This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
A school shooting is an attack at an educational institution, such as a school or university, involving the use of a firearm(s). Incidents that involve four or more deaths are also categorized as mass shootings. School shootings have sparked a political debate over gun violence, zero tolerance policies, and gun control.
- 1 Possible underlying causes
- 2 Profiling
- 3 Frequency trends
- 4 Differences globally
- 4.1 United States
- 4.2 19th century
- 4.3 20th century
- 4.4 21st century
- 4.5 Canada
- 4.6 Mexico
- 4.7 Europe
- 4.8 South America
- 4.9 Asia
- 4.10 Oceania
- 4.11 Africa
- 5 Political impact
- 6 Police response and countermeasures
- 7 College and university response and countermeasures
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Literature
- 11 External links
Possible underlying causes
Younger age (Raine 2002; Steinberg 2002, Deakin, Overman, 2004; Figner et al 2009; Burnett et al 2010)
According to Raine (2002), immaturity is one of many identified factors increasing the likelihood of an individual committing criminal acts of violence and outburts of aggression. This fact is supported by findings on brain development occurring as individuals age from birth.
According to the Australian-based Raising children network and Centre for Adolescent Health (and a number of other sources): the main change occurring in the developing brain during adolescence is the (so-called) pruning of unused connections in thinking and processing, while this is occurring within the brain, retained connections are strengthened. Synaptic pruning occurs because the nervous system in humans develops by firstly, the over-producing of parts of the nervous system, axons, neurons, and synapses, to then later in the development of the nervous system, make redundant the superfluous parts, i.e. pruning (or apoptosis, otherwise known as cell death). These changes occur in certain parts of the brain firstly; the pre-frontal cortex, the brain location where decision-making occurs, is the concluding area for development. While the pre-frontal cortex is developing, children and teenagers might possibly rely more on the brain part known as the amygdala; involving thinking that is more emotionally active, including aggression and impulsiveness. As a consequence each individual is more likely to want to make riskier (i.e. risk) choices (choices which are more risky, or to make more risky choices).
Steinberg (2004) identified the fact of adolescents taking more risks typically, than adults, Deakin et al. (2004), and, Overman et al. (2004) indicate a decline in risk taking from adolescence to adulthood, Steinberg (2005), Figner et al. (2009), and, Burnett et al. (2010) identified adolescent age individuals as more likely to take risks than young-children and adults.
Evidence shows the number of deaths by guns in any population correlates to the number of guns owned within the same population.
The United States Secret Service published a study regarding 37 school shooting incidents in the United States from 1974 through June 2000, which warned against the belief that a certain "type" of student would be a perpetrator. According to the study, any profile could apply to any student and might not apply to a potential perpetrator. Some perpetrators were children of divorce, or lived in foster homes, or came from intact families. A few were loners, but most had close friends. Some experts such as Alan Lipman have warned against the dearth of empirical validity of profiling methods.
While it may be simplistic to assume a straightforward "profile", the study did find certain similarities among the perpetrators. "The researchers found that killers do not 'snap'. They plan. They acquire weapons. These children take a long, considered, public path toward violence." Often times, shooters are inspired by past shootings as motivation for the method of executing these attacks from the guns to purchase down to the what to wear during the attack.Princeton's Katherine Newman has found that, far from being "loners", the perpetrators are "joiners" whose attempts at social integration fail, and that they let their thinking and even their plans be known, sometimes frequently over long periods of time. In addition, psychologist Peter Langman has noted that school shooters typically fall into one (or occasionally two) of three categories: psychopathic, psychotic, or traumatized.
An angle that it not mentioned in media but is bolstered by important social scientists is dysfunctional family structure. Eminent Harvard sociologist Robert J. Sampson wrote: “Family structure is one of the strongest, if not the strongest, predictor of variations in urban violence across cities in the United States." His views are echoed by the eminent criminologists Michael Gottfredson and Travis Hirschi, who have written that “such family measures as the percentage of the population divorced, the percentage of households headed by women, and the percentage of unattached individuals in the community are among the most powerful predictors of crime rates.” According to Dr. Peter Langman, it is a myth that school shooters come from stable homes, and showed that in one sample, 82% of the shooters were from dysfunctional families, while 18% from intact families.
Perpetrators who "run amok" in schools and other public settings do also share in common a severe lapse or more pervasive deficit in their capacity for empathy coupled with their inability to contain their aggression—this may be due to their psychopathy, psychotic symptoms (i.e. loss of a sense of reality), and/or to a consequence of significant violent traumatization—such as that of early physical abuse, that contributes to the development of dissociative states of mind (i.e. disavowal of reality, derealization, depersonalization). In short, as clinical psychiatrist Daniel Schechter has written, for a baby to develop into a troubled adolescent who then turns lethally violent, a convergence of multiple interacting factors must occur, that is "every bit as complicated...as it is for a tornado to form on a beautiful spring day in Kansas."
One "trait" that has not yet attracted as much attention is the gender difference: nearly all school shootings are perpetrated by young males, and in some instances the violence has clearly been gender-specific. Bob Herbert addressed this in an October 2006 New York Times editorial. However, at least three female school shooting incidents have been documented, including Laurie Dann of Winnetka, Illinois.
Though the perpetrators of school shootings are often said to be almost exclusively white males, this is misleading. A study of 48 shooters found that though white males constituted 79% of secondary school shooters, white males were actually a minority among college and other adult perpetrators. There is significant racial, ethnic, and gender diversity among school shooters. These shootings have happened in "suburban and rural school districts" and many seem to be random with random targets. Most of these shooters tend to come from two-parent households and have been found to appear on the honor roll at their schools.
