|Location||The Bronx, New York City|
|Nearest city||New York City|
|Area||413.17 acres (167.20 ha)|
|Governing body||New York City Department of Correction|
Rikers Island (//) is New York City's main jail complex, as well as the name of the 413.17-acre (167.204 ha) island on which it sits, in the East River between Queens and the mainland Bronx, adjacent to the runways of LaGuardia Airport. Supposedly named after Abraham Rycken who bought the island in 1664, the island is home to one of the world's largest correctional institutions and mental institutions and has been described as New York's most famous jail. The island was originally under 100 acres (40 ha) in size, but has since grown over four times to more than 400 acres (160 ha). Much of the first stages of expansion was accomplished by convict labor hauling in ashes for landfill. The island itself is politically part of the Bronx, though it is included as part of Queens Community Board 1 and has a Queens ZIP Code of 11370.
The jail complex, operated by the New York City Department of Correction, has a budget of $860 million a year, a staff of 9,000 officers and 1,500 civilians managing 100,000 admissions per year and an average daily population of 10,000 inmates. Approximately 85% of those detained at Rikers have not been convicted of a crime. These detainees are pretrial, either held on bail or remanded to custody. The rest of the population have been convicted and are serving short sentences. According to a study done in 2015 by Vera Institute of Justice, it costs the city approximately $209,000 to detain one person for one year at Rikers Island.
Rikers has a reputation for abuse and neglect of inmates, attracting increased media and judicial scrutiny that has resulted in numerous rulings against the New York City government. It is also notorious for numerous assaults by inmates on uniformed and civilian staff, resulting in often serious injuries, making Rikers Island one of the most dangerous places to work. In May 2013, Rikers Island ranked as one of the ten worst correctional facilities in the United States, based on reporting in Mother Jones magazine. Violence on Rikers Island has been increasing in recent years. In 2015 there were 9,424 assaults, the highest number in 5 years. On the other hand, murder is relatively rare on the island, with none recorded in 2015 or 2016.
In 2017, Mayor Bill de Blasio announced his intention to close the jail complex at Rikers Island within 10 years, if the city's crime rates stay low and the population at Rikers is reduced from 10,000 to 5,000. He released the details of his plan in a report titled "Smaller, Safer, Fairer: A roadmap to closing Rikers Island" on June 22. In February 2018, a state oversight commission suggested that New York state might move to close the facility before that deadline.
- 1 Complex and facilities
- 2 History
- 3 Abuse and neglect of prisoners
- 4 Inmate deaths
- 5 In popular culture
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Complex and facilities
The Rikers Island complex, which consists of ten jails, holds local offenders who are awaiting trial and cannot afford, obtain, or are not given bail from a judge; those serving sentences of one year or less; and those temporarily placed there pending transfer to another facility. Rikers Island is therefore not a prison by US terminology, which typically holds offenders serving longer-term sentences. It is home to ten of the New York City Department of Correction's fifteen facilities and can accommodate up to 15,000 prisoners.
Facilities located on the island include Otis Bantum Correctional Center (OBCC), Robert N. Davoren Complex (RNDC, formerly ARDC), Anna M. Kross Center (AMKC), George Motchan Detention Center (GMDC), North Infirmary Command (NIC), Rose M. Singer Center (RMSC), Eric M. Taylor Center (EMTC, formerly CIFM), James A. Thomas Center (JATC) (no longer used to house inmates), George R. Vierno Center (GRVC) and West Facility (WF). The Bantum, Kross, Motchan, and Vierno facilities house detained male adults. Taylor houses sentenced male adolescents and adults. Davoren primarily houses male inmates who are of ages 16 through 18. Singer houses detained and sentenced female adolescents and adults. North Infirmary primarily houses inmates who require medical attention from an infirmary. West Facility houses inmates who have diseases that are contagious. The average daily inmate population on the island is about 10,000, although it can hold a maximum of 15,000. The daytime population (including staff) can be 20,000 or more.
The only road access to the island is from Queens, over the 4,200-foot (1.28 km) three-lane Francis Buono Bridge, dedicated on November 22, 1966, by Mayor John Lindsay. Before the bridge was constructed, the only access to the island was by ferry. Transportation is also provided by the Q100 MTA Regional Bus Operations route. There are also privately operated shuttles that connect the parking lot at the south end to the island. Bus service within the island for visitors visiting inmates is provided by the New York City Department of Correction on Fridays through Sundays.
The North Infirmary Command, which used to be called the Rikers Island Infirmary, is used to house inmates requiring extreme protective custody, inmates with special health needs, mentally ill inmates, and inmates undergoing drug detoxification. The Infirmary also has the capacity to house overflow inmates from conventional populations. The rest of the facilities, all built in the last 67 years, make up this city of jails. There is also the Vernon C. Bain Correctional Center, a floating barge (described below). There are schools, medical clinics, ball fields, chapels, gyms, drug rehab programs, grocery stores, barbershops, a bakery, a laundromat, a power plant, a track, a tailor shop, a print shop, a bus depot and even a car wash. It is also home to a large composting facility.
Rikers Island has been referred to as the world's largest penal colony. For comparison, Europe's largest correctional facility, Silivri Prison in European Turkey, sits on 256 acres (1.04 km2) and houses 10,904 prisoners.
The island is thought to be named after Abraham Rycken, a Dutch settler who moved to Long Island in 1638 and whose descendants owned Rikers Island until 1884, when it was sold to the city for $180,000.
