Location in the state of Ohio
Location of Sandusky in Erie County
|• Type||City Commission|
|• President||Dennis Murray (D)|
|• Vice President||Richard Brady|
|• Commissioners||Nikki Lloyd
C. Wesley Poole
Naomi R. Twine
|• City||21.91 sq mi (56.75 km2)|
|• Land||9.73 sq mi (25.20 km2)|
|• Water||12.18 sq mi (31.55 km2)|
|Elevation||597 ft (182 m)|
|• Estimate (2014)||25,346|
|• Density||2,606/sq mi (1,006.2/km2)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||1076832|
Sandusky is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Erie County. Situated in northern Ohio on the shores of Lake Erie, Sandusky is midway between Toledo to the west and Cleveland to the east.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Tourism
- 6 Transportation
- 7 Education
- 8 Media
- 9 Economy
- 10 Perkins Township
- 11 Notable people
- 12 References
- 13 External links
The accepted etymology is that the name "Sandusky" is derived from the Wyandot word saundustee, meaning "water" or andusti, "cold water". In his 1734 history of New France, Charlevoix transliterated the phrase as "Chinouski". The name "L.(Lac) Sandoski" appears on a 1733 map. Sandusky Bay is identified as "Lac (Lake) Sandouské" on a 1718 map by Guillaume DeLisle.
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The city of Sandusky was established in 1818. Part of the city quickly enveloped the site of another prior small village named "Portland" (established about 1816), and eventually the city of Sandusky also encompassed most of the entire township that had also been called Portland. Some of the city was built on land formerly occupied by a Native-American man named Ogontz, and therefore the city is said to have been built upon "Ogontz' place".
Prior to the abolition of slavery in the United States, Sandusky was a major stop on the Underground Railroad. As depicted in Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, many slaves seeking to reach freedom in Canada made their way to Sandusky, where they boarded boats crossing Lake Erie to the port of Amherstburg in Ontario.
Downtown Sandusky was designed according to a modified grid plan, known as the Kilbourne Plat after its designer. The original street pattern featured a grid overlaid with streets resembling the symbols of Freemasonry. Hector Kilbourne was a surveyor who laid out this grid in downtown Sandusky. He was the first Worshipful Master of the first Sandusky Masonic Lodge known as Science Lodge #50. It is still in operation on Wayne Street.
Sandusky was the site of groundbreaking for the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad on September 17, 1835. Currently, Battery Park Marina is located on the original site of the MR&LE Railroad. The tracks that ran through downtown Sandusky have since been removed. Most of the downtown industrial area is being re-used for other purposes, including mainly marina dockage. The coal docks located west of downtown still use a portion of the original MR&LE right-of-way.
The English author Charles Dickens visited the city in 1842, and briefly wrote of it in his subsequent travelogue, American Notes. Said Dickens, who travelled on the newly constructed MR&LE railroad from Tiffin, "At two o'clock we took the railroad; the travelling-on which was very slow, its construction being indifferent, and the ground wet and marshy; and arrived at Sandusky in time to dine that evening. We put up at a comfortable little hotel on the brink of Lake Erie, lay there that night, and had no choice but to wait there next day, until a steamboat bound for Buffalo appeared. The town, which was sluggish and uninteresting enough, was something like the back of an English watering-place out of the season."
The city was a center of paper-making. The Hinde & Dauch Paper Company was the largest employer in the city in the early 1900s.
Sandusky is located at (41.446741, -82.709092).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 21.91 square miles (56.75 km2), of which 9.73 square miles (25.20 km2) is land and 12.18 square miles (31.55 km2) is water.
