|City of Lancaster, Ohio|
Lancaster as viewed from Mount Pleasant in 2006
|Nickname(s): "Glass City","The Stir", "L Town"|
Location of Lancaster, Ohio
Location of Lancaster in Fairfield County
|• Mayor||David Scheffler (R)|
|• Total||18.90 sq mi (48.95 km2)|
|• Land||18.84 sq mi (48.80 km2)|
|• Water||0.06 sq mi (0.16 km2)|
|Elevation||879 ft (268 m)|
|• Estimate (2012)||38,880|
|• Density||2,058.4/sq mi (794.8/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (EST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
|Area code||740 and 220|
|GNIS feature ID||1048903|
Lancaster (locally /( ) / LANG-kəs-tər, LANK-stər) is a city in Fairfield County, Ohio, in the south central part of the state. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 38,780. The city is located near the Hocking River, approximately 33 miles (53 km) southeast of Columbus and is the county seat of Fairfield County.
The earliest known inhabitants of the southeastern and central Ohio region were the Hopewell, Adena, and Fort Ancient Native Americans, of whom little evidence survived, beyond the burial and ceremonial mounds built throughout the Ohio and Mississippi valleys. Many mounds and burial sites have also yielded archaeological artifacts. (See also: Serpent Mound and Hopewell Culture National Historical Park, which though not located in Fairfield County, are close by.)
Prior to and immediately after European settlement, the land today comprising Lancaster and Fairfield County, Ohio was inhabited variously by the Shawnee, nations of the Iroquois, Wyandot, and other Native American tribes. It served as a natural crossroads for the intertribal and intra-tribal wars fought at various times. (See also: Beaver Wars) Noted frontier explorer Christopher Gist reached the vicinity of Lancaster on January 19, 1751, when he visited the small Delaware town of "Hockhocking" nearby. Leaving the area the next day, Gist rode southwest to "Maguck", another Delaware town near Circleville.
Having been ceded to the United States by Great Britain after the American Revolution by the Treaty of Paris, the lands north of the Ohio River and west of the Appalachian Mountains became, in 1784, incorporated into the Northwest Territory. White settlers began to encroach on Native American lands in the Ohio Territory. As the new government of the United States began to cast its eye westward, the stage was set for the series of campaigns that culminated in the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794, and the Treaty of Greenville in 1795. With pioneer settlement within Ohio made legal and safe from Indian raids, developers began to speculate in land sales in earnest.
Knowing that such speculation, combined with Congressional grants of land sections to veterans of the Revolution, could result in a lucrative opportunity, Ebenezer Zane in 1796 petitioned the United States Congress to grant him a contract to blaze a trail through Ohio, from Wheeling, West Virginia, to Limestone, Kentucky, (near modern Maysville, Kentucky) a distance of 266 miles (428 km). As part of the deal, Zane was awarded square-mile tracts of land at the points where his trace crossed the Hocking, Muskingum, and Scioto rivers. Zane's Trace, as it has become known, was completed by 1797. As Zane's sons began to carve the square-mile tract astride the Hocking into saleable plots, the village of Lancaster was founded in 1800. Lancaster predated the formal establishment of the state of Ohio by three years. There were also many villages and townships settled right outside of Lancaster around the same time i.e. Lithopolis, Royalton, Bloom, Carroll, and Greencastle, which contributed to the booming success of the small village.
The initial settlers were predominantly of German stock, many from Lancaster, Pennsylvania, and had migrated from Pennsylvania. Ohio's longest continuously operating newspaper, the Lancaster Eagle-Gazette, was born of a merger of the early Der Ohio Adler, founded about 1807, with the Ohio Gazette, founded in the 1830s. The two newspapers were ferocious competitors since they were on opposite sides of the American Civil War, with Der Ohio Adler anti-slavery and supporting the Union. The city also had numerous migrants from the Upper South who sympathized with the Confederacy. The two newspapers merged more than two generations later in 1937, seventy-two years after the war's end. This was shortly after the Gazette was acquired by glassmaker Anchor-Hocking. The newspaper is currently part of the Newspaper Network of Central Ohio, which is in turn a unit of Gannett Company, Inc.