The island was used as a military training ground during the Civil War. The first regiment to use the Island was the 9th New York Infantry, also known as Hawkins' Zouaves, which arrived there on May 15, 1861. Hawkins' Zouaves was followed by the 36th New York State Volunteers on June 23, which was followed by the Anderson Zouaves on July 15, 1861. The Anderson Zouaves were commanded by John Lafayette Riker who was related to the owners of the island. The camp of the Anderson Zouaves was named Camp Astor in compliment to millionaire John Jacob Astor Jr. who provided funding for the army, and who appears to have made a significant contribution to the raising of the Anderson Zouaves in particular, with the Astor ladies being credited with the manufacture of the zouave uniforms worn by the recruits of this regiment. Rikers Island was subsequently used by numerous other Civil War regiments, but the name "Camp Astor" was specific to the Anderson Zouaves and did not become a general name for the military encampment on the island.
In 1883 New York City's Commission of Charities and Corrections expressed an interest in purchasing the island for use as a work-house. Any such purchase would have to be approved by the state. In January 1884 state senator Frederick S. Gibbs introduced a bill in the state senate authorizing the commission to purchase the island. In May 1884 Governor Grover Cleveland signed a bill authorizing the Commissioner of Charities and Corrections to purchase the island for a sum no greater than $180,000. At the time, the island was within the boundaries of Long Island City, which was located in Queens County, which was not yet part of New York City, and this potential transfer set off squabbling between politicians of Long Island City, Queens County, and New York City. On July 31, 1884, a compromise was agreed to by all three entities, New York City agreed to pay a total of $3,000, to be disbursed as $2,500 to Long Island City and $500 to Queens County. On August 4, 1884, the Commissioner of Charities and Corrections, Jacob Hess, signed a contract purchasing the island from John T. Wilson, a descendant of the Ryker family, for $180,000, $179,000 to Wilson and $1,000 for a title search.
Conversion to jail
The city expressed a desire to open a jail for men on Rikers Island as early as 1925, in order to replace their overburdened and dilapidated jail on Welfare Island, now Roosevelt Island; the jail was opened in 1932. Landfill continued to be added to the island until 1943, eventually enlarging the original 90-acre (36 ha) island to 415 acres (168 ha). This required the permission of the federal government, since the expansion extended the island's pier line. Also 200 acres (81 ha) were stripped from Rikers to help fill in the new North Beach Airport, which opened in 1939 and was later renamed LaGuardia Airport.
The net expansion of the island enabled the jail facilities to also expand. The original penitentiary building, completed in 1935, was called HDM or the House of Detention for Men; it became a maximum security facility called the James A. Thomas Center and closed due to structural issues in 2000.
After New York City was banned by the courts in 1922 from ocean dumping of garbage, much of it ended up on Rikers Island, even though the island already had 12 mountains of garbage 40 to 130 feet tall; still, it took in 1.5 million cubic yards of additional refuse, more than the amount of dirt displaced by the building of the World Trade Center. Since much of the garbage was composed of ash from coal heating and incinerators, there were frequent spontaneous phosphorescent fires, even in the wintertime, in the snow. One warden described it in 1934: "At night it is like a forest of Christmas trees – first one little light ... then another, until the whole hillside is lit up with little fires. ... It was beautiful." The island was also plagued with rats, which at one point were so prevalent that after "poison gas, poison bait, ferocious dogs and pigs" failed to control them, one New Yorker tried to organize a hunting party to kill them off. It was the efforts of "master builder" Robert Moses, who didn't want the unsightly island to be the backdrop for his carefully landscaped 1939 World's Fair, to get the island cleaned up, and have the city's garbage sent elsewhere—ultimately to the Fresh Kills landfill on Staten Island.
During Mayor David Dinkins' term as mayor of New York, the jail filled to overflowing, and an 800-bed barge was installed on the East River to accommodate the extra inmates. The barge is called the Vernon C. Bain Correctional Center (VCBC), and is also known simply as "The Boat". VCBC is located at 1 Halleck St, Bronx, NY 10474, at the end of Hunts Point, near the recently relocated Fulton Fish Market. The keel for the Vernon C. Bain was laid in 1989 at the Avondale Shipyard in New Orleans. Upon completion, VCBC was towed up from Louisiana to its current mooring, and attached to two "Crandall Arms". It opened for use as a facility in 1992. Originally it had been leased to the NYC Department of Juvenile Justice, while Spofford Juvenile Center was under reconstruction. VCBC was formerly known as Maritime Facility #3 (MTF3); facilities 1 and 2 were reconstructed British military transport barges, or BIBBYs (British Industries Boat Building Yard), used during the Falklands War, both of which could house 800 soldiers, but only 200 inmates after their conversion. MTFs 1 and 2 were anchored on either side of Manhattan at East River pier 17, near 20th street, in the Hudson River. In addition, there were two smaller 1950s-era Staten Island Ferry boats, both converted to house 162 inmates each. The ferry boats were sold for salvage in about 2003, and the owner of the shipyard that built VCBC, Avondale Shipyard, bought the two BIBBYs. VCBC is the only vessel of its type in the world. Prior to modification for use by New York City, it cost $161 million to construct. The initial plan for acquiring the vessel, because of the way New York City makes capital purchases, had to begin at least five years before the keel was laid, during the tenure of Ed Koch.
In 1957, Northeast Airlines Flight 823 crashed onto Rikers Island shortly after take-off from LaGuardia Airport, killing 20 and injuring 78 out of a total of 95 passengers and 6 crew. Shortly after the crash, department personnel and inmates alike ran to the crash in order to help survivors. As a result of their actions, of the 57 inmates who assisted with the rescue effort, 30 were released and 16 received a reduction of six months by the N.Y.C. Parole Board. Governor Averell Harriman also granted commutation of sentence to 11 men serving definite sentences: two received a six-months' reduction; one workhouse and eight penitentiary definites became eligible for immediate release.