Sandusky has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa), typical of much of the central United States, with very warm, humid summers and cold winters. Winters tend to be cold, with an average January high temperature of 32 °F (0 °C), and an average January low temperature of 19 °F (−7 °C), with considerable variation in temperatures. Sandusky averages 28.4 inches (721.4 mm) of snow per winter. Summers tend to be warm, sometimes hot, with an average July high temperature of 82 °F (28 °C), and an average July low temperature of 66° (19 °C). Summer weather is more stable, generally humid with thunderstorms fairly common. Fall usually is the driest season with many clear warm days and cool nights.
|Climate data for Sandusky, Ohio|
|Record high °F (°C)||73
|Average high °F (°C)||32.2
|Average low °F (°C)||18.9
|Record low °F (°C)||−20
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||1.87
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||8.8
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||10.8||9.4||11.0||12.3||12.1||11.2||9.7||9.7||10.1||10.2||11.8||12.0||130.4|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||6.2||4.2||2.1||0.4||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.5||3.6||16.8|
|Source #1: Midwestern Regional Climate Center (normals 1971−2000)|
|Source #2: Weather Channel (extremes)|
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Historically, "Sandusky" is a name that can refer to multiple locations in northern Ohio; often in historical documents, the word "Sandusky" was not clarified as to which specific location was meant, and any historical references to "Sandusky" might mean any one of the following locations, depending also on the date of the reference.
List of locations, with approximate dates of usage:
- Sandusky/Sandusky City - about 1817* to present, village/city on southeast side of Sandusky Bay (*-any "Sandusky" reference dated prior to 1817 would not refer to this village, officially established by this name in 1818).
- Sandusky Bay - 1700 to present; early variants were "(Lac d')Otsanderket", "(Lac d')Otsandoske", "Lake Sanduske".
- Sandusky River - 1740s to present.
- Fort Sandusky - various locations: from c. 1749 to c. 1754, a French fort ("Fort Sandoské") on the northwest side of Sandusky Bay; or from 1761 until 1763, a British fort on the southeastern side of Sandusky Bay; or from about 1812/1813 a fort (later called "Fort Stephenson") on the Sandusky River, near (now) Fremont, Ohio
- Lower Sandusky - 1760s to ?, area or village at the (now) city of Fremont, Ohio.
- Upper Sandusky - 1760s? to present, area or village at the (now) city of Upper Sandusky. Upper Sandusky is south of Sandusky. While a common first impression is that "Upper" implies "north of", here "Upper" refers to "upstream", as in upstream of Lake Erie by means of the Sandusky River.
- Upper Sandusky Old Town - 1760s? to ?, a Wyandot/Huron tribe village, about 12 miles (19 km) north of the (now) city of Upper Sandusky.
|Largest ancestries (2010)||Percent|
As of the census of 2010, there were 25,793 people, 11,082 households, and 6,415 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,650.9 inhabitants per square mile (1,023.5/km2). There were 13,386 housing units at an average density of 1,375.7 per square mile (531.2/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 70.4% White, 22.0% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 1.1% from other races, and 5.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.9% of the population.
There were 11,082 households of which 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.9% were married couples living together, 19.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.2% had a male householder with no wife present, and 42.1% were non-families. 35.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.93.
The median age in the city was 38.5 years. 23.9% of residents were under the age of 18; 9.3% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 24.2% were from 25 to 44; 27.7% were from 45 to 64; and 15% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 47.6% male and 52.4% female.
|Largest ancestries (2000)||Percent|
As of the census of 2000, there were 27,844 people, 11,851 households, and 7,039 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,770.5 people per square mile (1,069.7/km²). There were 13,323 housing units at an average density of 1,325.7 per square mile (511.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 74.50% White, 21.08% African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.97% from other races, and 2.88% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.09% of the population.
There were 11,851 households out of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.7% were married couples living together, 16.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.6% were non-families. 34.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.99.
In the city the population was spread out with 25.8% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 21.4% from 45 to 64, and 15.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 89.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $31,133, and the median income for a family was $37,749. Males had a median income of $31,269 versus $21,926 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,111. About 12.2% of families and 15.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.7% of those under age 18 and 10.2% of those age 65 or over.
Sandusky has a tourism industry fueled by Cedar Point, the neighboring islands, boating, and more recently by its many indoor and outdoor water parks. It is also noted for being the location of the (fictional) "Callahan Auto Parts" in the movie Tommy Boy.
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In 1870, Louis Zistel, a local businessman, opened a beer garden, bathhouse, and dance floor on the Cedar Point Peninsula. Over the years, the area became a more and more popular destination for relaxation and leisure. In 1892, the park's first roller coaster, the Switchback Railway, was built. A hotel called the Bay Shore Hotel was opened in 1899. Cedar Point's second roller coaster, the Figure-Eight Roller Toboggan, opened in 1902. As the years went on, more and more rides and attractions were added to the park, including midway games.