School shootings receive extensive media coverage and are frequent in the US (see list below). They have sometimes resulted in nationwide changes of schools' policies concerning discipline and security. Some experts have described fears about school shootings as a type of moral panic.
Such incidents may also lead to nationwide discussion on gun laws.
"Bullying is common in schools and seemed to play a role in the lives of many of the school shooters". A typical bullying interaction consist of three parts, the offender/bully, a victim and one or more bystanders. This formula of three enables the bully to easily create public humiliation for their victim. Students who are bullied tend to develop behavioral problems, depression, less self-control and poorer social skills, and to do worse in school. Once humiliated, victims never want to be a victim again and try to regain their image by joining groups. Often, they are rejected by their peers and follow through by restoring justice in what they see as an unjust situation. Their plan for restoration many times results in violence as shown by the school shooters. 75% of school shooters claimed or left behind evidence of them being victims of bullying, including Nathan Ferris, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, Edmar Aparecido Freitas, Brian Head, Seung-Hui Cho, Wellington Menezes Oliveira, Jeff Weise, Adam Lanza, and Nikolas Cruz.
Cyberbullying has changed the effect of bullying in another way. "… in the modern era a bully can also do so on Facebook and Twitter for the world to see. Once something is on the Internet, it cannot truly be removed, further enhancing the torment. That type of bullying is infinitely easier for the perpetrator to commit and just as infinitely hard for the victim to address or escape."
Shooting massacres in English-speaking countries often occur close together in time. Forensic psychiatrists attribute this to copycat behaviour, which can be correlated with the level of media exposure. In these copycat shootings, often times the perpetrators see a past school shooter as an idol, so they want to carry out an even more destructive, murderous shooting in hopes of gaining recognition or respect. Some mass murderers study media reports of previous killers.
Research has now shown the presence of a direct correlation between a desire for infamy and school shootings. This hypothesis was suggested by Justin Nutt in 2013, those who feel as though they are alone and who feel no one will remember them may seek to be remembered through acts of violence. Nutt explains through the examination of the way in which news exposure is connected not to the victims, but the perpetrators. "… in an age of internet news and 24 hour news cycle, to avoid doing so would be seen as poor news reporting, but it also means those who feel nameless and as though no one will care or remember them when they are gone may feel doing something such as a school shooting will make sure they are remembered and listed in the history books." This has been linked as a leading cause of most school shootings and planned, but unexecuted school shooting. Recent premedatative writings were presented according to court documents and showed Joshua O'Connor wrote that he wanted the "death count to be as high as possible so that the shooting would be infamous." Infamy and notoriety, "a desire to be remembered" has been reported as the leading reason for planned shootings by most perpetrators who were taken alive either pre or post shooting.
In a 2015 New Republic essay, Columbine author Dave Cullen described a subset of school shooters (and other mass murderers) known as "injustice collectors." The essay described and expanded on the work of retired FBI profiler Mary Ellen O'Toole, who has published a peer-reviewed journal article on the subject. It also quoted Gary Noesner, who helped create and lead the FBI's hostage negotiation unit, and served as Chief Negotiator for ten years.
The degree to which mental illness does or does not contribute to school shootings has been debated in society.
Although the vast majority of mentally ill individuals are non-violent, some evidence has suggested that mental illness or mental health symptoms are nearly universal among school shooters. For example, on April 16, 2007, a Virginia Tech (VT) student named Seung-Hui Cho shot and killed thirty-two faculty members and students on the campus and injured twenty-five more before taking his own life. For another instance, a 2002 report by the US Secret Service and US Department of Education found evidence that a majority of school shooters displayed evidence of mental health symptoms, often undiagnosed or untreated Criminologists Fox and DeLateur note that mental illness is only part of the issue, however, and mass shooters tend to externalize their problems, blaming others and are unlikely to seek psychiatric help, even if available. Other scholars have concluded that mass murderers display a common constellation of chronic mental health symptoms, chronic anger or antisocial traits, and a tendency to blame others for problems. However, they note that attempting to "profile" school shooters with such a constellation of traits will likely result in many false positives as many individuals with such a profile do not engage in violent behaviors.
McGinty and colleagues conducted a study to find out if people tended to associate the violence of school shootings with mental illness, at the expense of other factors such as the availability of high-capacity magazines. Nearly 2,000 participants read a news piece on a shooting in which the shooter is diagnosed as having a mental illness and who used high capacity magazines. One group read an article that presented only the facts of the case. A different group read an article about the same shooting, but in it the author advocated for gun restrictions for people with mental illness. Another group read about the shooting in an article that suggested the proposal to ban large-capacity magazines, which acted to advocate that shootings could stem from a societal problem rather than an individual problem. The control group did not read anything. Participants were then all asked to fill out a questionnaire asking about their views on gun control and whether they thought there should be restrictions on high-capacity magazines. 71% of the control group thought that gun restrictions should be applied to people with mental illness, and nearly 80% of participants who read the articles agreed. Despite the fact that the article exposed the readers to both the mental illness of the shooter, and the fact that the shooter used high-capacity magazines, participants advocated more for gun restrictions on people with mental illness rather than bans on high-capacity magazines. This suggests that people believe mental illness is the culprit for school shootings in lieu of the accessibility of guns or other environmental factors. The authors expressed concern that proposals to target gun control laws at people with mental illness do not take into account the complex nature of the relationship between serious mental illness and violence, much of which is due to additional factors such as substance abuse. However, the link is unclear since research has shown that violence in mentally ill people occur more in interpersonal environments.