A drawing by artist Salvador Dalí, done as an apology because he was unable to attend a talk about art for the prisoners at Rikers Island, hung in the inmate dining room in J.A.T.C. (HDM) from 1965 to 1981, when it was moved to the prison lobby in E.M.T.C. (C76) for safekeeping. The drawing was stolen in March 2003 and replaced with a fake; three Correction Officers and an Assistant Deputy Warden were arrested and charged, and though the three later pleaded guilty and one was acquitted, the drawing has not been recovered.
Proposed closure of jail complex
In February 2016, the Independent Commission on New York City Criminal Justice and Incarceration Reform, also known as the Lippman Commission since it is chaired by former Chief Judge of the State of New York Jonathan Lippman, was convened by New York City Council Speaker Melissa Mark-Viverito to review the entirety of the city's criminal justice system. In April of that year, Glenn E. Martin launched a campaign that called for the closure of the Rikers Island Jail Complex. In September 2016, the campaign organized a march from Queens Plaza to the Rikers Island Bridge to send a message to Mayor Bill de Blasio that New York City is united in demanding the jail complex be closed.
In the months following, there had been plans to build an additional facility on the island that consisted of 1,500 beds. In November 2016, New York City Department of Correction Commissioner Joseph Ponte said, "As we look at construction and now with the...kind of the movement to close Rikers all those things politically have to be taken into consideration. So the 1,500 bed facility on Rikers is still at...at a kind of pause right now".
After a year of consideration, the Lippmann Commission released a report of recommendations for closing the jail complex. De Blasio did not specifically endorse the findings of the commission, and it is expected to provide the broad outline of the plan to close Rikers when it was announced. The Lippman Commission proposed a 10-year plan to close the ten jails currently on the island and replace them with smaller jails, one in each borough closer to the courthouses. The population at Rikers Island would have to decrease from current average of 10,000 to approximately 5,000. According to The Mayor's Office of Criminal Justice, key strategies in shrinking the Rikers population has included addressing causes of case delays, identifying individuals that could be granted alternatives to jail time, and improving programming and discharge services. Since 1991, the Rikers population has dropped by more than 50%, when the average daily population was 21,688. The intention to close the prison complex within 10 years was endorsed by Mayor Bill de Blasio on March 31, after the New York Post leaked the findings of the Lippman Commission.
One possible reuse proposal was to build a low-rise residential development, although the island's distance from mass transit, proximity to LaGuardia Airport, and leakage of toxic methane gas from its landfill base would pose problems for the proposed development. It would also mean that each residential unit would cost about twice as much to construct as a normal unit in New York City. The residential development would connect the island to the mainland for the expansion of the airport, using it as a park, for solid-waste management or for manufacturing. However, the commission specifically ruled out its use for private residences. In light of possible closure of the jail complex, New York City Public Advocate Letitia James suggested renaming the island after Kalief Browder. (See below).
On June 22, 2017, Mayor de Blasio released his plan for a 10-year shutdown of the facility, saying that it was not a "quick fix": "This will be a long a difficult path," he wrote. The city will reduce the inmate population of Rikers through the use of alternative facilities and reforms such as making the payment of bail easier and improving mental health facilities and programs. Two "diversion centers" will assist people with mental health problems and will work with police to find options other than incarceration. Smaller jail facilities will be open throughout the city, but the plan does not fully describe how, where, and when that will occur.
The New York State Commission of Correction, which oversees New York City's jails, issued a report in February 2018 citing numerous violations in the facility on the part of the City and a significant increase in violent incidents from 2016 to 2017. It suggested that the state might move to close Rikers Island before the city's 10-year deadline, which is not legally binding.
Abuse and neglect of prisoners
Rikers Island has become notorious in recent years for a "culture of abuse" and has been subject to a number of investigations and rulings.
In 1986, a federal appeals court ruled that strip searches could not be performed on people arrested on misdemeanor charges, like subway fare evasion or marijuana smoking. The case itself was brought by Ann Weber, who was arrested for making an inflated claim on a 911 call, after her son was attacked while leaving her daughter's wedding. She was brought to jail still dressed in formal wedding attire, locked in a cell, and forced to strip and expose her cavities for search in the hour it took for her daughter to arrive and post bail.
Prior to this decision, all prisoners taken to Rikers, no matter the level of their accusation, were strip searched. These searches often took place in groups of 10 to 12 and involved genital and anal searches. Despite the court's ruling, the practice lived on, costing New York City taxpayers a total of $81 million in settlements to the victims of these illegal searches. In 2001, a ruling was reached in New York reinforcing the illegality of strip searches for misdemeanor detainees, and demanding that the city pay up to $50 million to the tens of thousands of people who were illegally searched over the years.
However, the practice did not die. Another suit was filed against the city in 2007 for performing strip searches on inmates taken to Rikers on misdemeanor charges. On October 4, 2007, the New York City Department of Corrections conceded that tens of thousands of nonviolent inmates taken to Rikers Island on misdemeanor charges had been wrongly strip-searched in violation of a 2002 court settlement, and were entitled to payment for damages. The policy was kept in place despite a United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit ruling in 2001 that strip-searches of misdemeanor suspects were illegal, unless officials suspected that they were carrying contraband..." [Lead lawyer Richard D.] Emery charged in his papers that department officials "repeatedly resorted to lying to cover up deliberate indifference to the continued practice of humiliating detainees by forcing them to strip naked in groups." This class action suit won $33 million in damages.
