Mohammadzai (Pashto: محمد زی) (meaning sons of Mohammad in Pashto language) is a sub-tribe of the Barakzai which is a sub-tribe of Durrani. They were Primarily centered on Kandahar, Kabul and Ghazni in Afghanistan. The Mohammadzai Musahiban ruled Afghanistan from 1826 to 1973 when the monarchy ended under Mohammad Zahir Shah. The Mohammadzai ruling house was established by Dost Mohammad Khan after the Durrani dynasty of Ahmad Shah Durrani was removed from power.
Mohammadzai were the most prominent and powerful branch of the Durrani confederacy, and are primarily centered on Kandahar. They can also be found in other provinces throughout Afghanistan as well as across the border in Pakistan and in Iran.
Musahiban are the descendants of Sultan Mohammad Khan alao known as "Telai". Telai means Gold in Dari. He was the older brother of Dost Mohammed Khan. The Musahiban are closely related to King Amanullah.
The Tarzi family is a branch of the Mohammadzai of Afghanistan. Although a smaller branch of the Barakzai ruling dynasty, the Tarzi family has produced some of the most famous and affluent members. The founder of Tarzi family was Ghulam Muhammad Tarzi.
Barakzai Mohammadzai's usually have the southern dialect of Pashto, however there are many Mohammadzai's who speak Dari as a first (or second language), especially those whom live around Persian speaking non-Pashtun Afghans. In Pakistan & Iran Mohammadzai speak Persian and Balochi.
- Emir Dost Muhammad Khan Barakzai - (First Mohammadzai Ruler)
- Emir Sher Ali Khan - Emir of Afghanistan
- Emir Yaqub Khan - Emir of Afghanistan, Signed treaty of Gandamak.
- Emir Abdur Rahman Khan - Emir of Afghanistan (October 1879/July 22, 1880 – October 3, 1901)
- Emir Habibullah Khan - Emir of Afghanistan (October 3, 1901 - February 20, 1919)
- Emir Amanullah Khan - Emir of Afghanistan (February 28, 1919 - 1926)
- King Amanullah Khan - King of Afghanistan (1926 - January 14, 1929)
- Queen Soraya Tarzi (w. of King Amanullah Khan) (November 29, 1899 - April 20, 1968).
- King Inayatullah Khan (January 14, 1929 - January 17, 1929).
- Mahmud Tarzi - Poet, Author and Diplomat. Credited for the modernization of Afghanistan.
- Sardar Ghulam Muhammad Tarzi - Poet, Ruler of Kandahar & Baluchistan.
- Sardar Rahmdil Khan - Ruler of Kandahar & Baluchistan.
- Sardar Payinda Khan - Ruler of Kandahar & Baluchistan. Father of All Mohammadzai's
- King Mohammed Nadir Shah (October 17, 1929 - November 8, 1933).
- King Mohammed Zahir Shah (November 8, 1933 - July 17, 1973.)
- President Mohammed Daoud Khan (First Afghan President) (July 18, 1973 - April 28, 1978)