Violent Video Game Use
It has long been debated that there exists a correlation between school shooting perpetrators and the type of media they consume. A popular profile for school shooters is someone who has been exposed to or enjoys playing violent video games. However, this profile is considered by many researchers to be misguided or erroneous. Ferguson (2009) has argued that a third variable of gender explains the illusory correlation between video game use and the type of people who conduct school shootings. Ferguson explains that the majority of school shooters are young males, who are considerably more aggressive than the rest of the population. A majority of gamers are also young males. Thus, it appears likely that the view that school shooters are often people who play violent video game is more simply explained by the third variable of gender.
The idea of profiling school shooters by the video games they play comes from the erroneous belief that playing violent video games increases a person's aggression level, which in turn, can cause people to perpetrate extreme acts of violence, such as a school shooting. There is little to no data supporting this hypothesis (Ferguson, 2009) but it has become a vivid profile used by the media since the Columbine Massacre in 1999.
A summation of past research on video game violence find that video games have little to no effect on aggression (Anderson,2004; Ferguson, 2007 & Spencer, 2009). Again, this supports the idea that although it is a popular opinion to link school shooters to being violent video gamers, this misconception is often attributable to third variables and has not been supported by research on the connection between aggression and gaming.
Ultimately, this type of profiling is popular in media but not supported by any data (Anderson, 2004).
Beginning in the late 1990s, there has been a steep increase in the frequency of school shootings across the globe. In the United States specifically, the most recent trend has been downward following the spikes of the 1990s, yet at the same time they are trending towards a higher likelihood of being premeditated and executed with a strict plan in mind.
School shootings are considered an "overwhelmingly American" phenomenon due to the availability of firearms in the United States.
Infamous school shootings that occurred in the United States include the 1966 University of Texas tower shooting, the 1999 Columbine High School massacre, the 2007 Virginia Tech shooting, and the 2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Other school shootings that resulted in multiple casualties occurred at Northern Illinois University in 2008 and Santana High School in 2001, along with Red Lake Senior High School in 2005, Umpqua Community College in 2015, Marshall County High School in 2018, and Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in 2018.
There were 11 firearm-related events that occurred at a school or campus in the first 23 days of 2018.
|November 12, 1840||Charlottesville, Virginia||1||0||John Anthony Gardner Davis, a law professor at the University of Virginia, was shot by student Joseph Semmes, and died from his wound three days later.|
|November 2, 1853||Louisville, Kentucky||0||1||Student Matthew Ward took a pistol to school, where he shot the schoolmaster Mr. Butler as revenge for what Ward thought was excessive punishment of his brother the day before. Ward was acquitted.|
|August 16, 1856||Florence, Alabama||2||0||The schoolmaster had a tame sparrow and had warned the students not to harm it, threatening death. One of the boys stepped on the bird and killed it; he was afraid to return to school but did so. After lessons, the master took the boy into a private room and strangled him to death. The boy's father went to the school and shot the schoolmaster dead.|
|July 8, 1858||Baltimore, Maryland||1||0||The 15-year-old son of Col. John T. Farlow (Baltimore's Marshal of Police 1867–70), was killed during a Sabbath School gathering. The perpetrator escaped, but several arrests were made.|
|January 21, 1860||Todd County, Kentucky||1||0||A son of Col. Elijah Sebree was killed by another student. Young Sebree was threatening the other boy and said he intended to kill him. The other student got a gun and walked up to Sebree in the schoolhouse, where he killed him.|
|February 6, 1864||Ashland County, Ohio||1||0||George W. Longfelt, the school teacher of the Pyfer's School House, killed student Alfred Desem and fled.|
|February 16, 1867||Knights Ferry, California||2||0||Mr. McGinnis was killed by his daughter's teacher after McGinnis threatened the teacher for expelling his daughter from school. When McGinnis' son learned of this, he went to the school and killed the teacher.|
|April 2, 1867||Madison, Florida||1||0||Frank Pope, a pupil at the St. John's seminary, killed his teacher Mr. Bristow with a pistol.|
|June 8, 1867||New York City, New York||0||1||13-year-old Arthur Day, secretly took a loaded pistol to Public School No. 18 to shoot a dog he said had bitten him. While playing with the pistol, Day accidentally injured classmate Robert Morton.|
|December 22, 1868||Chattanooga, Tennessee||3||0||A boy who refused to be whipped by his teacher left the school. The next day he returned with his brother and a friend for revenge. Not finding the teacher at the school, they continued to his house, where a gun battle took place and three died. Only the original boy who initiated the attack survived.|
|January 27, 1871||Knoxville, Tennessee||1||0||John Roberts, aged ten or twelve, accidentally had one of his eyes shot out at school and died.|