Inmates as enforcers
In February 2008, Correction Officer Lloyd Nicholson was indicted after he allegedly used a select group of teenage inmates as enforcers under a regime called "the program", as well as allegedly beating inmates himself. However, "the program" has been known to exist for well over a decade and is unique to the adolescents. The inmates use it as a test for other inmates and a system of control amongst themselves.
A Village Voice article lists a roll call of 2008 scandals at Rikers, including the case of officers who allegedly passed accused cop killer Lee Woods marijuana, cigarettes, and alcohol; the February indictment of corrections officer Lloyd Nicholson who used inmates as "enforcers", and the April 27 suicide of 18-year-old Steven Morales (who allegedly killed his infant daughter) in the high-security closed-custody unit.
On February 4, 2009, The New York Times reported that "the pattern of cases suggests that city correction officials have been aware of a problem in which Rikers guards have acquiesced or encouraged violence among inmates." The Times added that "There have been at least seven lawsuits filed in Federal District Court in Manhattan accusing guards of complicity or acquiescence in inmate violence at Rikers, a complex of 10 detention facilities which, along with several other jails around the city, hold about 13,000 prisoners, most of whom are pretrial detainees. None of the seven suits has gone to trial. In the three that were settled, the city admitted no liability or wrongdoing."
In an alleged July 2008 rape case reported by The Village Voice on August 5, 2008, the alleged victim claimed "that someone entered her cell in the 1,000-bed Rose M. Singer Center while she was asleep, sometime before 6 a.m. on July 3. She says the intruder (or intruders) bound and gagged her with bedsheets and then used a dildo-like object to sexually assault her. Other inmates may have acted as lookouts during the alleged assault. The woman, who was being held on grand-larceny charges for the past three months, was discovered at about 6 a.m. by an officer and a captain who were touring the building. The officer saw her lying on her back on the floor of her cell with bedsheets wrapped around her neck, mouth, and legs. She had also been blindfolded. The incident was reported to central command at 7:30 a.m., and the woman was transported to the Elmhurst Hospital Center. Because she didn't share a cell with anyone, a major question is how the alleged assault happened in the first place. Officials won't talk about the investigation, and there's no word on whether any arrests have been made."
On June 1, 2007, Captain Sherman Graham and Assistant Deputy Warden Gail Lewis were arrested by the New York City Department of Investigation (DOI) for covering up an assault on an inmate. The arrest came after both were indicted by a Bronx Grand Jury. It is alleged that on October 4, 2006, Graham assaulted an inmate after he refused to comply with strip searching procedures at the Robert N. Davoren Center (RNDC, C-74). The assault occurred in front of 15 Correction Academy Recruits in training. After the assault, Graham ordered the recruits to write on their Use of Force Witness Reports that Graham assaulted the inmate in self-defense after the inmate punched Graham. Lewis, who was Graham’s supervisor, did not intervene to stop the attack. Lewis also submitted a false Use of Force Witness Report. Charges against Graham include 16 counts of Falsifying Business Records, 16 counts of offering a False Instrument for Filing in the First Degree, 16 counts of Official Misconduct, a class A misdemeanor and one count of Attempted Assault in the Third Degree. Lewis was charged with Falsifying Business Records, Offering a False Instrument for Filing and Official Misconduct. The investigation started when the DOI received a tip following an anti-corruption presentation at the Academy in October 2006 on the day before graduation.
Graham and Lewis were found guilty on all charges by a Bronx jury on May 14, 2012. It took the jury approximately three hours to deliberate a guilty verdict. Lewis was able to retire in December 2009 with her pension. Graham was terminated from the Corrections Department following the guilty verdict. Each faced up to four years in prison, however, Graham and Lewis were both sentenced to 500 hours of community service and ordered to pay $1,000.00 in fines on August 7, 2012, when they were sentenced.
The New York City Department of Corrections reported that in fiscal year 2012 more than 14.4 percent of adolescents detained at Rikers Island between the ages of 16 and 18 were held in at least one period of solitary confinement while detained. The average length of time young people spent in solitary confinement at Rikers Island was 43 days. More than 48 percent of adolescents at this institution have diagnosed mental health problems.
On August 28, 2014, a law was passed boosting oversight of the use of solitary confinement at Rikers Island, following intense public outcry after various abuses at the prison. The law requires the prison to publish quarterly reports on their use of solitary confinement, but did not include provisions regarding the protection of prisoners against guard brutality or limiting the use of solitary confinement as a punishment.
Kalief Browder was arrested and charged with second-degree robbery over an alleged backpack theft at the age of 16. His family was unable to make his $3,000 bail, later being unable to post bail due to a probation violation. He was imprisoned without trial or conviction for three years. Maintaining his innocence, he refused to take a plea bargain that would have released him. The case was eventually dismissed and Browder was released in June 2013 by Judge Patricia DiMango after numerous postponements of his case and 31 hearings in front of judges. For two of those years, Browder was held in solitary confinement or punitive segregation. Browder was profiled in The New Yorker in October 2014 for being held for three years on Rikers Island without a trial.
In June 2015, Browder committed suicide by hanging himself. The conditions of his detention were widely seen as having caused his mental condition. He had multiple prior suicide attempts while incarcerated. Days after his death, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Anthony Kennedy invoked Browder's experience in his opinion on Davis v. Ayala. On January 25, 2016, President Barack Obama wrote an article in The Washington Post criticizing the "overuse" of solitary confinement in American jails, basing his arguments largely on Browder's experience. He signed an executive order banning solitary confinement of juveniles in federal prisons.
Treatment of mentally ill
Since 2014, Mayor de Blasio has begun to take action against the abuse by adding surveillance cameras and improving care for mentally ill prisoners.