Initially known as New Lancaster, and later shortened by city ordinance (1805), the town quickly grew; formal incorporation as a city came in 1831. The connection of the Hocking Canal to the Ohio and Erie Canal in this era provided a convenient way for the region's rich agricultural produce to reach eastern markets.
Modern Lancaster is distinguished by a rich blend of 19th-century architecture (best evidenced in historic Square 13, part of Zane's original plot) and natural beauty (best evidenced by the famous Standing Stone, today known as Mount Pleasant), with all the typical modern accoutrements of a small American city.
Lancaster is located at  According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 18.90 square miles (48.95 km2), of which 18.84 square miles (48.80 km2) is land and 0.06 square miles (0.16 km2) is water.(39.7193, -82.6053).
The median income for a household in the city was $33,321, and the median income for a family was $39,773. Males had a median income of $30,462 versus $23,023 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,648. About 8.7% of families and 10.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.8% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over.
As of the census of 2010, there were 38,780 people, 16,048 households, and 9,937 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,955.9 people per square mile (755.0/km2). There were 17,685 housing units at an average density of 879.6 per square mile (339.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 95.9% White, 1% African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.30% Native American, 0% Pacific Islander, 0.6% from other races, and 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.6% of the population.
There were 16,048 households of which 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.4% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 38.1% were non-families. 31.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.95.
In the city the age distribution of the population shows 24% under the age of 18, and 15.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.6 males.
Business and industry
Major private-sector employers (including number of employees as of 2011) in Lancaster include:
Arts and culture
Lancaster is home to the Fairfield County Fair, a week-long fair and the last (88th) county fair in Ohio each year, always in the second week of October. It features a variety of attractions including truck, tractor, and horse pulls, demolition derbies, concerts, bands, and horse races. The Fairfield County Fair also includes lots of food, exhibits, games, and rides for people of all ages.
AHA! A Hands on Adventure 
AHA! is a children's museum founded in 2006. Its mission is to provide a hands-on, interactive, playful and educational environment that invites curiosity, allows exploration, encourages participation, and celebrates the childlike wonder in everyone.
Originally built in 1832 for the Maccracken Family, this Federal home is constructed predominantly of brick and local limestone. Converted into a museum, it is now furnished as it would have been in the 1830s with some original pieces and numerous early Fairfield County, Ohio items. Located in one of Lancaster's three National Historic Districts, the structure mixes elements of American, Georgian and Regency architecture.
The Decorative Arts Center of Ohio
The Decorative Arts Center of Ohio is a not-for-profit museum whose mission is to foster knowledge and appreciation of the decorative arts; celebrate the architecture and heritage of the Reese-Peters House; and enhance the vitality and integrity of historic Lancaster. The Center provides exhibitions, public programs, art classes and workshops for all ages, and a focus for research and communication about the decorative arts of Ohio.
Ohio Glass Museum
Opened in 2002, the Ohio Glass Museum is located in historic downtown Lancaster and dedicated to recording the history of the glass industry, which for over 100 years has been one of the mainstays of the economy of Fairfield County.
Lancaster was the birthplace of Civil War General William Tecumseh Sherman and his brother, Senator John Sherman. The house in which they were born has been converted into a museum, housing both articles related to the life of General Sherman and Civil War artifacts. Originally built in 1811, this frame house was expanded by the Sherman family in 1816 and again with an additional brick front in 1870.
Lancaster has a daily newspaper, the Lancaster Eagle-Gazette.
The 2017 non-fiction book Glass House by Brian Alexander describes the troubles that have beset Lancaster in recent years, as many former glass workers have lost their jobs. 
Lancaster is the birthplace and/or hometown of:
- Allan Anderson, Major League pitcher, American League ERA leader 1988
- Mark Baltz, NFL official, 1989–present
- Jim Brideweser, Major League Baseball player
- Esther H. Brocker, first female graduate of Capital University Law School 
- Bobby Carpenter, NFL player Dallas Cowboys, Miami Dolphins, Detroit Lions, New England Patriots
- Rob Carpenter, NFL player, New York Giants, Houston Oilers
- Gene Cole, 1952 Olympic silver medalist - 4 x 400 metre relay
- Jim Cordle, NFL player, New York Giants
- Hugh Boyle Ewing, Union Army Major General
- Thomas Ewing, first Secretary of the Interior, appointed by President Zachary Taylor
- Thomas Ewing, Jr., Union Army brigadier general, defender of Abraham Lincoln assassination conspirators, Samuel Mudd, Edmund Spangler, and Samuel Arnold
- Malcolm Forbes, publisher of Forbes magazine who ran a local Lancaster newspaper in 1941 
- Christopher Scott Gibbs, Missionary, a well known minister to the nation of Malawi as well as many other countries in Africa.