|February 1, 1872||Washington, Pennsylvania||0||1||At the all-girls Union School, 17-year-old Thomas McGiffin shot and seriously wounded the principal, Prof. Wilson, in the hip because the professor refused to deliver a note to one of the young ladies for him. McGiffin was a son of Col. Norton McGiffin, and brother of US naval hero Philo McGiffin.|
|February 11, 1873||Wisconsin||0||1||Chris Foote[not in citation given] shot the school mistress for whipping his son.[better source needed]|
|February 20, 1874||Agency, Montana||1||0||After being ejected from school for disobedience, 20-year-old Thomas Squires, fatally shot Prof. Hayes in the abdomen three times without warning.|
|April 9, 1874||Lebanon, Tennessee||1||0||John R. Breckinridge, son of the late Robert Jefferson Breckinridge, attending classes in law at Cumberland University in Lebanon Tennessee, was killed by John L. Anderson, the Mayor's son. The latter was reportedly "crazed with liquor."|
|May 24, 1878||St. Paul, Minnesota||0||1||A 12-year-old boy, Luckert, accidentally wounded Allie McDonald, another boy at the Neill school. The bullet passed out, and the youth was expected to recover. His mother Mrs. McDonald went to the police station, but did not file a formal complaint.|
|May 24, 1879||Lancaster, New York||0||1||Telegraph operator Frank Shugart, severely injured Mr. Carr, superintendent of the stables at a girls' school.|
|December 1, 1881||Santa Monica, California||1||0||While working late on the program for the children's concert at the schoolhouse, the school master Mr. O'Donnell and one of the parents got into an argument. The parent, Mr. Williams, pulled a gun and fatally shot O'Donnell in the back.|
|December 22, 1881||Shelby County, Indiana||0||0||School teacher Charles J. Gregory shot at a pupil at close range because he refused to write on a slate. The bullet missed the boy. The teacher was arrested.|
|January 16, 1882||Iola, Kansas||0||0||A group of boys shot into a schoolhouse, but no one was hurt. Two of the boys were arrested and pleaded guilty three weeks later. They were fined $9.00 each.|
|April 13, 1882||Huntsville, Texas||0||1||G.W. Gray, a student at the Sam Houston Normal School, wounded another student, M.J. Jordan. They were arguing over a comic valentine.|
|February 14, 1883||Florence, Nebraska||0||3||As some children were playing and throwing snowballs outside the Ponca Creek schoolhouse, three young men pulled up in a wagon. They engaged the children in a snowball fight. When they were leaving, one of the men, Lem Harbaugh, pointed his .45 caliber needle gun at the children, accidentally shooting and wounding three of them. Feeling great remorse, Harbaugh later surrendered himself to the authorities.|
|November 20, 1883||Barber County, Kansas||0||0||A bunch of drunken cowboys stopped at several schoolhouses, forcing two teachers to drink whiskey and firing numerous shots at three schoolhouses.|
|February 28, 1884||Danville, Virginia||0||2||As Allen Wamack, a 15-year-old boy, drove by a "Negro" schoolhouse, he called out "school butter." (an insult meaning a cobbing, or a whipping). The school students ran out and attacked him, firing several shots at him, he returned fire hitting two students.|
|March 6, 1884||Boston, Massachusetts||0||0||As news of outlaw Jesse James reached the East Coast, young boys started to imitate him. For instance, boys armed with guns shot at police investigating their activities at the Concord-street schoolhouse.|
|March 15, 1884||Gainesville, Georgia||0||0||In the middle of the day, a group of very drunk Jackson County farmers were shooting their revolvers as they headed down the street, driving people into their homes. As they approached the female academy, the girls fled from the yard into the school. The gang followed and fired several rounds into the front door, but no one was hurt.|
|June 12, 1887||Cleveland, Tennessee||1||0||Will Guess went to the school and killed Miss Irene Fann, his little sister's teacher, for whipping her the day before.|
|June 13, 1889||New Brunswick, New Jersey||0||0||Charles Crawford, upset over an argument with a school trustee, went up to the window and fired a pistol into a crowded schoolroom. The bullet lodged in the wall just above the teacher's head.|
|April 24, 1890||Brazil, Indiana||0||1||While the pupils of the Meridian Street School were at play, Ben Corbery drew a revolver and seriously wounded 10-year-old Cora Brubach, in the face. The girl had told the teacher of Ben's misconduct.|
|December 27, 1890||Staunton, Virginia||1||0||At the Kable's Military Academy a 15-year-old student, A.H. Hathaway of Dennison, Texas, was accidentally killed by his 17-year-old classmate James Whitworth of Sulphur Springs, Texas, while they were playing with an old pistol.|
|March 30, 1891||Liberty, Mississippi||0||14||During a school exhibition and concert given at the Parson Hill schoolhouse, where the large audience was composed of blacks and whites: teachers, pupils, and spectators, an unknown gunman fired a double barreled shotgun into the assemblage. Fourteen people were wounded, some seriously.|
|April 9, 1891||Newburgh, New York||0||?||70-year-old James Foster, fired a shotgun at a group of students in the playground of St. Mary's Parochial School, causing minor injuries to several of the students.|
|June 29, 1892||Van Wert, Ohio||1||0||Convoy teacher, B.L. Richie, was killed by 14-year-old student, Shirley Longsworth, son of Dr. Longsworth.|
|October 10, 1892||Lawrence, Kansas||0||2||At the University of Kansas, two students, E. Higgins and Jack Craycroft, were injured as they were walking back to their dorm rooms after football practice. Law student Fred Bassett fired a double barreled shotgun as they passed his home, he said he had warned them not to trespass on his farm, which students frequently did.|