On September 29, 2014, Judge Tynia Richard offered a sharp rebuke to the Department of Corrections, recommending that six corrections officers be fired. This group, led by Captain Budnarine Behari, had participated in the brutal beating of Robert Hinton, a mentally ill inmate, while he was hog-tied, because he had protested being moved from his cell by sitting down. Hinton's fellow inmates watched as he was dragged down the hallways while hog-tied to a solitary confinement cell where he was beaten. While this ruling was one of the most severe against the Department of Corrections in many years, almost two years had elapsed between the beating and the Justice Department's ruling, during which time the perpetrators in this attack were involved in more inmate beatings at Rikers Island.
Treatment of LGBT inmates
The segregated unit at Rikers for LGBT prisoners, known as "gay housing," was closed in December 2005 citing a need to improve security. The unit had opened in the 1970s due to concerns about abuse of LGBT prisoners in pretrial detention. The New York City Department of Correction's widely criticized plan was to restructure the classification of prisoners and create a new protective custody system which would include 23-hour-per-day lockdown (identical to that mandated for disciplinary reasons) for moving vulnerable inmates to other facilities. Whereas formerly all that was required was a declaration of homosexuality or the appearance of being transgender, inmates wanting protective custody would now be required to request it in a special hearing.
In August 2014, the US Attorney for the Southern District of New York, Preet Bharara, issued a report condemning the systematic abuse and violation of prisoners' constitutional rights. Despite this and many other egregious incidents of abuse, few corrections officers have been prosecuted successfully or even removed from their positions. On August 4, 2014, Preet Bharara, the US Attorney for the Southern District of New York, issued a damning report on the treatment of juvenile prisoners at Rikers. The report identified "a pattern and practice of conduct at Rikers that violates the constitutional rights of adolescent inmates". The report describes the "rampant use of unnecessary and excessive force by DOC staff", as well as dangers to inmates including inadequate protection from violence caused by other inmates, a culture that uses violence as a means to control inmates, and heavy use of solitary confinement ("punitive segregation") for discipline. The report details the guards' frequent use of violence, including "headshots" (blows to the head or face), particularly in areas without video surveillance. This violence is perpetrated as punishment or retribution against the inmates, or "In response to inmates' verbal altercations with officers".
On August 18, 2012 Jason Echevarria swallowed a packet of powdered detergent that had been given to inmates to clean out their cells after there was a leakage of raw sewage from the toilets. Echevarria began vomiting and complaining of severe pain. Terrence Pendergrass, the supervisor of the unit, was told by a correction officer of Echevarria's condition. According to The New York Times, "... the captain told the officer not to bother him unless 'there was a dead body,' the complaint said". Several correction officers passed through his unit but he received no medical attention and was found dead in his cell the following morning. The medical examiner ruled his death a homicide citing "neglect and denial of medical care".
Jason Echevarria suffered from bipolar disorder and was housed in the unit reserved for mentally ill inmates. At one point he had been placed in solitary confinement after several suicide attempts.
Terrance Pendergrass was demoted and suspended without pay following the incident, and in December 2014 was convicted of one count of denying Echevarria medical care resulting in death. In June 2015, Terrance Pendergrass was sentenced to five years in prison. In November 2015, Echevarria's family was awarded a $3.8 million settlement regarding the matter.
In 2012, 52-year old Ronald Spear was awaiting trial on Rikers Island and due to kidney failure was detained in the North Infirmary Command (NIC). He walked with a cane and wore a bracelet that read "Risk of Fall". On December 19, 2012 Spear left his dormitory and demanded he see a doctor. Brian Coll, now a former correction officer, and Ronald Spear got into an altercation when Spear was told by the doctor he could not be seen until later that day. Coll began punching Spear in the face and body. According to The New York Times, "Another officer grabbed Mr. Spear and with Mr. Taylor's help [Byron Taylor, former correction officer], pinned him down. The complaint says Mr. Coll kicked Mr. Spear several times in the head, and knelt down, telling him, 'Remember that I'm the one who did this to you'". When a Rikers Island medical team reached Spear, he was unresponsive, and after failed attempts to resurrect him, he was pronounced dead. An investigation into the incident found that Brian Coll and two other correction officers conspired to cover up how Spear died.
In 2016 Brian Coll was convicted of one count of death resulting from deprivation of rights under color of law, one count of conspiracy to obstruct justice, one count of obstruction of justice, one count of filing false forms, and one count of conspiracy to file false forms. Byron Taylor pled guilty to one count of perjury for lying to a federal grand jury, and one count of conspiracy to obstruct justice. Anthony Torres pled guilty to one count of conspiracy to obstruct justice and file false reports, and one count of filing a false report.
Bradley Ballard, who suffered from schizophrenia and diabetes, in June 2013 was sent to Rikers on a parole violation for failure to report an address change. In July he was sent to the psychiatric prison ward at Bellevue Hospital Center where he stayed for 38 days before being sent back to Rikers.
On September 4, 2013 Bradley Ballard was locked in his cell as punishment for making inappropriate gestures at a female correction officer. According to The New York Times, "the lawsuit said, 'Not a single nurse, doctor or other medical or mental health provider entered his cell'". On Sept 11, at the age of 39, Ballard suffered a gruesome death after he languished inside his cell for seven days without access to his medication or medical treatment. When correction officers finally came to the aid of Ballard he was naked, unresponsive, and covered in feces. His genitals were swollen and badly infected, injuries suffered after he tied a band around his penis. According to The New York Times, some 129 inmates, 77% of whom were diagnosed as mentally ill, suffered "serious injuries" in altercations with prison guards over an 11-month period in 2013. These injuries were "beyond the capacity" of the prison doctors to treat successfully.