- Bill Glassford, football player and coach
- David Graf, actor, best known as Sgt. Eugene Tackleberry in the Police Academy series of films.
- Robert G. Heft, designer of the current 50-star flag of the United States adopted by the Congress in 1960
- Edward Gerard Hettinger, auxiliary bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Columbus
- James A. Hill, retired U.S. Air Force general and former vice chief of staff of the Air Force
- Rex Kern, football quarterback, Ohio State Buckeyes football 1968 national championship team, All-American, College Football Hall of Fame (2007); played defensive back for the NFL's Buffalo Bills and Baltimore Colts
- James A. Lantz, lawyer and Ohio state legislator
- Clarence E. Miller, a Republican Congressman from Ohio, serving January 3, 1967 to January 3, 1993
- Dr. Marc Wolfgang Miller, author, explorer, known for his cryptozoology expeditions
- Thomas N. Moe, colonel, United States Air Force, retired, director of Ohio Department of Veterans Services and member of Ohio Veterans Hall of Fame 
- Mary Murphy, ballroom dance champion, accredited dance judge, and a regular judge and choreographer on the television show So You Think You Can Dance
- Joe Ogilvie, PGA golfer
- Richard F. Outcault, cartoonist and creator of Yellow Kid and Buster Brown, also known as the "Father of the American Comic Strip"
- Jacob Parrott, first recipient of the Medal of Honor
- John Sherman, U.S. senator, Secretary of State and Secretary of the Treasury; principal author of the Sherman Antitrust Act
- William Tecumseh Sherman, Union Army and U.S. Army general and General of the Army of the United States from 1869 to 1883
- Henry Stanbery, Attorney General, defender of President Andrew Johnson at his impeachment trial
- Rebecca Harrell Tickell, actress, best known as Jessica Riggs in the 1989 film Prancer
- Patricia A. Weitsman, international relations scholar
- "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2012-07-14. Retrieved 2013-01-06.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-01-06.
- "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-06-17. Retrieved 2013-06-17.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- Woodward, Susan L., and McDonald, Jerry N., Indian mounds of the middle Ohio Valley : a guide to mounds and earthworks of the Adena, Hopewell, Cole, and Fort Ancient people, University of Nebraska Press, 2002
- Garbarino, William M. Indian Wars along the Upper Ohio: a history of the Indian Wars and related events along the Upper Ohio and its tributaries Midway, Pennsylvania : Midway Pub., c2001.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 26, 2018.
- "Number of Inhabitants: Ohio" (PDF). 18th Census of the United States. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 22 November 2013.[permanent dead link]
- "Ohio: Population and Housing Unit Counts" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Incorporated Places and Minor Civil Divisions Datasets: Subcounty Population Estimates: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 17 June 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- "404 - Fairfield County, Ohio" (PDF). www.co.fairfield.oh.us. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- "The 168th Fairfield County Fair -- October 7-13, 2018". www.fairfieldcountyfair.com. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- "AHA! A Hands-On Adventure". Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- "The Georgian Museum". Retrieved 6 March 2011.
- "The Decorative Arts Center of Ohio". Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- "Ohio Glass Museum". Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- "Sherman House Museum". Archived from the original on 2002-01-23. Retrieved 2011-03-05.
- "Homepage". Lancaster City School District. Retrieved 25 February 2018.
- "Hours & Locations". Fairfield County District Library. Retrieved 25 February 2018.
- "Glass House".
- Inc., Baseball Almanac,. "Allan Anderson Baseball Stats by Baseball Almanac". www.baseball-almanac.com. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- "Esther H. Brocker - Capital University Law School". law.capital.edu. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-11-16. Retrieved 2011-11-14.