|March 26, 1893||Plain Dealing, Louisiana||4||1||During an evening school dance at Plain Dealing High School, a fight broke out. When the smoke cleared, two students were killed, two more were fatally wounded, and the high school's Professor Johnson was wounded in the arm.|
|October 17, 1894||Parkersburg, West Virginia||2||0||When school was let out, 15-year-old Willis Gardner, was killed and his 8-year-old brother fatally stabbed in a quarrel among a group of boys.|
|December 13, 1898||Charleston, West Virginia||6||1+||During the school exhibition, a group of young men tried to break up a student performance. When the teacher Fisher tried to throw them out, they turned on him. Audience members joined the fray. The fight resulted in deaths: Harry Flasher was shot in the heart and instantly killed, Henry Carney was fatally shot in the back, Ralph Jones and two others were also fatally shot, and George Gibson was shot in the hand; Haz Harding had his skull crushed and several others received minor wounds.|
|February 24, 1903||Inman, South Carolina||1||0||Edward Foster, a 17-year-old student at Inman High School, was fatally wounded by his teacher Reuben Pitts after jerking a rod from Pitts' hands to avoid punishment. According to the teacher, Foster struck the pistol Pitts had drawn, and caused it to fire. Pitts was acquitted of murder on grounds of self-defense.|
|July 21, 1903||Jackson, Kentucky||2||1||At the Cave Run School, James Barrett and Mack Howard argued over a card game and fought a duel with pistols, they killed each other. 12-year-old student, James Vires, was shot in the abdomen while sitting at his desk during the gunfight.|
|April 6, 1904||Chicago, Illinois||1||0||Two students had been fighting for most of a year over a girl. In their last fight, Henry Schaze threw 16-year-old Paul Jelick to the ground, drew a revolver, and killed his rival.|
|November 16, 1904||Riverside, California||2||1||At the Indian School, a gun fight broke out between pupils. Charles Colby was shot in the head with a pistol, then returned fire, killing Tom Bucanoros instantly, and fatally wounding Fred Smith.|
|December 16, 1904||Magee, Mississippi||1||1||Parent, E.E. Mangum, was shot through the head and killed by the principal of the high school, Professor J.E. Woodward. Mangum had argued with Woodward, who had given Mangum's 15-year-old son a severe whipping. Mangum lost his temper, shooting Woodward through the wrist.|
|February 9, 1905||Colusa, California||0||1||At the request of his childhood friend, Pearl Cruse, 17-year-old Elmer Hildreth, who did not attend her school, went to a meeting between Miss Cruse and her teacher. It ended in "a hand to hand" encounter between teacher and pupil. When Ingrim went after Hildreth with an axe, Hildreth shot him in the stomach. Hildreth was arrested and bail was posted by five prominent men in the community. Hildreth was found to have acted in self-defense and no charges were filed. Ingrim survived.|
|October 5, 1905||Hickman, Kentucky||0||0||While returning from church, Professor Emmet W. Roach, was ambushed by an assassin.|
|March 23, 1907||Carmi, Illinois||1||0||Parent, George Nicholson, killed John Kurd at a schoolhouse during a school rehearsal. Kurd had made a disparaging remark about Nicholson's daughter during her recital.|
|December 20, 1907||Chico, California||1||0||9-year-old Arthur Roberts, was shot in the head and killed outside his school during a military drill by school children of the Dayton school district. Armed with old guns believed to be empty, the children had pulled their triggers. The Roberts boy threw his hands to his head and cried, "I'm shot."|
|January 10, 1908||Council Bluffs, Iowa||0||0||At around 6 a.m., as George O Mortensen, 35-year-old janitor of the Washington street school building, was unlocking the outer door of the school, someone discharged a shotgun from only a few feet. The shot riddled the door within a foot of his head.|
|March 11, 1908||Boston, Massachusetts||2||0||Suffering from melancholia, due to overwork, thirty-nine year-old Miss Sarah Chamberlain Weed, killed thirty-four year-old Elizabeth Bailey Hardee, then shot herself, at the Laurens School, a fashionable boarding school.|
|March 19, 1909||Mount Vernon, Illinois||0||1||During a school performance of "The Grand Central", John Moake, portraying the villain, was shot in the forehead and dangerously wounded by the hero, Roy Slater. The cartridge was thought to have been blank.|
|June 10, 1909||Trinidad, Colorado||1||0||Walter Harris, 11-year-old student, accidentally shot his teacher, B.C. Briggs in the head while on a school field trip, killing him.|
|August 18, 1909||Bakersfield, California||0||0||After hunting doves, a group of six young men deliberately shot out the glass at the Fruitvale School. They also shot at the nearby residence of A.J. Hunter, narrowly missing several children in the rear yard.|
|September 11, 1909||Gravette, Arkansas||1||0||John Butram, a student at the Bear Hollow School, told his fellow students that school was cancelled. The teacher A.T. Kelly insisted that the day's lesson was not over. When Butram drew a knife on his teacher, Kelly drew his gun and shot him.|
|January 12, 1910||New York City, New York||2||0||"A black bearded maniac drew an automatic pistol" and fired five shots into a crowd of boys at the Harlem School, who were taunting him. 6-year-old Robert Lomas, was hit and died instantly, 6-year-old Arthur Shively, was critically wounded.|
|March 10, 1910||Ione, California||0||0||At the reform school, known as Preston School of Industry, students Albert Brown and Eugene Griffin tried to escape, stealing a revolver from the school's bakery shop. They shot at Captain William H. White when he pursued them. No one was hurt, but the boys were transferred to the penitentiary, which held adults.|
