).

Uncertainties and caveats[edit]

Most of the masses listed below are contested and, being the subject of current research, remain under review and subject to constant revision of their masses and other characteristics. Indeed, many of the masses listed in the table below are inferred from theory, using difficult measurements of the stars' temperatures and absolute brightnesses. All the masses listed below are uncertain: both the theory and the measurements are pushing the limits of current knowledge and technology. Either measurement or theory, or both, could be incorrect. For example, VV Cephei could be between 25–40 M, or 100 M, depending on which property of the star is examined.

Artist's impression of disc of obscuring material around a massive star.

Massive stars are rare; astronomers must look very far from the Earth to find one. All the listed stars are many thousands of light years away and that alone makes measurements difficult.

In addition to being far away, many stars of such extreme mass are surrounded by clouds of outflowing gas created by extremely powerful stellar winds; the surrounding gas interferes with the already difficult-to-obtain measurements of stellar temperatures and brightnesses and greatly complicates the issue of estimating internal chemical compositions and structures.[a] This obstruction leads to difficulties in calculating parameters.

Eta Carinae is the bright spot hidden in the double-lobed dust cloud. It is the most massive star that has a Bayer designation. It was only discovered to be (at least) two stars in the past few decades.

Both the obscuring clouds and the great distances make it difficult to judge whether the star is just a single supermassive object or, instead, a multiple star system. A number of the "stars" listed below may actually be two or more companions orbiting too closely to distinguish by our telescopes, each star being massive in itself but not necessarily “supermassive” to either be on this list, or near the top of it. Other combinations are possible – for example a supermassive star with one or more smaller companions or more than one giant star – but without being able to see inside the surrounding cloud, it is difficult to know the truth of the matter. More globally, statistics on stellar populations seem to indicate that the upper mass limit is in the 100–200 solar mass range.[1]

Rare reliable estimates[edit]

Eclipsing binary stars are the only stars whose masses are estimated with some confidence. However note that almost all of the masses listed in the table below were inferred by indirect methods; only a few of the masses in the table were determined using eclipsing systems.

WR 25 is a binary star, whose orbit around its obscured companion provided a constraint on its mass.

Amongst the most reliable listed masses are those for the eclipsing binaries NGC 3603-A1, WR 21a, and WR 20a. Masses for all three were obtained from orbital measurements.[b] This involves measuring their radial velocities and also their light curves. The radial velocities only yield minimum values for the masses, depending on inclination, but light curves of eclipsing binaries provide the missing information: inclination of the orbit to our line of sight.

Relevance of stellar evolution[edit]

Some stars may once have been heavier than they are today. It is likely that many have suffered significant mass loss, perhaps as much as several tens of solar masses, expelled by the process of superwind, where high velocity winds are driven by the hot photosphere into interstellar space. This process is similar to superwinds generated by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in form red giants or planetary nebulae. The process forms an enlarged extended envelope around the star that interacts with the nearby interstellar medium and infusing the region with elements heavier than Hydrogen or Helium.

There are also – or rather were – stars that might have appeared on the list but no longer exist as stars, or are supernova impostors; today we see only the debris.[c] The masses of the precursor stars that fueled these cataclysms can be estimated from the type of explosion and the energy released, but those masses are not listed here (see § Black holes below).

Mass limits[edit]

There are two related theoretical limits on how massive a star can possibly be: the accretion limit and the Eddington mass limit. The accretion limit is related to star formation: After about 120 M have accreted in a protostar, the combined mass should have become hot enough for its heat to drive away any further incoming matter. In effect, the protostar reaches a point where it evaporates away material as fast as it collects new material. The Eddington limit is based on light pressure from the core of an already-formed star: As mass increases past ~150 M, the intensity of light radiated from a Population I star's core will become sufficient for the light-pressure pushing outward to exceed the gravitational force pulling inward, and the surface material of the star will be free to float away into space.

Accretion limits[edit]

Astronomers have long hypothesized that as a protostar grows to a size beyond 120 M, something drastic must happen. Although the limit can be stretched for very early Population III stars, and although the exact value is uncertain, if any stars still exist above 150–200 M they would challenge current theories of stellar evolution.

Studying the Arches Cluster, which is currently the densest known cluster of stars in our galaxy, astronomers have confirmed that stars in that cluster do not occur any larger than about 150 M.