According to The New York Times, "the lawsuit said, 'Rather than provide the critical care required' medical staff and correction officers 'who knew Mr. Ballard could not survive without medication, essentially stood by and watched as Mr. Ballard languished, deteriorated and ultimately died.'" In 2016, the city agreed to pay $5.75 million to settle the lawsuit.
On February 15, 2014, Jerome Murdough, a homeless veteran in jail on an accusation of trespassing, was found dead in his cell. After being in jail for one week, he died from overexposure to heat. His cell was over 100 degrees, and he had taken prescription drugs which increase sensitivity to heat. Murdough had been complaining for hours about the heat, but was ignored by prison guards. Murdough had been arrested for camping out on the stairwell of a New York Housing Authority building during the freezing polar vortex of 2014; his bail was set at $2,500. A settlement of $2.25 million occurred.
In January 2014 Rolando Perez was arrested for petty burglary and awaiting trial at Rikers. Perez suffered from a severe seizure disorder since the age of 16 and had taken medication to control his seizures ever since. Perez was being detained in solitary confinement, after getting into a fight with another inmate. In an exclusive video, obtained by Eyewitness News, Perez is heard screaming for his medication. After being denied anti-seizure medication, at the age of 36, Perez was found dead due to seizure and heart problems.
Staten Island native, Eugene (Sonny) Castelle, was battling an addiction to pain killers when he was arrested in Florida for heroin possession with intent to sell. This bust was in violation of the terms of a drug-related plea agreement in New York. On November 2, 2016 Castelle was sent to Rikers and was found dead six days later at the Anna M. Kross Center. According to Daily News, "An inmate told The News that Castelle had taken a dose of methadone, using another prisoner's prescription when he died. Castelle was vomiting and struggling to stand... Another inmate helped Castelle to 'the bubble' watch post to ask for medical help. The correction officer inside was sleeping, and angrily dismissed them both, the inmate said." The following morning, Castelle was found by a correction officer and medical staff unresponsive and died seven minutes later.
In popular culture
- Corruption and prisoner abuse at Rikers Island was the setting of the 2015 crime novel Pannino is Dead by Marc Zirogiannis, which was based upon actual experiences from 2009.
- Lana Del Rey makes references to the complex in her 2011 song "Off to the Races", which was first released on the EP Lana Del Rey.
- Jim Carroll referenced the island's history of violence in his 1979 hit "People Who Died" in the line "Hey, I know it's dangerous, but it sure beats Rikers."
- Rapper Lil Wayne released Gone Til' November: A Journal of Rikers Island in 2016; a journal describing his eight-month stint at Rikers in 2010 on gun charges.
- The video game Tom Clancy's The Division depicts inmates of the facility escaping during a pandemic-level outbreak in New York City, and wreaking havoc in Manhattan, targeting and brutalizing police officers, while terrorizing civilians.
- Amazon's series Mozart in the Jungle features Rikers Island in Season 3 Episode 7 ("Not Yet Titled"), as the orchestra plays a concert in the jail.
- In the BET mini documentary series Time: The Kalief Browder Story features Kalief Browder in his time at Riker's Island.
- In the 2016 Law and Order: SVU episodes "Intersecting Lives" and "Heartfelt Passages", a corrections officer is prosecuted for a series of sexual abuses of female inmates at Rikers Island.
- Dr. Emily Senay, M.D., M.P.H., CBS News. Accessed July 27, 2007. "In addition to making house calls for homebound patients in Manhattan through Betances Health Unit, Dr. Senay has worked in a variety of clinical settings including Rikers Island, New York City's largest jail..."
- Steinberg, Ted (2010), Gotham Unbound: The Ecological History of Greater New York, New York: Simon & Schuster, pp. 214–12; 217; 241–42; 244, ISBN 978-1-476-74124-6
- Daily Star May 1880 Greater Astoria Historical Society. Accessed July 27, 2007. "His daughter Grietie married Abraham Rycken; it is after this prominent Queens family that Rikers Island is named."
- "Alpheus P. Riker Dies". The New York Times. March 3, 1940. p. 46.
- Farrell, William M. "Rustic 'Paradise' on Rikers Island". The New York Times. April 29, 1953. p. 31.
- "Rikers Island Food Waste Composting Facility". NYC Recycles. Archived from the original on 2014-08-19. Retrieved 2014-08-17.
- Staff (April 12, 2017). "The end for New York's most famous jail". The Economist. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- Tax Block & Tax Lot Base Map Files on CD-ROM Archived 2014-11-05 at the Wayback Machine., New York City Department of City Planning. Accessed July 26, 2007. "Similar to the Marble Hill situation is that of Rikers Island. Rikers Island is part of the Borough of The Bronx. However, it is administratively included in Queens Community District 1."
- Goldensohn, Rosa (June 18, 2015). "Rikers Population Falls Below 10,000 For First Time in Decades". DNAinfo New York. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved 2015-12-11.
- Staff (December 16, 2014). "What is Rikers Island?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
- Vera Institute of Justice (May 2015). "The Price of Jails: Measuring the Taxpayer Cost of Local Incarceration" (PDF). storage.googleapis.com.
- Ridgeway, James; Casellaurl, Jean (May 14, 2013). "America's 10 Worst Prisons: Rikers Island". Mother Jones.
- "Inside Rikers Island: A look at violence and corruption in the complex". 9 February 2016. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
- "NYC Crime Map". Retrieved 1 April 2017.
- Corasaniti, Nick (2017-04-02). "Rikers Island Commission Unveils Plan to Shut Down Jail Complex". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-05-13.