|August 16, 1910||Lexington, Kentucky||1||?||A general fight broke out during school board elections. Lewis Napier was killed, and several other persons were hurt. Several were arrested.|
|April 27, 1911||Manhattan, Kansas||1||0||During a school play rehearsal, a boy accidentally loaded his revolver. An 18-year-old girl who was to use it in the play said she was afraid to handle it. The teacher said there was no need for her fear and pointed it at the girl, Pearl Reedy, squeezing the trigger. She was fatally wounded.|
|January 31, 1912||San Francisco, California||1||0||During a stone throwing confrontation near the Oriental School on Clay Street, a group of white boys found themselves trapped between two groups of Chinese boys. In an attempt to escape, Jose Aguilar, fired a BB shot air rifle twice hoping to frighten the Chinese. However, 10-year-old Wong She, had a gun and fired back. One bullet passed through Aguilar's coat sleeve as he ran and fatally struck 14-year-old James Kane in the school's rear yard.|
|February 16, 1912||Lagrange, New York||1||0||14-year-old May McQuade, was killed by classmate Raymond B. Carroll. Carroll alleged the shooting was accidental and he did not think the gun was loaded.|
|November 19, 1914||Sayre, Pennsylvania||1||0||While walking to school, 14-year-old Charles Listman, killed 15-year-old Andrew Milton, over the affections of classmate, 13-year-old Minnie London.|
|January 13, 1915||Vancouver, Washington||0||1||During a parent-teachers' meeting, 15-year-old student, Murlan Decker, was accidentally shot by his younger brother, Luther.|
|February 3, 1915||Jasper, Florida||1||1||20-year-old Will Yates, teacher of Clear Pond school in Hamilton county, Fla., was killed in a fight with Claude Holtzendorff and his two sons. A whipping administered in school to one of the Holtzendorff boys started the trouble. After punishing the boy Yates armed himself, and when accosted by the Holtzendorffs, shot the father through the mouth. He was in turn shot through the body, dying an hour later.|
|September 20, 1916||Bemidji, Minnesota||0||1||Olga Dahl, the 19-year-old teacher at the Round Lake District School, was found tied to a tree near the school, assaulted and shot twice in the face. She had been working late after school, and a man with a revolver entered the school house and ordered her to obey him. He raped and shot her; she was expected to live. All available men in Itasca County joined in hunting the assailant.|
|December 26, 1916||Danville, Kentucky||1||?||During the Christmas tree celebration at the Harris Creek School, with a packed room of children and visitors, a fight broke out. William Benedict, Sr. was instantly killed, William Benedict, Jr. was shot in the ankle, Bourdon Galloway was shot in the right arm, and Mike Gaddis was shot in the leg. Many others were injured. The disturbance was said to be started by Thomas Thornton, who had been drinking and was told to calm down by Benedict. Thornton's brother George left the room and returned with a revolver.|
|June 5, 1917||Harrisburg, Pennsylvania||0||1||16-year-old freshman, Earl Wolf, was accidentally shot in the leg with a revolver around noon time, in the company of his classmates at the Central High School.|
|October 28, 1917||Chicago, Illinois||1||0||Overnight two brothers, 16-year-old William and 15-year-old Ralph Carter, broke into the May public school, robbing the phone boxes and teachers' desks. Discovered by janitor Howard Parks and policeman Thomas Conway, a gunfight broke out. William was critically wounded and not expected to live; Ralph Carter was taken to jail.|
|November 29, 1917||Manes, Missouri||0||1||At the Perkins school's Thanksgiving night pie supper, 21-year-old teacher Joe Todd, was mysteriously shot. He was expected to recover.|
|March 29, 1918||Jefferson City, Missouri||1||0||At the Lincoln Institute, State Negro Normal School, 31-year-old Professor Romeo West, was killed in the dormitory by superintendent of school Theodore Martin. They were arguing over which dishes to use at a social. Martin said he shot in self-defense, fatally hitting West with three of five shots.|
|April 6, 1918||Reeder, North Dakota||1||0||During the afternoon recess, a boy was looking over a 22-caliber rifle; it discharged, striking the head of the Coyne boy in the seat to the front, killing him instantly.|
|January 9, 1919||Monroe City, Missouri||0||0||While school was in session, Hugh Claggett shot through the school house's front door while on his way home from work. No one was hurt, and he was fined $20.|
|April 12, 1919||Ogden City, Utah||0||1||During a high school assembly, six boys shot off their guns. Permission had been given in the belief the guns were loaded with blanks but they had live shot. Teacher Verna Davidson was shot in the foot.|
|August 4, 1919||Berkeley, California||0||2||Roger Sprague, an assistant in the department of chemistry at the University of California, despondent and desperate over his inability to obtain a position, slightly wounded 59-year-old Professor Edmond O'Neill, head of department, and 37-year-old Dr. Joel Henry Hildebrand, professor of chemistry, in the administration offices of Gilman Hall. He then went to California Hall and attempted to shoot 57-year-old May L. Cheney, appointment secretary, but struck only one of her hair combs before he was subdued.|
|February 14, 1920||Durant, Oklahoma||0||1||At the Durant Normal School, teacher Albert McFarland, was seriously wounded by one of his pupils.|
|March 4, 1920||Cincinnati, Ohio||0||1||14-year-old student, Lawrence Angel, shot his teacher, Beatrice Conner, through the arm for sending him to the principal's office.|
