North Africa

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North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of Africa. The United Nations definition of "North Africa" includes seven countries and territories; Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and Western Sahara.[1] The countries of Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, and Libya are often collectively referred to as the Maghreb, which is the Arabic word for "sunset". Egypt lies to the northeast and encompasses part of West Asia, while Sudan is situated on the edge of the Sahel, to the south of Egypt.

Egypt is a transcontinental country because of the Sinai Peninsula, which geographically lies in Western Asia.

North Africa also includes a number of Spanish possessions (Ceuta and Melilla and tiny Spanish islets off the coast of Morocco). The Canary Islands and Madeira in the North Atlantic Ocean northwest of the African mainland are included in considerations of the region.

The distinction between North Africa and much of Sub-Saharan Africa is historically and ecologically significant because of the effective barrier created by the Sahara Desert for much of modern history. From 3500 BC, following the abrupt desertification of the Sahara due to gradual changes in the Earth's orbit, this barrier has culturally separated the North from the rest of the continent.[2] As the seafaring civilizations of the Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Muslims and others facilitated communication and migration across the Mediterranean Sea, the cultures of North Africa became much more closely tied to Southwestern Asia and Europe than Sub-Saharan Africa. The Islamic influence in the area is also significant, and North Africa is a major part of the Muslim world.

Some researchers have postulated that North Africa rather than East Africa served as the exit point for the modern humans who first trekked out of the continent in the Out of Africa migration.[3][4][5]

Geography[edit]

The Atlas Mountains, which extend across much of Morocco, northern Algeria and Tunisia, are part of the fold mountain system that also runs through much of Southern Europe. They recede to the south and east, becoming a steppe landscape before meeting the Sahara desert, which covers more than 75 percent of the region. The sediments of the Sahara overlie an ancient plateau of crystalline rock, some of which is more than four billion years old.

North Africa, consisting of the Sahara and north, in the northern red climatic zone and northwards

Sheltered valleys in the Atlas Mountains, the Nile Valley and Delta, and the Mediterranean coast are the main sources of fertile farming land. A wide variety of valuable crops including cereals, rice and cotton, and woods such as cedar and cork, are grown. Typical Mediterranean crops, such as olives, figs, dates and citrus fruits, also thrive in these areas. The Nile Valley is particularly fertile, and most of the population in Egypt and Sudan live close to the river. Elsewhere, irrigation is essential to improve crop yields on the desert margins.

Territories and regions[edit]

Countries and territories Area
(km²)
Population Density
(per km²)
Capital GDP (Total) GDP per capita Currency Government Official languages
 Algeria 2,381,741 [6] 40,400,000 (2016) 15.9 Algiers $254.7 billion (2010 est.)[6] $7,400 (2010 est.) Algerian dinar Presidential republic Arabic and Berber (both official)
 Egypt 1,001,451 [7] 94,642,000 (2016) 84 Cairo $500.9 billion (2010) $6,200 (2010) Egyptian pound Semi-presidential republic Arabic
 Libya 1,759,540 5,658,000 (2006) 3.55 Tripoli $89.03 billion (2010)[8] $13,800 (2010) Libyan dinar Provisional authority Arabic
 Morocco 446,550
or 710,850 (including the disputed Western Sahara)
[9] 33,848,242 (2014) 73.1 Rabat $153.8 billion (2010)[10] $4,900 (2010) Moroccan dirham Constitutional monarchy Arabic and Berber (both official)
 Sudan 1,886,068 30,894,000 (2008) 16.4 Khartoum $85.272 billion (2013) [11] $2,984 (2013) Sudanese pound Federal republic (Authoritarian) Arabic and English (both official)
 Tunisia 163,610 10,982,754
(2014)[12]
63 Tunis $125.1 billion (2014)[13] $11,400 (2014) Tunisian dinar Parliamentary republic Arabic
 Western Sahara
(mostly under Moroccan administration)
266,000 548,000 (most carrying Moroccan passports) 1.2 El-Aaiún (controlled by Morocco) $900 million (2007)[14] $2,500 (2007) Moroccan dirham Constitutional monarchy Arabic and Berber (official under Moroccan authority);

Arabic and Spanish (recognized by the Polisario front)

Total, North Africa 8,935,659 192,080,996 22.3 $1.189 trillion $7,026

Source:

People[edit]