- Schapiro, Rich (2017-03-18). "Potential closure of Rikers Island is opportunity for developers". New York Daily News. Retrieved 2017-04-03.
- Goodman, J. David (2017-03-31). "Mayor Backs Plan to Close Rikers and Open Jails Elsewhere". The New York Times. Retrieved 2017-04-03.
- Honan, Katie (June 22, 2017) "Mayor Releases 'Long and Difficult' Plan to Shutter Rikers in 10 Years" Archived 2017-06-22 at the Wayback Machine. DNAinfo
- U.S. Department of Justice, US Attorney Bharara. "CRIPA Investigation of the New York City Department of Correction Jails on Rikers Island". New York Times. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
- "About DOC". New York City Department of Corrections. Retrieved 2014-08-17.
- "Facilities Overview". New York City Department of Corrections. Retrieved 2014-08-17.
- Barth, Kodi. "A City of Jails" Archived 2006-09-08 at the Wayback Machine.. Accessed December 31, 2008
- "Ten Jails on Rikers Island". Correction History. Retrieved 2014-08-17.
- Devlin, John C. (November 23, 1966). "'Bridge of Hope' to Rikers Island Is Dedicated Here". The New York Times. p. 41. Retrieved 2010-04-23.
- "Queens Bus Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. December 2017. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
- Kilgannon, Corey (2006-02-13). "Taking the Bus to Rikers Island (and Back, Too)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-04-03.
- "Inside Rikers: Stories from the World's Largest Penal Colony (9780312261795): Jennifer Wynn: Books". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
- "Captive Audience Archived 2006-11-05 at the Wayback Machine.." NYC24. Retrieved on April 3, 2009.
- Barth, Kodi. An Overview of Rikers Island: A City of Jails Archived 2006-09-08 at the Wayback Machine., NYC24.com. " Named after Abraham Rycken, a Dutch settler who moved to Long Island in 1638 and whose descendants owned Rikers Island till 1884."
- Staff (January 30, 1884) "Pilot Fees at New-York" The New York Times
- Staff (May 25, 1884) "City and Suburban News: New-York" The New York Times
- Staff (July 3, 1884) "The Purchase of Riker's Island" The New York Times
- "City and Suburban News: Long Island" New York Times, August 1, 1884
- Staff ( August 5, 1884) "City and Suburban News: New-York" The New York Times
- Rakia, Raven (March 15, 2016). "A sinking jail: The environmental disaster that is Rikers Island". Grist. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
- "Ten Jails on Rikers Island". Correctionhistory.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "The Travels of Tug 44". Tug44.org. Retrieved 2013-10-16.
- "Rikers Island Air Crash". Correctionhistory.org. Retrieved 2013-10-16.
- Von Zielbauer, Paul (October 4, 2003). "Art Too Tempting at Rikers; Plot to Steal a Dalí Was Far From a Masterpiece". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-05.
- "Guards charged in Dali theft". BBC. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "More Just NYC".
- Nicholas, JB (September 26, 2016). "Hundreds March to Demand Shut Down of Rikers Island". Village Voice. Retrieved 2017-05-14.
- Nicholas, JB (November 18, 2016). "Construction of New Rikers Jail Is Officially 'On Pause'". Village Voice. Retrieved May 14, 2017.
- Durkin, Erin and Blau, Reuven (April 2, 2017). "Letitia James wants Rikers Island renamed for Kalief Browder if notorious jail is shuttered". New York Daily News. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
- Corasaniti, Nick (2017-04-02). "Rikers Island Commission Unveils Plan to Shut Down Jail Complex". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-05-14.
- "Safely Reducing the New York City Jail Population". www1.nyc.gov. Retrieved 2017-05-16.
- Goodman, J. David (2017-03-31). "Mayor Backs Plan to Close Rikers and Open Jails Elsewhere". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-05-14.
- Gonen, Yoav; Rosenberg, Rebecca; Golding, Bruce (March 31, 2017). "New York City to close Rikers Island". New York Post. Retrieved 2017-04-03.
- Lippman Commission (March 31, 2017). "A More Just New York City: Criminal Justice and Incarceration Reform". Independent Commission on New York City Criminal Justice and Incarceration Reform. pp. 98–123. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- Foderaro, Lisa W. (February 14, 2018) "New York State May Move to Close Rikers Ahead of City’s 10-Year Timeline" The New York Times
- United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit. "Weber v. Dell (11-6-1986)". Open Jurist. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
- Feuer, Alan (October 5, 2007). "City to Pay Damages for Strip Searches". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
- Feuer, Alan (October 5, 2007). "City to Pay Damages for Strip Searches". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-04-23.
- Rayman, Graham (April 8, 2008). "Rikers Island Fight Club". The Village Voice. Retrieved 2010-04-23.
- Rayman, Graham (May 27, 2008). "A Short Life Ends on Rikers Island, in a Place Where Suicide Isn't Supposed to Happen". The Village Voice. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- Weiser, Benjamin (February 3, 2009). "Lawsuits Suggest Pattern of Rikers Guards Looking Other Way". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-02-04.
- Rayman, Graham (August 5, 2008). "Woman-on-Woman Rape Claim at Rikers". The Village Voice. Archived from the original on March 25, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-23.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-31. Retrieved 2012-05-19.
- "2007027 Friday, June 1, 2007". Bronxda.nyc.gov. Archived from the original on October 31, 2012. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
- Fractenberg, Ben (May 15, 2012). "Rikers Island Supervisors Found Guilty of Covering Up Prisoner Assault - Hunts Point". Dnainfo. Archived from the original on June 14, 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-31. Retrieved 2012-05-19.