|May 1, 1920||Summerville, Georgia||0||0||At the High School, 15-year-old student Alexander Potter, fired six shots at his teacher, Prof. Ransom, but missed. Potter was upset over having received a severe thrashing and expulsion. Potter was sentenced to six years at a reform school.|
|May 15, 1920||Bowling Green, Ohio||1||0||While attending her son's school track meet, Mrs. F. Mahl was killed accidentally by shot from the starter's pistol.|
|August 1, 1920||Ogden, Utah||0||1||Mike Smults, the night watchman at the Utah school for the Deaf and Blind, shot a 10-year-old boy, Dennis McDonald, as he and his brother Clinton cut through the campus. The watchman said he fired into the air as a warning.|
|October 22, 1920||Chicago, Illinois||0||1||Mrs. Carmila Rindoni went to the school and twice shot Rosalind I. Reynolds, her son's teacher, for spanking her son the day before. Mrs. Rindoni was arrested, and Miss Reynolds was expected to recover.|
|November 4, 1920||Middlesboro, Kentucky||1||0||Prof. Barnes of Middlesboro High School was fatally shot by Adolphus Oaks, for whipping his sister the week before. Barnes had already submitted his resignation to the school board, as his students had boycotted his class in protest over the whipping. He intended to leave the city that weekend. Oaks went to jail.|
|February 17, 1922||Valdosta, Georgia||2||0||John Glover broke into the school house, where he killed a girl and fatally wounded a boy. A mob tracked and killed Glover 7 miles (11 km) away in Indianola, now Naylor, Georgia.|
|August 1, 1922||Ardmore, Oklahoma||1||0||Bryant Hignight and four other students were hanging out at the outhouse of the Mount Zion school. Hignight fired two shots. One entered Raymond Guin's head, killing the boy instantly. Three of the boys were questioned, but all said it was an accident.|
|December 29, 1926||Gettysburg, Pennsylvania||0||1||12-year-old Frederick Heilman was shot through the right instep when Gettysburg College janitor, Joseph Carver, fired in the direction of a group of boys attempting to force their way into the college gymnasium. Carver had shot into the ground, attempting to scare the boys, and was not aware that a bullet had ricocheted. Mr Heilman chose not to prefer criminal charges.|
|May 22, 1930||Ringe, Minnesota||1||0||24-year-old Douglas Petersen, killed 20-year-old teacher, Margaret Wegman, who was standing in the doorway of a rural schoolhouse.|
|May 28, 1931||Duluth, Minnesota||1||0||Katherine McMillen, 24-year-old teacher at the Howard Gensen rural school near Duluth, was accidentally killed by a pupil who brought a revolver to school.|
|September 14, 1934||Gill, Massachusetts||1||0||Headmaster Elliott Speer was murdered by a shotgun blast through the window at Northfield Mount Hermon School. The crime was never solved.|
|May 7, 1935||Irvington, New York||1||0||Dr. Paul Kyle, head of the Kyle School for Boys, was found killed in the school, just before classes were to begin that day.|
|May 19, 1936||Williamstown, Massachusetts||2||1||Lewis Jack Somes, Jr. shot and killed classmate Robert Henneberry and wounded William Hartz, Jr. before killing himself in Lehman Hall at Williams College.|
|June 4, 1936||Bethlehem, Pennsylvania||2||0||Wesley Clow killed his Lehigh University English instructor, C. Wesley Phy. Clow went to Phy's office and demanded that Phy change his grade to a passing mark. Clow committed suicide after shooting Phy.|
|June 4, 1937||Isabel, Kansas||1||0||16-year-old Robert Douthitt, was accidentally killed backstage during high school play practice. The revolver was to have been loaded with blanks, but it held live ammunition.|
|September 24, 1937||Toledo, Ohio||0||2||12-year-old Robert Snyder wounded his principal, June Mapes, in her office at Arlington Public School when she declined his request to call a classmate. He fled the grounds, and wounded himself.|
|January 24, 1938||Blencoe, Iowa||1||0||17-year-old Edward Marley was accidentally killed by a fellow actor while rehearsing for a play at Blencoe High School.|
|May 6, 1940||Pasadena, California||5||2||South Pasadena Junior High School murders: Outraged by his dismissal, following conflicts with other staff, thirty-eight-year-old Verlin H. Spencer shot and killed 62-year-old superintendent of the South Pasadena city schools George C. Bush, 50-year-old principal of South Pasadena High School John E. Alman, and 52-year-old School District business manager Will R. Speer. He then attempted to kill Bush's secretary, 32-year-old Dorothea Talbert; she was struck near the shoulder. He later shot and killed 45-year-old art teacher Ruth Sturgeon, with whom he'd been in conflict, fatally wounding her in the chest and, following an intense struggle, 35-year-old mechanical arts teacher Verner V. Vanderlip, another with whom he had a grievance. Spencer was cornered by police as he attempted to escape through the school cafeteria; as one officer aimed, Spencer pressed the .22 caliber automatic pistol against his right side and fired twice, critically wounding himself. Police later found a suicide note from Spencer to his wife, Polly. He survived his wounds and was tried for murder. Pleading guilty to all charges, he received 5 consecutive life terms. He was discharged from California's Department of Correction in 1977, aged 75. Verlin Spencer died January 11, 1991.|
|July 4, 1940||Valhalla, New York||1||0||Angered by the refusal of his daughter, 15-year-old Melba, to leave a boarding school and return home, 47-year-old Joseph Moshell, went to the school, where he killed his daughter.|
|October 2, 1942||New York City, New York||1||0||Irwin Goodman, 36-year-old mathematics teacher at William J. Gaynor Junior High School, was killed in the school corridor by a youth.|