The R136 cluster is an unusually dense collection of young, hot, blue stars.

Rare ultramassive stars that exceed this limit – for example in the R136 star cluster – might be explained by the following proposal: Some of the pairs of massive stars in close orbit in young, unstable multiple-star systems must occasionally collide and merge where certain unusual circumstances hold that make a collision possible.[2]

Eddington mass limit[edit]

A limit on stellar mass arises because of light-pressure: For a sufficiently massive star the outward pressure of radiant energy generated by nuclear fusion in the star's core exceeds the inward pull of its own gravity. The lowest mass for which this effect is active is the Eddington limit.

Stars of greater mass have a higher rate of core energy generation, and heavier stars' luminosities increase far out of proportion to the increase in their masses. The Eddington limit is the point beyond which a star ought to push itself apart, or at least shed enough mass to reduce its internal energy generation to a lower, maintainable rate. The actual limit-point mass depends on how opaque the gas in the star is, and metal-rich Population I stars have lower mass limits than metal-poor Population II stars, with the hypothetical metal-free Population III stars having the highest allowed mass, somewhere around 300 M.

In theory, a more massive star could not hold itself together because of the mass loss resulting from the outflow of stellar material. In practice the theoretical Eddington Limit must be modified for high luminosity stars and the empirical Humphreys–Davidson limit is used instead.[3]

List of the most massive stars[edit]

The following two lists show a few of the known stars with an estimated mass of 25 M or greater, including the stars in open cluster, OB association and H II reigon.

The first list gives stars that are estimated to be 100 M or larger. The majority of stars thought to be more than 100 M are shown, but the list is incomplete.

The second list gives examples of stars 25–100 M, but is far from a complete list. Note that all O-type stars have masses greater than 15 M and catalogs of such stars (GOSS, Reed) list hundreds of cases.

In each list, the method used to determine the mass is included to give an idea of uncertainty: Binary stars being more securely determined than indirect methods such as conversion from luminosity, extrapolation from stellar atmosphere models, ... . The masses listed below are the stars’ current (evolved) mass, not their initial (formation) mass.

Legend
Wolf–Rayet star
Luminous blue variable
O-type star
B-type star
Stars with 100 M or greater
Star name Mass
(M, Sun = 1)
Approx. distance

from earth (in light-years)

Effective

temperature (K)

