Mohmand

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Not to be confused with Mamund.

The Mohmand (Pashto: مومند‎ - also spelled as Momand) is a Pashtun tribe son of Daulat Yar son of Ghoryakhel confederacy, inhabiting primarily the Momand Agency, Peshawar and almost every part of Afghanistan, primarily the Nangarhar and Kunar provinces.[1]

Demographics[edit]

In Afghanistan, the Mohmands are found nearly everywhere, but mainly concentrated in Nangarhar predominantly in these districts: Momand Dara, Bati Kot, Lal Pora, Kama, Rodaat, Kot, and Goshta. They live together with other tribes in Chaparhaar, Koz Kunar and Behsood districts. There are significant numbers of Momands living in Kunduz, Ghazni, Logar and Kunar. In fact, there are several districts in the Kunar province where Momands make the majority of the population of those districts. In Pakistan, they inhabit the Mohmand Agency in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, and there are large communities of Momands in the [Peshawar , Charsada , and Mardan Districts]]. The total population of Momands (Afghanistan and Pakistan) exceeds 3 millions, making this tribe perhaps the most populous of all the Pashtun tribes.

History[edit]

The Mohmands originally lived in Ghazni and between the basins of the Tarnak river and Oxus river for centuries along the present Pak-Afghan border.

When Peshawar was annexed formally by the British, the area that comprises the present Mohmand agency was ruled by the local tribesmen and was under the influence of Khan of Lalpura. The Safis were under the control of Khans of Bajaur and the Utmankhels were independent of any Khanate.[2]

The Mohmands fought many times against the British India and other foreign invasion. The area of the Mohmands may be defined roughly as bounded on the East by Charsadda , and Peshawar Dist. On the North by Bajour Agency; on the West by Nangarhar(Afghanistan) and on the South by the Khyber Agency; The area of Mohmand is about 1200 sq. m. The Durand line boundary line now runs through the Mohmand area. The Emir of Afghanistan in 1893 has given assurances to the Burhan Khel, Dawezai, Halimzai, Isa Khel, Tarangzai and Utmanzai sections of the Mohmands that they will not suffer by the severance of their ancient connection with Afghanistan; and these are known as the Assured Clans. Mohmands live in Afghanistan, primarily in Nangarhar, Ghazni, Kunar, Logar and Kunduz. Many of them live in Mohmands village of Pul-e-Jogi of Braki Brak District. Pul-e-Jogi is 10 minutes drive from Wardak Province. Dr. Waheedullah Mohmand and Dr. Mohammad Habib Mohmand are famous people known by many people from Wardak Province. Likewise, Mohmand live in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa of Pakistan, particularly Mohmand Agency.

The great Sanskrit grammarian and historian Pāṇini, mentioned the names of tribes such as the Aprits (identified with the modern Afridis) and the Madhumants (identified with the modern Mohmand) who inhabited the northwestern areas, in his Ashtadhyayi in the 5th century BC.[3]

Principal clans[edit]

The major tribes in Mohmand agency are:

  • Mohmand
  • Mosa Kheil
  • Malikyar
  • Shalizi
  • Tarak zai
  • Halim zai
  • Khwae zai
  • Bai zai
  • Safi
  • Qandhari
  • Gur baz
  • Masood
  • Shinwari
  • Utman Khel
  • Ambar Utman Khel
  • Laman Utman khe

Actually, Safis are not Mohmand in Legacy and not a sub tribe of Mohmand, they are because of their association with the Mohmand, are also called Safi Mohmands. The tribe has been divided in upper Mohmand and lower Mohmand. The central bazaar of Mohmand is Gandhab and locally known as Ghandao Bazaar. The Tarakzai are concentrated in the lower Mohmand from Ekka Ghund to Michanai up to Daudzai. They are a well educated tribe settled at the gate of the Mohmand Agency. The sub-tribes of the Tarak Zai are Dado Khel, Qasim Khel, Bran Khel and Issa Khel. [2]

Rivers[edit]

The Kabul River and Swat River are the two rivers that pass through the area of the Lower Mohmand. Kabul River forms the boundary between the Khyber and Mohmand agencies after entry into Pakistan territory. The flow of the water is from the west towards the east. On entry into Pakistan territory, the course of the Kabul River is through high mountains gorges till after it passes through the Warsak Dam, where after it starts running through the Peshawar valley area. Swat river flows from the north towards south after entering the agency limits from the Malakand and passes through the area of Prang Ghar/Pindiali Tehsil. The course of this river is also through mountainous territory till it reaches the Munda Headworks wherefrom it starts running through the plains.