- Rayman, Graham (2012-05-14). "Gail Lewis, Sherman Graham, Jail Supervisors Convicted For Covering Up a Fight". Village Voice. Archived from the original on 2012-10-23. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
- Smith, Greg B. (May 14, 2012). "Class in how not to cover up goof at jail". Daily News. New York.
- "015-2012 Monday, May 14, 2012". Bronxda.nyc.gov. Archived from the original on October 31, 2012. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
- [dead link]
- ACLU/Human Rights Watch (2012). Growing Up Locked Down: Youth in Solitary Confinement in Jails and Prisons in the United States (PDF). United States of America. pp. 131–132. ISBN 1-56432-949-6.
- ACLU/Human Rights Watch (2012). Growing Up Locked Down: Youth in Solitary Confinement in Jails and Prisons in the United States (PDF). United States of America. p. 132. ISBN 1-56432-949-6.
- "Bing Time: What It's Like To Be 16 & In Solitary On Rikers Island". Archived from the original on 19 June 2017. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
- "Former Rikers mental health worker details horror in book". Retrieved 1 April 2017.
- Gonnerman, Jennifer (6 October 2014). "Before the Law". The New Yorker. New York City. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- Wallace, Sarah (November 7, 2013). Exclusive: Teenager Spends 3 Years in Jail and Charges Dropped, WABC 7 New York
- Teen thrown in violent New York jail for years without ever having been convicted, Huffington Post, Amanda Scherker, November 26, 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- Justice Kennedy denounces solitary confinement, The Atlantic, Matt Ford, June 18, 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
- Gonnerman, Jennifer (6 October 2014). Before the Law, The New Yorker
- Gonnerman, Jennifer (7 June 2015). Kalief Browder, 1993-2015, The New Yorker
- Pearce, Matt (June 7, 2015). Kalief Browder, jailed for 3 years in N.Y. without a trial, commits suicide, Los Angeles Times
- Barack Obama: Why we must rethink solitary confinement, The Washington Post, January 25, 2015
- Winerip, Michael & Schwartz, Michael (November 20, 2014). "Mayor de Blasio Urges 'Culture Change' at Rikers Island". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
- Winerip, Michael. "In Rare Rebuke for Rikers Officers, Judge Urges Firing of 6 Who Beat Inmate". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
- Schwirtz, Michael. "U.S. Inquiry Finds a 'Culture of Violence' Against Teenage Inmates at Rikers Island". The New York Times.
- "Arrested justice: When LGBT People Land in Jail Part Four: The Myth of 'Protective Custody'". Patrick Letellier, Gay.com. Retrieved 2008-12-28.[dead link]
- "Closure of Gay Housing at Rikers Draws Complaints". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. December 30, 2005. Retrieved 2008-12-28.
- Von Zielbauer, Paul (December 30, 2005). "City Prepares to Close Rikers Housing for Gays". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-12-28.
- Bharara, Preet (2014-08-04). "CRIPA Investigation of the New York City Department of Correction Jails on Rikers Island" (pdf). U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 2016-08-05.
- Schwirtz, Michael (2014-03-24). "U.S. Accuses Rikers Officer of Ignoring Dying Plea". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-05-16.
- "Ex-Rikers captain gets 5 years for letting inmate die". NY Daily News. Retrieved 2017-05-16.
- Brown, Stephen Rex. "EXCLUSIVE: NYC settles for $3.8M in inmate's poison horror". NY Daily News. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
- Weiser, Benjamin (2016-09-20). "Rikers Officer Pleads Guilty to Helping Cover Up Fatal '12 Beating of Inmate". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-05-16.
- "A Rikers Island guard was found guilty in the beating death of a prisoner". Newsweek. 2016-12-15. Retrieved 2017-05-16.
- "Brian Coll, Former Correction Officer At Rikers Island, Convicted In Beating Death Of Inmate Ronald Spear". www.justice.gov. Retrieved 2017-05-16.
- Weiser, Benjamin (2016-09-27). "City to Pay $5.75 Million Over Death of Mentally Ill Inmate at Rikers Island". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-05-16.
- "'60 Minutes' vid shows Rikers inmate's gruesome death". NY Daily News. Retrieved 2017-05-16.
- Schapiro, Rich (May 22, 2014) "Mentally ill Rikers Island inmate dies after languishing in jail cell for 7 days" New York Daily News
- Winerip, Michael and Schwartz, Michael (July 14, 2014). "Rikers: Where Mental Illness Meets Brutality in Jail" The New York Times Retrieved July 15, 2014.
- Pearson, Jake. "NYC Inmate "Baked to death" in cell". AP News. AP. Retrieved September 29, 2014.
- "NYC Settles Rikers Lawsuit for $2.25 Million". Daily Intelligencer, New York.
- Leid, Carolina (2016-11-02). "Exclusive: Man dies in Rikers Island cell, family says he was denied medication". ABC7 New York. Retrieved 2017-05-16.
- "Staten Island mom demands answers about son's Rikers Island death". NY Daily News. Retrieved 2017-05-16.
- Kerr, Kathleen (July 8, 2009). "7 Long Islanders indicted in mortgage scam". Newsday. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rikers Island.|
- Jennifer Gonnerman, "Before the Law", The New Yorker, October 6, 2014, pp. 26–32.
- CRIPA Investigation of the New York City Department of Correction Jails on Rikers Island, August 4, 2014 Published by the New York Times
- Department Of Justice Takes Legal Action To Address Pattern And Practice Of Excessive Force And Violence At Rikers Island Jails That Violates The Constitutional Rights Of Young Male Inmates (December 18, 2014). published by the U.S. Department of Justice