Method used to estimate mass Refs.
BAT99-98 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 226 165,000 45,000 Luminosity/atmosphere model [4]
R136a1 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 215 163,000 46,000 Evolutionary model [5]
R136a7 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 199 163,000 49,000 Luminosity/atmosphere model [5]
Melnick 42 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 189 163,000 47,300 Luminosity/atmosphere model [6]
R136a2 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 187 163,000 50,000 Evolutionary model [5]
VFTS 1022 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 178 164,000 42,200 Luminosity/atmosphere model [6]
R136a5 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 171 157,000 47,000 Luminosity/atmosphere model [5]
R136a4 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 167 157,000 48,000 Luminosity/atmosphere model [5]
HSH95-46 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 160 163,000 49,000 Luminosity/atmosphere model [5]
R136a3 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 154 163,000 50,000 Evolutionary model [5]
VFTS 682 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 153 164,000 52,200 Luminosity/atmosphere model [7]
HD 15558 A (in IC 1805 of Heart Nebula) 152 24,400 39,500 Binary [8]
HSH95-36 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 149 163,000 52,000 Luminosity/atmosphere model [5]
Melnick 34 A (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 147 163,000 53,000 Luminosity/atmosphere model [9]
VFTS 482 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 145 164,000 42,200 Luminosity/atmosphere model [6]
R136c (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 142 163,000 51,000 Evolutionary model [10]
VFTS 1021 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 141 164,000 39,800 Luminosity/atmosphere model [6]
HD 268721 A (in N11 of LMC) 140 160,000 42,500 Luminosity/atmosphere model [11][d]
VFTS 506 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 138 164,000 47,300 Luminosity/atmosphere model [7]
Melnick 34 B (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 136 163,000 53,000 Luminosity/atmosphere model [9]
VFTS 545 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 133 164,000 47,300 Luminosity/atmosphere model [6]
HD 97950 B (WR 43b in HD 97950 of NGC 3603) 132 24,700 42,000 Luminosity/atmosphere model [12]
HD 269810 (in NGC 2032 of LMC) 130 163,000 52,500 Luminosity/atmosphere model [13]
WR 42e (in HD 97950 of NGC 3603) 123 25,000 43,000 Ejection in triple system [14][e]
R136a6 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 121 157,000 53,000 Luminosity/atmosphere model [5]
HD 97950 A1a (WR 43a A in HD 97950 of NGC 3603) 120 24,700 42,000 Binary [12]
R136b (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 120 163,000 37,000 Luminosity/atmosphere model [5]
LSS 4067 (in HM 1) 120 11,000 40,000 Evolutionary model [15]
WR 93 (in Pismis 24 of NGC 6357) 120 5,900 71,000 Evolutionary model [15]
MSP 183 (in Westerlund 2) 115 20,000 46,300 Luminosity/atmosphere model [16]
WR 24 (in Collinder 228 of Carina Nebula) 114 14,000 50,100 Evolutionary model [17]
HD 97950 C1 (WR 43c A in HD 97950 of NGC 3603) 113 22,500 44,000 Luminosity/atmosphere model [12][d]
WR 102ae (in Arches Cluster) 111.3 25,000 36,600 Luminosity/atmosphere model [18]
Cygnus OB2 #12 A (in Cygnus OB2) 110 5,200 13,700 Luminosity/atmosphere model [19][d]
HD 93129 Aa (in Trumpler 14 of Carina Nebula) 110 7,500 42,500 Luminosity/atmosphere model [20]
R146 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 109 164,000 63,000 Luminosity/atmosphere model [4]
VFTS 621 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 107 164,000 54,000 Luminosity/atmosphere model [6]
WR 21a A (Runaway star from Westerlund 2) 103.6 26,100 45,000 Binary [21]
R99 (in N41 of LMC) 103 164,000 28,000 Luminosity/atmosphere model [4][f]
HSH95-47 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 102 163,000 47,000 Luminosity/atmosphere model [5]
WR 102ah (in Arches Cluster) 101 25,000 33,900 Luminosity/atmosphere model [18]
WR 102ad (in Arches Cluster) 100.9 25,000 33,200 Luminosity/atmosphere model [18]
VFTS 457 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 100 164,000 39,800 Luminosity/atmosphere model [6]
Peony Star (WR 102ka near Galactic Center) 100 26,000 25,100 Luminosity/atmosphere model [22]
η Carinae A (in Trumpler 16 of Carina Nebula) 100 7,500 9,400-35,200 Luminosity/Binary [23]

A few examples of mass less than 100 M.

Some stars with masses 25–100 M
Star name Mass
(M, Sun = 1)
Approx. distance

from earth (in light-years)

Effective

temperature (K)