Before 1914, the park could only be reached by steamboat, but in that year a roadway was opened connecting the park to the mainland and Sandusky's major roadways. The Cedar Point Marina, one of the largest on the Great Lakes, was completed in 1959.
In 1964, Blue Streak, a wooden roller coaster, was built and named for the local high school's mascot. It is currently the park's oldest operating roller coaster. In the latter half of the twentieth century, Cedar Point shattered countless roller coaster records with rides like Corkscrew (first coaster with three or more inversions), Gemini (tallest and fastest roller coaster in the world when constructed in 1978), Magnum XL-200 (tallest and fastest roller coaster in the world when constructed in 1989), Mean Streak (tallest and fastest wooden roller coaster in the world when constructed in 1991), Raptor (tallest and fastest inverted roller coaster in the world when constructed in 1994), and Mantis (tallest and fastest stand-up roller coaster in the world when constructed in 1996).
In 2000, Millennium Force was built, at 310 feet (94 m) tall, and 93 miles per hour (150 km/h) top speed. In 2003, Cedar Point debuted Top Thrill Dragster. When it was built it was the tallest (420 ft or 130 m) and the fastest (120 mph or 190 km/h) roller coaster in the world. Cedar Point brought its roller coaster total to 17 in 2007 with the construction of Maverick. The park has been known for several years for having the most roller coasters and amusement rides in the world. It has long been nicknamed "America's Roller Coast". It has also been ranked the best amusement park in the world by the Golden Ticket Awards for 15 consecutive years. In 2013, Cedar Point added a 16th coaster called Gatekeeper. It broke records for the tallest, fastest, longest, and steepest winged coaster as of 2013.
May thru August every year, Sandusky residents and incoming tourists flock to the neighboring islands north of the city, with many transportation options leaving right from downtown. The islands include Kelleys Island, South Bass Island (host of the popular village known as Put-in-Bay), Middle Bass Island and North Bass Island.
Themed parties are a common occurrence in the summer season throughout Sandusky and on the neighboring islands, such as "Island Fest", "Rock on the Dock", and "Christmas in July"; thousands of residents and tourists join in the festivities annually. In 2008, the residents of Sandusky hosted their first annual "Barge Party", where boats from as far as Toledo and Cleveland came to dock up their boats together at the sandbar, just inside Sandusky Bay. The barge party ensues twice every year, typically in late June and late July.
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The tourist draw produced by Cedar Point has attracted resort businesses and waterparks to the area. Major waterparks in and near Sandusky are:
- Castaway Bay, owned by Cedar Fair
- Great Wolf Lodge (Perkins Township)
- Kalahari (Perkins Township)
- Maui Sands Waterpark & Hotel
- Rain Indoor Waterpark Located in Quality Inn & Suites
Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Sandusky. There are four trains daily, all arriving in the late night/early morning hours: the Capitol Limited between Chicago and Washington, D.C., via Pittsburgh; and the Lake Shore Limited between Chicago and New York/Boston via Buffalo. There is also an ongoing (as of January 2011) study into the possibility of commuter rail to Cleveland.
A Greyhound Lines bus station is located on Route 101 at Route 2 south of Sandusky in Margaretta Township.
Several ferry boats and routes serve Sandusky. These depart from the Jackson Street Pier, except Jet Express which departs from an adjacent pier.
- M/V Goodtime I - Seasonal daily service to Kelleys Island and South Bass Island. Also provides special party cruises and charters.
- M/V Pelee Islander - Seasonal scheduled service to Pelee Island connecting to Leamington, Ontario and Kingsville, Ontario.
- M/V Jet Express III - Seasonal daily service to Kelleys Island and South Bass Island connecting to Port Clinton, Ohio. Departs from former Cedar Point pier downtown.