Climate[edit]

The climate in Mohmand agency is hot in summer season while cool in winter. The summer season commences from May and continues for 4 months till 31 August. The winter season starts from November and continue till February. The rainfall is scanty. Most of the rainfall is during winter season.

Occupations[edit]

The sources of income are very limited in general except agriculture and some trade/business. Most of the locals are earning their livelihood in the Gulf States.

Places of interest[edit]

Warsak Hydel Power station is situated on the river Kabul about 32.2 km from Peshawar. The construction of the project was started in 1955 and the power station was commissioned in 1960. Before commissioning of Mangla Power station, it was one of the major sources of power.

Munda dam is being constructed on Swat River to the east of the agency which is an ideal site for a hydro power station. Gandab valley This historic valley is situated in the Mohmand agency and shoots forth in the north- west direction from Pir Killa, a village on the main Michni Shabqadar road, and 32 km to the north of Peshawar. It runs parallel to a dry bed of a nullah; it is inhabited by the Halim zai section of the Mohmand tribe.

Recent problem regarding identification[edit]

During the last several years since 2007, the inhabitants of Tribal Areas of Mohmand and adjacent agencies who moved to the down-town areas are being exploited in the Public offices like NADRA & Immigration offices. They are forced to pay bribes rather than to facilitate. The people of the relevant agencies, who migrated from one part of country to another,they were supposed to facilitate rather than to bother.[4]

Notable Mohmands[edit]

  • Emal Khan Momand, a legendary warrior who fought bravely against the Mogul Empire around 400 years ago.
  • Abdul Ahad Mohmand, the first Afghan and Pashtun to reach space
  • Abdul Hameed Momand, one of the three most revered poets of the Pashto language (the other two being Rahman Baba and Khushal Khan Khattak).He is famous for having introduced a new school of poetry called the Indian school into the Pashto language known for its complex style.
  • Rahman Baba, a Pashto Sufi poet, arguably the most popular poet among the Pashtun diaspora.
  • Mohammad Gul Khan Mohmand,a former minister who is widely known for allocating millions of hectares of land in the north of Afghanistan to the Pashtun people from other parts of the country.
  • Kaka Jee Sanobar Hussain Momand, a national hero who fought against the British invasion in the present day Pakistan during the nonviolent resistance of Bacha Khan.
  • Mohammad Mosa Shafiq, a former prime minister of Afghanistan.
  • Qiyamuddin Khadim, one of the five stars of the contemporary Pashtu literatures of Afghanistan.
  • Sediqullah Rishteen, one of the five stars of the contemporary Pashtu literatures of Afghanistan.
  • Hanif Atmar, a former minister and the current intelligence advisor to the president of Afghanistan.
  • Omar Zakhilwal,a former minister and the current advisor to the president of Afghanistan in financial affairs.
  • Qalandar Momand, Pashto scholar, poet, critic, short story writer, journalist, linguist, lexicographer, and academician.
  • Qazi Ataullah Khan, Minister of Education, follower of Bacha Khan, and member of Khudai Khidmatgar/Congress in British India.
  • Haji Baroz Khan, Many Times MNA from Muhmand Agency.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Talebi, Abdul Latif Yaad. Pashtanay Qabeelay. 2nd ed. Peshawar: Danish, 2007. Print. p.260-266
  2. ^ a b http://waziristanhills.com/FATA/AgenciesFRs/MohmandAgency/tabid/78/language/en-GB/Default.as
  3. ^ page 64 India and Central Asia By J. N. Roy, J.N. Roy And B.B. Kumar, Astha Bharati (Organization), Indian Council for Cultural Relations
  4. ^ http://m.hamariweb.com/articles/detail.aspx?id=47116

External links[edit]