Refs.
WR 25 A (in Trumpler 16 of Carina Nebula) 98 6,500 50,100 [17][d]
R136a8 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 96 157,000 51,000 [24]
HD 38282 B (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 95 163,000 47,000 [25]
HM 1-6 (in HM 1) 95 11,000 44,700 [15]
HD 303308 (in Trumpler 16 of Carina Nebula) 93 9,200 51,300 [15]
HD 97950 A1b (WR 43a B in HD 97950 of NGC 3603) 92 24,800 40,000 [12]
WR 89 (in HM 1) 87 11,000 39,800 [17]
WR 102aj (in Arches Cluster) 86.3 25,000 32,900 [18]
BI 253 (Runaway star from Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 84 164,000 54,000 [6]
HD 93250 A (in Trumpler 16 of Carina Nebula) 83.3 7,500 46,000 [26][d]
WR 20a A (in Westerlund 2) 82.7 20,000 43,000 [27]
WR 20a B (in Westerlund 2) 81.9 20,000 43,000 [27]
Trumpler 27-27 (in Trumpler 27) 81 3,900 37,000 [15]
HD 38282 A (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 80 163,000 47,000 [25]
Arches-F15 (in Arches Cluster) 79.7 25,000 35,600 [18]
Pismis 24-17 (in Pismis 24 of NGC 6357) 78 5,900 42,700 [28]
HD 93632 (in Collinder 228 of Carina Nebula) 76 10,000 45,400 [15]
WR 22 A (in Bochum 10 of Carina Nebula) 75 8,300 44,700 [17][g]
HD 93128 (in Trumpler 14 of Carina Nebula) 75 8,000 51,300 [15]
Pismis 24-1NE (in Pismis 24 of NGC 6357) 74 6,500 42,500 [28]
WR 102af (in Arches Cluster) 70 25,000 36,900 [18]
HD 37974 (in N135 of LMC) 70 163,000 22,500 [29][h]
HD 93129 Ab (in Trumpler 14 of Carina Nebula) 70 7,500 44,000 [20]
M33 X-7 B (in Triangulum Galaxy) 70 2,700,000 35,000 [30]
HD 229059 (in Berkeley 87) 69 3,000 26,300 [15]
HD 93403 A (in Trumpler 16 of Carina Nebula) 68.5 10,400 39,300 [31]
HM 1-8 (in HM 1) 68 11,000 46,100 [15]
V661 Carinae (in Collinder 228 of Carina Nebula) 68 10,000 39,900 [15]
Arches-F18 (in Arches Cluster) 66.9 25,000 36,900 [18]
WR 102al (in Arches Cluster) 66.4 25,000 36,800 [18]
HD 5980 B (in NGC 346 of SMC) 66 200,000 45,000 [32]
Pismis 24-1SW (in Pismis 24 of NGC 6357) 66 6,500 40,000 [28]
BD+43° 3654 (Runaway star from Cygnus OB2) 64.6 5,400 40,400 [33]
Trumpler 27-23 (in Trumpler 27) 64 3,900 27,500 [15]
HD 93160 (in Trumpler 14 of Carina Nebula) 62 8,000 42,700 [15]
V2245 Cygni (in Cygnus OB9) 61.6 5,000 40,900 [33]
WR 102hb (in Quintuplet cluster) 61 26,000 25,100 [34]
HD 5980 A (in NGC 346 of SMC) 61 200,000 21,000-53,000 [32]
AB8 B (in NGC 602 of SMC) 61 197,000 45,000 [32]
Var 83 (in Triangulum Galaxy) 60 3,000,000 18,000-37,000 [35]
WR 87 (in HM 1) 59 11,000 44,700 [17]
HD 93204 (in Trumpler 16 of Carina Nebula) 59 9,200 46,100 [15]
WR 21a B (Runaway star from Westerlund 2) 58.3 26,000 50,680 [21]
WR 102ea (in Quintuplet cluster) 58 26,000 25,100 [34]
HD 305525 (in Collinder 228 of Carina Nebula) 58 10,000 43,600 [15]
CD Crucis B (in Hogg 15) 57 14,000 47,000 [36]
V1827 Cygni (in Cygnus OB2) 57 5,100 45,400 [33]
Arches-F28 (in Arches Cluster) 56.8 25,000 39,800 [18]
ζ Puppis (Naos in Vela R2 of Vela Molecular Ridge) 56.1 1,080 40,000 [37][i]
Arches-F21 (in Arches Cluster) 56 25,000 35,800 [18]
Plaskett's Star B (in Monoceros OB2) 56 5,250 33,000 [38]
WR 102ab (in Arches Cluster) 55.3 25,000 32,200 [18]
9 Sagittarii A (in NGC 6530 of Lagoon Nebula) 55 5,800 43,500 [39]
BD+40° 4210 (in Cygnus OB2) 54.1 5,000 21,400 [33]
WR 102ba (in Arches Cluster) 54 25,000 34,500 [18]
Plaskett's Star A (in Monoceros OB2) 54 5,250 33,500 [38]
R145 B (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 54 163,000 43,000 [40]
R145 A (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 53 163,000 50,000 [40]
WR 102bb (in Arches Cluster) 52.4 25,000 29,600 [18]
HD 93129 B (in Trumpler 14 of Carina Nebula) 52 7,500 44,000 [41]
Cygnus OB2-516 (in Cygnus OB2) 51.6 5,100 46,000 [42]
λ Cephei (Runaway star from Cepheus OB3) 51.4 3,100 36,000 [37]
WR 147S (in Cygnus OB2) 51 2,100 39,800 [17]
HD 303311 (in Trumpler 14 of Carina Nebula) 51 8,000 46,100 [15]
GCIRS 16SW A (WR101k A in Galactic Center) 50 26,000 24,400 [43]
GCIRS 16SW B (WR101k B in Galactic Center) 50 26,000 24,400 [43]
CX Circinus (in Pismis 20) 50 10,000 20,900 [15]
HM 1-12 (in HM 1) 50 11,000 41,900 [15]
τ Canis Majoris Aa (in NGC 2362) 50 5,120 32,000 [44]
WR 102bc (in Arches Cluster) 50 25,000 31,700 [18]
CD Crucis A (in Hogg 15) 48 14,000 56,000 [36]