Main articles: Berbers, Maghrebis, Egyptians, and Nubians

The inhabitants of North Africa are generally divided in a manner roughly corresponding to the principal geographic regions of North Africa: the Maghreb, the Nile valley, and the Sahara. The Maghreb or western North Africa on the whole is believed to have been inhabited by Berbers since at least 10,000 B.C.,[16] while the eastern part of North Africa or the Nile Valley has mainly been home to the Egyptians. The edge of the Sahel, to the south of Egypt has mainly been inhabited by Nubians. Ancient Egyptians record extensive contact in their Western desert with people that appear to have been Berber or proto-Berber, as well as Nubians from the south. As the Tassili n'Ajjer and other rock art findings in the Sahara have shown, the Sahara also hosted various populations before its rapid desertification in 3500 B.C. and even today continues to host small populations of nomadic trans-Saharan peoples.

In the eleventh century, the Banu Hilal invaded the North African plains and plateaus, but not the mountains (Rif, Kabylie or Aures) and bring with them Hilalian dialects of Arabic, which over the centuries have been in significant contact with other languages, including languages of Europe. They have contributed to the Arabized Berber populations.

The official language or one of the official languages in all of the countries in North Africa is Arabic. Today the largest ethnic groups in North Africa are Berbers, Arabs and West Africas and is predominantly Muslim with a Jewish minority in Morocco and Tunisia and significant Christian minority - the Copts - in Egypt, Algeria,[17] Morocco[18] and Tunisia.[19]

Culture[edit]

Market of Biskra in Algeria, 1899

The people of the Maghreb and the Sahara regions speak Berber languages and several varieties of Arabic and almost exclusively follow Islam. The Arabic and Berber languages are distantly related, both being members of the Afroasiatic language family. The Tuareg Berber languages are notably more conservative than those of the coastal cities.

Over the years, Berbers have been influenced by contact with other cultures: Greeks, Phoenicians, Egyptians, Romans, Vandals, Arabs, Europeans and sub-Saharan Africans. The cultures of the Maghreb and the Sahara therefore combine indigenous Berber, Arab and elements from neighboring parts of Africa and beyond. In the Sahara, the distinction between sedentary oasis inhabitants and nomadic Bedouins and Tuaregs is particularly marked.

The kasbah of Aït Benhaddou in Morocco

The diverse peoples of the Sahara are usually categorized along ethno-linguistic lines. In the Maghreb, where Arab and Berber identities are often integrated, these lines can be blurred. Some Berber-speaking North Africans may identify as "Arab" depending on the social and political circumstances, although substantial numbers of Berbers (or Imazighen) have retained a distinct cultural identity which in the 20th century has been expressed as a clear ethnic identification with Berber history and language. Arabic-speaking Northwest Africans, regardless of ethnic background, often identify with Arab history and culture and may share a common vision with other Arabs. This, however, may or may not exclude pride in and identification with Berber and/or other parts of their heritage. Berber political and cultural activists for their part, often referred to as Berberists, may view all Northwest Africans as principally Berber, whether they are primarily Berber- or Arabic-speaking.

Egyptians over the centuries have shifted their language from Egyptian (in its late form, varieties of Coptic) to modern Egyptian Arabic while retaining a sense of national identity that has historically set them apart from other people in the region. Most Egyptians are Sunni Muslim, although there is a significant minority of Copts.

In Nubia, a region straddling Egypt and Sudan, a significant number of people speak a Nubian language. In Sudan, the main spoken language is Arabic, while approximately 144 native Sudanese languages are also spoken. The Sudan is home to a predominately Arab Muslim population, although there remains significant non-Arab (though Muslim) populations in the far north (Nubians), far west (Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa) and far south (Nuba peoples) of Sudan.

The Maghreb formerly had a significant Jewish population, almost all of whom emigrated to France or Israel when the North African nations gained independence. Prior to the modern establishment of Israel, there were about 600,000-700,000 Jews in Northern Africa, including both Sephardi Jews (refugees from France, Spain and Portugal from the Renaissance era) as well as indigenous Mizrahi Jews. Today, less than fifteen thousand remain in the region, almost all in Morocco and Tunisia, and are mostly part of a French-speaking urban elite. (See Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries.)