Sandusky Public Schools enroll 3,775 students in public primary and secondary schools. The district administers 10 public schools including six elementary schools, two middle schools, and two high schools. Other than public schools, the city is home to one private catholic school, St. Mary Central Catholic High School. Both Sandusky High School and St. Mary Central Catholic High School participate in varsity and junior varsity sports; their teams are called the Blue Streaks and Panthers respectively. Sandusky High's colors are navy and white; SMCC's are blue and gold.
Sandusky (along with nearby Port Clinton and the Lake Erie Islands - known in the region collectively as "Vacationland") is served by a daily newspaper, the Sandusky Register, and ten local radio stations. BAS Broadcasting (based in nearby Fremont) owns and operates WCPZ FM 102.7 (hot AC), WMJK FM 100.9 (country), WOHF FM 92.1 (classic hits), WFRO-FM FM 99.1 (AC), and WLEC AM 1450 (oldies/standards).
Religious stations include WVMS FM 89.5 (run by the Moody Bible Institute as a relay of WCRF FM in Cleveland) and WGGN FM 97.7 which plays contemporary Christian music, in addition to WHRQ 88.1 FM (as a repeater of WNOC "Annunciation Radio" based in Toledo) airing programming from EWTN Global Catholic Radio.
Sandusky has one local television station, religiously oriented WGGN-TV channel 52 (DTV 42). Sandusky's location between Toledo and Cleveland means that the city is also served by stations (albeit at a fringe level) in both of those markets as well.
According to Sandusky's 2012 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:
|#||Employer||# of employees|
|2||Firelands Regional Health System||2,014|
|3||Sandusky City School District||810|
|7||Kyklos Bearings International||254|
|9||City of Sandusky||235|
|10||Sandusky International, Inc.||145|
Perkins Township is a township that lies south of Perkins Avenue, which bisects what is informally considered the Sandusky Metropolitan Area. The Sandusky Mall and the Sandusky Speedway are located south of Perkins Avenue, and therefore lie in Perkins Township. Perkins Township does not have its own main post office, so the township uses Sandusky city's ZIP code of 44870.
- John Beatty (1828-1914) − banker and member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1868–73); brigadier general in the Union Army during the American Civil War
- Bill Berry - drummer for the band R.E.M.; lived in Sandusky from 1968 to 1972
- Andrew Biemiller − U.S. Representative from Wisconsin
- Brian Bixler − professional baseball player for the Washington Nationals
- Brandy Burre − actress, best known for her portrayal of Theresa D'Agostino on the HBO series The Wire
- Roger Carter − professional darts player who was born in Sandusky
- Chris Castle − folk/Americana singer-songwriter
- Dandridge MacFarlan Cole (1921–65) − aerospace engineer, futurist, lecturer, and author
- Henry D. Cooke (1825–81) − financier, journalist, railroad executive, and politician; younger brother of Jay Cooke
- Jay Cooke (1821–1905) − Civil War financier, railroad magnate, and philanthropist
- Jay Crawford − sports broadcaster, anchor of SportsCenter on ESPN
- Corey Croom − football player
- Thom Darden − defensive back for the Cleveland Browns, 1972-1981
- Robert L. Denig - major general, US Marine Corps, Sandusky's highest-ranking sea service officer and highest decorated military/naval figure
- John Emerson, born Clifton Paden (1874-1956) − stage actor, playwright, producer, and director of silent films
- Chad Fairchild − Major League Baseball umpire
- George Feick (1849-1932) − builder whose works include the Wyoming State Capitol, multiple buildings at Oberlin College, and numerous buildings in and around Sandusky
- Charles Frohman (1856-1915) − theatrical producer, co-founder of the Theatrical Syndicate
- Daniel Frohman (1851-1940) − theatrical producer and manager, early film producer; older brother of Charles Frohman
- Andy Gerold − professional guitarist; currently touring with Marilyn Manson
- Jon Gruden − former head coach of the Oakland Raiders and Tampa Bay Buccaneers, ESPN analyst
- Rodney Jackson − radio personality and music producer
- Fred Kelsey (1884-1961) − actor, film director, and screenwriter