LH54-425 A (in LH 54 of LMC) 47 165,000 45,000 [45][j]
V4650 Sagittarii (in Quintuplet cluster) 46 26,000 11,300 [46]
HD 15558 B (in IC 1805 of Heart Nebula) 46 7,500 45,600 [8]
WR 102ak (in Arches Cluster) 45.9 25,000 32,200 [18]
WR 102c (in Sickle Nebula of Galactic Center) 45 26,000 65,000-75,000 [47][k]
GCIRS 8* (in Galactic Center) 44.5 26,000 46,000 [48]
WR 102df (in Quintuplet cluster) 44 25,000 25,100 [34]
WR 148 A (Runaway star from Galactic plane) 44 27,000 39,800 [17]
AB7 B (in NGC 371 of SMC) 44 197,000 36,000 [32]
WR 102ag (in Arches Cluster) 43.3 25,000 32,900 [18]
WR 102i (in Quintuplet cluster) 43 26,000 31,600 [34]
WR 102aa (in Arches Cluster) 41.6 25,000 33,500 [18]
HD 93205 A (in Trumpler 16 of Carina Nebula) 40 7,500 51,300 [49]
Sher 25 (in HD 97950 of NGC 3603) 40 25,000 22,000 [50]
Romano's Star (in Triangulum Galaxy) 40 2,760,000 23,500 [51]
HD 93403 B (in Trumpler 16 of Carina Nebula) 37.3 10,400 40,100 [31]
P Cygni (in IC 4996 of Cygnus OB1) 37 5,100 18,700 [52][l]
WR 148 B (Runaway star from Galactic plane) 37 27,000 47,000 [53]
9 Sagittarii B (in NGC 6530 of Lagoon Nebula) 36 5,800 40,900 [39]
LBV 1806-20 (in G10.0-0.3 of Galactic Center) 36 28,000 18,000-32,000 [54][m]
WR 102d (in Quintuplet cluster) 36 26,000 35,100 [34]
ζ1 Scorpii (in NGC 6321 of Scorpius OB1) 36 8,220 17,200 [19]
WR 140 B (in Cygnus OB1) 35.9 5,600 35,000 [55]
θ1 Orionis C1 (in Trapezium Cluster of Orion Nebula) 33 1,350 39,000 [56]
ζ Orionis Aa (Alnitak in Orion OB1 of Orion Complex) 33 1,260 29,500 [57]
μ Normae (in NGC 6169) 33 3,260 28,000 [58]
WR 9 B (in Puppis b) 32 15,000 45,600 [59][n]
WR 102ai (in Arches Cluster) 31.1 25,000 32,100 [18]
α Camelopardalis (Runaway star from NGC 1502) 30.9 6,000 30,000 [60]
η Carinae B (in Trumpler 16 of Carina Nebula) 30 7,500 37,200 [61]
ε Orionis (Alnilam in Orion OB1 of Orion Complex) 30 2,000 27,500 [62]
WR 12 A (in Bochum 7) 30 18,600 44,700 [17][o]
VFTS 352 B (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 28.85 164,000 41,100 [63]
VFTS 352 A (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 28.63 164,000 42,500 [63]
WR 142 (in Berkeley 87) 28.6 5,400 200,000 [64]
γ Velorum B (Regor in Vela OB2) 28.5 1,230 35,000 [65]
LH54-425 B (in LH 54 of LMC) 28 165,000 41,000 [45][j]
λ Orionis A (Meissa in Collinder 69 of Orion Complex) 27.9 1,100 37,700 [66]
Pistol Star (V4647 Sagittarii in Quintuplet cluster) 27.5 25,000 11,800-12,000 [46]
QZ Carinae A1 (in Collinder 228 of Carina Nebula) 27.4 7,500 30,500 [67]
WR 1 (in Cassiopeia OB7) 27 10,200 112,200 [17]
10 Lacertae (in Lacerta OB1) 26.9 2,330 36,000 [68]
ξ Persei (Menkib in California Nebula of Perseus OB2) 26.1 1,200 35,000 [69]
WR 22 B (in Bochum 10 of Carina Nebula) 25.7 8,300 33,000 [70][g]
QZ Carinae B1 (in Collinder 228 of Carina Nebula) 25.4 7,500 34,000 [67]
VFTS 102 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 25 164,000 36,000 [71]
Sun 1 0.0000158 5,772 [72][73]
  1. ^ For some methods, different determinations of chemical composition lead to different estimates of mass.
  2. ^ For a binary star, it is possible to measure the individual masses of the two stars by studying their orbital motions, using Kepler's laws of planetary motion.
  3. ^ For examples of stellar debris see hypernovae and supernova remnant.
  4. ^ a b c d e This is a binary system but the secondary is much less massive than the primary.
  5. ^ This unusual measurement was made by assuming the star was ejected from a three-body encounter in NGC 3603. This assumption also means that the current star is the result of a merger between two original close binary components. The mass is consistent with evolutionary mass for a star with the observed parameters.
  6. ^ N41 is a emission nebula in Large Magellanic Cloud.
  7. ^ a b Bochum 10 is an open cluster in Carina Nebula.
  8. ^ N135 is a emission nebula in Large Magellanic Cloud.
  9. ^ Vela R2 is a OB association in Vela Molecular Ridge.
  10. ^ a b LH 54 is a OB association in Large Magellanic Cloud.
  11. ^ Sickle Nebula is a Wolf–Rayet nebula near Quintuplet cluster.
  12. ^ IC 4996 is an open cluster in Cygnus OB1.
  13. ^ G10.0-0.3 is a radio nebula in Galactic Center.
  14. ^ Puppis b is an open cluster.
  15. ^ Bochum 7 is a OB association.