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

Due to the recent African origin of modern humans, the history of Prehistoric North Africa is important to the understanding of pre-hominid and early modern human history in Africa. The earliest inhabitants of central North Africa have left behind significant remains: early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa, for example, were found in Ain el Hanech, near Saïda (c. 200,000 BCE); in fact, more recent investigations have found signs of Oldowan technology there, and indicate a date of up to 1.8 million BC.[20]

The cave paintings found at Tassili n'Ajjer, north of Tamanrasset, Algeria, and at other locations depict vibrant and vivid scenes of everyday life in central North Africa during the Neolithic Subpluvial period (about 8000 to 4000 BCE). Some parts of North Africa began to participate in the Neolithic revolution in the 6th millennium BC, just before the rapid desertification of the Sahara around 3500 B.C. due to a tilt in the Earth's orbit.[2]

While Egypt and Sudan due to the early civilizations of Ancient Egypt and Nubia entered historicity by the Bronze Age, the Maghreb remained in the prehistoric period longer. Some Phoenician and Greek colonies were established along the Mediterranean coast during the 7th century BC.

Antiquity and ancient Rome[edit]

The first Roman emperor native to North Africa was Septimius Severus, born in Leptis Magna in present-day Libya.

The most notable nations of antiquity in western North Africa are Carthage and Numidia. The Phoenicians colonized much of North Africa including Carthage and parts of present-day Morocco (including Chellah, Essaouira and Volubilis[21]). The Carthaginians were of Phoenician origin, with the Roman myth of their origin being that Dido, a Phoenician princess, was granted land by a local ruler based on how much land she could cover with a piece of cowhide. She ingeniously devised a method to extend the cowhide to a high proportion, thus gaining a large territory. She was also rejected by the Trojan prince Aeneas according to Virgil, thus creating a historical enmity between Carthage and Rome, as Aeneas would eventually lay the foundations for Rome. Ancient Carthage was a commercial power and had a strong navy, but relied on mercenaries for land soldiers. The Carthaginians developed an empire in the Iberian Peninsula and Sicily, the latter being the cause of First Punic War with the Romans.

Over a hundred years and more, all Carthaginian territory was eventually conquered by the Romans, resulting in the Carthaginian North African territories becoming the Roman province of Africa in 146 B.C.[22] This led to tension and eventually conflict between Numidia and Rome. The Numidian wars are notable for launching the careers of both Gaius Marius, and Sulla, and stretching the constitutional burden of the Roman republic, as Marius required a professional army, something previously contrary to Roman values to overcome the talented military leader Jugurtha.[23]

North Africa remained a part of the Roman Empire, which produced many notable citizens such as Augustine of Hippo, until incompetent leadership from Roman commanders in the early fifth century allowed the Germanic peoples, the Vandals, to cross the Strait of Gibraltar, whereupon they overcame the fickle Roman defense. The loss of North Africa is considered a pinnacle point in the fall of the Western Roman Empire as Africa had previously been an important grain province that maintained Roman prosperity despite the barbarian incursions, and the wealth required to create new armies. The issue of regaining North Africa became paramount to the Western Empire, but was frustrated by Vandal victories. The focus of Roman energy had to be on the emerging threat of the Huns. In 468 AD, the Romans made one last serious attempt to invade North Africa but were repelled. This perhaps marks the point of terminal decline for the Western Roman Empire. The last Roman emperor was deposed in 476 by the Heruli general Odoacer. Trade routes between Europe and North Africa remained intact until the coming of Islam. Some Berbers were members of the Early African Church (but evolved their own Donatist doctrine),[24] some were Berber Jews, and some adhered to traditional Berber religion. African pope Victor I served during the reign of Roman emperor Septimius Severus

Arab conquest to modern times[edit]

The Great Mosque of Kairouan, founded by Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi in 670, is the oldest and most important mosque in North Africa;[25] city of Kairouan, Tunisia.

The early Muslim conquests included North Africa by 640. By 670, most of North Africa had come under Muslim rule. Indigenous Berbers subsequently started to form their own polities in response in places such as Fez and Sijilmasa. In the eleventh century, a reformist movement made up of members that called themselves the Almoravid dynasty expanded south into Sub-Saharan Africa.

North Africa's populous and flourishing civilization collapsed after exhausting its resources in internal fighting and suffering devastation from the invasion of the Banu Sulaym and Banu Hilal. Ibn Khaldun noted that the lands ravaged by Banu Hilal invaders had become completely arid desert.[26]

1803 Cedid Atlas, showing the Ottoman held regions of North Africa

After the Middle Ages the area was loosely under the control of the Ottoman Empire, except Morocco. After the 19th century, the imperial and colonial presence of France, the United Kingdom, Spain and Italy left the entirety of the region under one form of European occupation.

In World War II from 1940 to 1943 the area was the setting for the North African Campaign. During the 1950s and 1960s all of the North African states gained independence. There remains a dispute over Western Sahara between Morocco and the Algerian-backed Polisario Front.