- Dick Kinzel − former CEO of Cedar Fair Entertainment Company
- Aaron Kromer - offensive line coach for the Buffalo Bills
- Jeff Linkenbach − NFL offensive tackle
- William d'Alton Mann (1839-1920) − Civil War soldier, businessman, and newspaper and magazine publisher
- Scott May − NCAA national champion basketball player, 1976 NCAA men's basketball National Player of the Year, and 1976 Olympic gold medalist; played professionally for the Chicago Bulls
- Jackie Mayer − Miss America 1963 and motivational speaker; the section of Route 2 that runs through Erie County is named "Jackie Mayer Miss America Highway"
- Thomas J. Moyer (1939–2010) − chief justice of the Ohio Supreme Court from 1987 to 2010
- Dennis Murray − Democratic member of the Ohio House of Representatives
- George Nichols − light heavyweight boxing champion
- Catherine Opie − artist specializing in issues within documentary photography; professor of photography at UCLA
- Orlando Pace − offensive lineman for NFL's St. Louis Rams and a seven-time Pro Bowler; played for the Blue Streaks of Sandusky High School, who retired his jersey number in a halftime ceremony
- Kevin Randleman − 2-time Div I NCAA wrestling champion for The Ohio State University and professional mixed martial arts fighter
- Blanche Roosevelt (1853–98) − opera singer and author
- Edmund Ross − senator whose vote prevented impeachment of President Andrew Johnson in 1868
- William F. Schaub (1900–99) − United States Assistant Secretary of the Army (Financial Management and Comptroller) from 1961 to 1962
- Elmer Smith (1892-1984) − Major League Baseball outfielder who played 10 seasons between 1914 and 1925; helped Cleveland Indians win 1920 World Series
- Brad Snyder − Major League Baseball player in Chicago Cubs organization
- Orville James Victor (1827-1910) − theologian, journalist, editor and abolitionist
- Dave Waddington − former powerlifter and strongman; first man to ever break the 1,000-pound barrier in the squat
- Alvin F. Weichel (1891-1956) − Republican member of U.S. House of Representatives (1943–55)
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- "American FactFinder". Factfinder2.census.gov. Retrieved 2017-02-27.
- Fisher, Daniel (2011-08-10). "Best Places To Live Cheaply". Forbes.
- Johnston, John (1858). Vocabularies of the Shawanoese and Wyandott Languages, etc. Wyandot.org. Retrieved 2017-02-27.
- "Wyandot Dictionary" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-05-22.
- "Composite: British Empire in America. / Popple, Henry / 1733". Davidrumsey.com. 1999-02-22. Retrieved 2014-03-05.
- "Carte de la Louisiane et du cours du Mississipi [i.e. Mississippi]: dressâee sur un grand nombre de mâemoires entrautres sur ceux de Mr. le Maire / par Guillaume Del'isle del Academie R'le. des Sciences". Memory.loc.gov. Retrieved 2014-03-05.
- Williams, William W. (1879). History of the Fire Lands, Comprising Huron and Erie Counties, Ohio. Press of Leader Printing Company. p. 431.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Sandusky, Ohio". Retrieved on 2008-11-13.
- Monthly Averages for Sandusky, OH. The Weather Channel. Retrieved on 2008-11-13.
- "Climate Summaries". Midwestern Regional Climate Center. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
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- "Welcome". Sanduskybaybargeparty.com.
- "U.S. Ambassador to Haiti Kenneth Merten; passenger train from Cleveland to Sandusky: Whatever happened to ... ?". Cleveland Plain Dealer. 16 January 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
- "Passenger rail service between Cleveland and Sandusky to be studied". Cleveland Plain Dealer. 2 February 2010. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
- Great Schools.com. "Sandusky City School District Profile". Retrieved 2008-07-21.
- "Sandusky History: Ohio's Lake Erie Vacationland". Sanduskyhistory.blogspot.com. 2010-06-10. Retrieved 2017-02-27.
- "BAS Broadcasting - Your Ohio Radio Stations". Basohio.com. Retrieved 2017-02-27.
- "Elyria-Lorain Broadcasting Company". Elbc.northcoastnow.com. Retrieved 2017-02-27.
- "City of Sandusky CAFR" (PDF). Audits.auditor.state.oh.us. Retrieved 2014-03-05.
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