Black holes[edit]

Black holes are the end point evolution of massive stars. Technically they are not stars, as they no longer generate heat and light via nuclear fusion in their cores. Some black holes may have cosmological origins, and would then never have been stars. This is thought to be especially likely in the cases of the most massive black holes.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ A. J. van Marle; S. P. Owocki; N. J. Shaviv (2008). "Continuum driven winds from super-Eddington stars. A tale of two limits". AIP Conference Proceedings. 990: 250–253. arXiv:0708.4207. Bibcode:2008AIPC..990..250V. doi:10.1063/1.2905555.
  2. ^ Banerjee, S.; Kroupa, P.; Oh, S. (2012). "The emergence of super-canonical stars in R136-type starburst clusters". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 426 (2): 1416–1426. arXiv:1208.0826. Bibcode:2012MNRAS.426.1416B. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21672.x.
  3. ^ Ulmer, A.; Fitzpatrick, E. L. (1998). "Revisiting the modified Eddington limit for massive stars". The Astrophysical Journal. 504 (1): 200–206. arXiv:astro-ph/9708264. Bibcode:1998ApJ...504..200U. doi:10.1086/306048.
  4. ^ a b c Hainich, R.; Rühling, U.; Todt, H.; Oskinova, L. M.; Liermann, A.; Gräfener, G.; Foellmi, C.; Schnurr, O.; Hamann, W. -R. (2014). "The Wolf–Rayet stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 565: A27. arXiv:1401.5474. Bibcode:2014A&A...565A..27H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201322696.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Bestenlehner, Joachim M.; Crowther, Paul A.; Caballero-Nieves, Saida M.; Schneider, Fabian R. N.; Simón-Díaz, Sergio; Brands, Sarah A.; De Koter, Alex; Gräfener, Götz; Herrero, Artemio; Langer, Norbert; Lennon, Daniel J.; Maíz Apellániz, Jesus; Puls, Joachim; Vink, Jorick S. (2020). "The R136 star cluster dissected with Hubble Space Telescope/STIS. II. Physical properties of the most massive stars in R136". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. arXiv:2009.05136. Bibcode:2020MNRAS.tmp.2627B. doi:10.1093/mnras/staa2801.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Bestenlehner, J. M.; Gräfener, G.; Vink, J. S.; Najarro, F.; de Koter, A.; Sana, H.; Evans, C. J.; Crowther, P. A.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Herrero, A.; Langer, N.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Taylor, W. D.; Walborn, N. R. (2014). "The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XVII. Physical and wind properties of massive stars at the top of the main sequence". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 570. A38. arXiv:1407.1837. Bibcode:2014A&A...570A..38B. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201423643.
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