In 2010 - 2011 massive protests swept the region leading to the overthrow of the governments in Tunisia and Egypt, as well as civil war in Libya. Large protests also occurred in Algeria and Morocco to a lesser extent. Many hundreds died in the uprisings.[27]

Transport and industry[edit]

Thousands of people in North Africa depend on date palm trees for a living. Tunisia in 1960

The economies of Algeria, Libya, and Sudan were transformed by the discovery of oil and natural gas reserves in the deserts. Morocco's major exports are phosphates and agricultural produce, and as in Egypt and Tunisia, the tourist industry is essential to the economy. Egypt has the most varied industrial base, importing technology to develop electronics and engineering industries, and maintaining the reputation of its high-quality cotton textiles.

Oil rigs are scattered throughout the deserts of Libya, Algeria and Sudan. Libyan oil is especially prized because of its low sulfur content, which means it produces much less pollution than other fuel oils.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ According to UN country classification here: [1] The disputed territory of Western Sahara (formerly Spanish Sahara) is mostly administered by Morocco; the Polisario Front claims the territory in militating for the establishment of an independent republic, and exercises limited control over rump border territories.
  2. ^ a b "Sahara's Abrupt Desertification Started by Changes in Earth's Orbit, Accelerated by Atmospheric and Vegetation Feedbacks". Science Daily. 1999-07-12. Archived from the original on 2013-10-29. 
  3. ^ Was North Africa the Launch Pad for Modern Human Migrations? Michael Balter, science 7 January 2011: 331 (6013), 20-23. doi:10.1126/science.331.6013.20
  4. ^ A Revised Root for the Human Y Chromosomal Phylogenetic Tree: The Origin of Patrilineal Diversity in Africa. Fulvio Cruciani, Beniamino Trombetta, Andrea Massaia, Giovanni Destro-Bisol, Daniele Sellitto, Rosaria Scozzari, The American Journal of Human Genetics - 19 May 2011
  5. ^ Earliest evidence of modern human life history in North African early Homo sapiens, Tanya M. Smith, Paul Tafforeau, Donald J. Reid, Rainer Grün, Stephen Eggins, Mohamed Boutakiout, Jean-Jacques Hublin, doi:10.1073/pnas.0700747104 PNAS April 10, 2007 vol. 104 no. 15 6128-6133
  6. ^ a b "Démographie (ONS)". Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  7. ^ "Population in Censuses by Sex & Sex Ratio (1882–2006)" (PDF). Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  8. ^ "LIBYA". The World Factbook. CIA. 
  9. ^ "Note sur les premiers résultats du Recensement Général de la Population et de l’Habitat 2014". HCP. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  10. ^ "MOROCCO". The World Factbook. CIA. 
  11. ^ "SUDAN". The World Factbook. CIA. 
  12. ^ Recensement de 2014
  13. ^ "TUNISIA". The World Factbook. CIA. 
  14. ^ "WESTERN SAHARA". The World Factbook. CIA. 
  15. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Retrieved 2011-02-11. 
  16. ^ Hsain Ilahiane, Historical Dictionary of the Berbers (Imazighen)(2006), p. 112
  17. ^ *(French) Sadek Lekdja, Christianity in Kabylie, Radio France Internationale, 7 mai 2001
  18. ^ Morocco: General situation of Muslims who converted to Christianity, and specifically those who converted to Catholicism; their treatment by Islamists and the authorities, including state protection (2008-2011)
  19. ^ Fahlbusch, Erwin (2003). The Encyclopedia of Christianity: J-O. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-2415-8. 
  20. ^ Sahnouni 1998
  21. ^ C. Michael Hogan (December 18, 2007). "Volubilis - Ancient Village or Settlement in Morocco". The Megalithic Portal. Retrieved 2010-05-23. 
  22. ^ The Punic Wars 264-146 BC, by Nigel Bagnall
  23. ^ Sallust, De Bello Iugurthino
  24. ^ The Berbers BBC World Service: The Story of Africa
  25. ^ Küng, Hans (2006). Tracing The Way: Spiritual Dimensions of the World Religions. A&C Black. ISBN 978-0-8264-9423-8. , page 248
  26. ^ Populations Crises and Population Cycles, Claire Russell and W.M.S. Russell, Galton Institute, March 1996
  27. ^ Essa, Azad (February 21, 2011). "In search of an African revolution". Al Jazeera. 

External links[edit]