|June 26, 1946||New York City, New York||0||1||A 15-year-old student, who refused to give his pocket money to a gang of seven youths, was shot in the chest in the Public School 147 annex of Brooklyn Automotive Trades High School.|
|February 2, 1947||Madill, Oklahoma||2||0||62-year-old Ellis Laird killed his estranged wife, 40-year-old teacher, Jessie Laird, inside her first grade classroom. He then took his own life. All of this took place in the presence of several pupils.|
|December 24, 1948||New York City, New York||1||0||A 14-year-old student was fatally wounded in the head by a shot from fellow student, 17-year-old Robert Ross. The youth was accidentally shot when he chanced into range where Ross was target shooting near a lake at the school.|
|March 11, 1949||New York City, New York||0||1||A 16-year-old student at Stuyvesant High School was accidentally shot in the arm by a fellow student who was ‘showing off’ with a pistol in a classroom.|
|November 12, 1949||Columbus, Ohio||1||0||Ohio State University freshman James Heer grabbed a .45 caliber handgun from the room of a Delta Tau Delta fraternity brother, and killed 21-year-old Jack McKeown, a senior and also a fraternity brother.|
|July 22, 1950||New York City, New York||0||1||A 16-year-old boy was shot in the wrist and abdomen at the Public School 141 dance during an argument with a former classmate.|
|January 24, 1951||Alton, Illinois||1||0||61-year-old Henry Suhre, quartermaster at Western Military Academy, was killed in the cadet store on campus.|
|March 12, 1951||Union Mills, North Carolina||1||0||Professor W.E. Sweatt, superintendent and teacher at the Alexander School, was killed by students, 16-year-old Billy Ray Powell, and 19-year-old Hugh Justice, whom he had reprimanded.|
|June 4, 1951||New York City, New York||1||0||Carl Arch, a 50-year-old intruder to a girls' gym class, was killed by a police officer at Manhattan's Central Commercial High School.|
|November 27, 1951||St. Louis, Missouri||1||0||15-year-old student, David Brooks, was fatally shot as fellow pupils looked on. Two former students were sought by police.|
|April 9, 1952||New York City, New York||1||0||A 15-year-old boarding school student shot a dean rather than give up his pin-up pictures of girls in bathing suits.|
|July 14, 1952||New York City, New York||1||0||Bayard Peakes walked into the offices of the American Physical Society (APS) at Columbia University, where he killed secretary Eileen Fahey. Peakes was reportedly upset that the APS had rejected a paper of his.|
|October 2, 1953||Chicago, Illinois||1||0||14-year-old Bernice Turner, killed 14-year-old Pasquale Coletta inside the science classroom at Kelly High School. The shooting was later ruled to be accidental.|
|March 31, 1954||Newton, Massachusetts||1||0||14-year-old John Frankenberger, was accidentally killed in a classroom at Day Junior High School when a pistol being held by a classmate discharged.|
|May 15, 1954||Chapel Hill, North Carolina||1||2||Putnam Davis Jr. was killed during a fraternity house carnival at the Phi Delta Theta house at the University of North Carolina. William Joyner and Allen Long were wounded during the exchange of gunfire in their room. The incident followed an all-night beer party. Long told police that, while the three were drinking beer at 7 a.m., Davis pulled out a gun and started shooting.|
|January 11, 1955||Swarthmore, Pennsylvania||1||0||After some of his dormmates urinated on his mattress during hazing, Robert B. Bechtel, a 22-year-old student proctor at Swarthmore College, returned to his third floor Wharton Hall dorm with a shotgun and killed fellow student, 19-year-old Francis Holmes Strozier. Betchtel was acquitted of murder by reason of insanity and spent five years in a psychiatric hospital.|
|May 4, 1956||Seat Pleasant, Maryland||1||2||15-year-old student, Billy Ray Prevatte, fatally shot 32-year-old teacher, Frazer Cameron, and injured 25-year-old athletic coach, Francis Daniel Wagner, and 31-year-old teacher, Robert Hicks, at Maryland Park Junior High School. He just left, after growing tired of waiting outside the principal's office awaiting a reprimand for failing to turn in a written physical education assignment, and returned with a rifle.|
|October 20, 1956||New York City, New York||0||1||A Booker T. Washington Junior High School student was wounded in the forearm by another student armed with a home-made weapon.|
|October 2, 1957||New York City, New York||0||1||A 16-year-old student was shot in the leg by a 15-year-old classmate at a city high school.|
|March 4, 1958||New York City, New York||0||1||A 17-year-old student shot a boy in the Manual Training High School.|
|May 1, 1958||Massapequa, New York||1||0||A 15-year-old Massapequa High School freshman was killed by a classmate in a washroom.|
|September 24, 1959||New York City, New York||1||0||Twenty-seven men and boys and an arsenal were seized in the Bronx as the police headed off a gang war resulting from the fatal shooting of a teenager at Morris High School.|
|February 2, 1960||Hartford City, Indiana||3||0||44-year-old school principal Leonard Redden killed teachers Harriett Robson and Minnie McFerren inside their classrooms at William Reed School. Redden then fled to a wooded area where he killed himself.|
|March 30, 1960||Alice, Texas||1||0||14-year-old Donna Dvorak, brought a target pistol to Dubose Junior High School, and fatally shot 15-year-old Bobby Whitford, in their 9th-grade science class. Dvorak believed Whitford posed a threat to one of her girlfriends.|
|June 7, 1960||Blaine, Minnesota||2||0||41-year-old mail-carrier, Lester Betts, confronted 33-year-old principal, Carson Hammond, in his Blaine Elementary School office, and shot him dead with a 12-gauge shotgun.|
|January 4, 1961||Delmont, South Dakota||1||0||Donald Kurtz, 17-year-old senior at Delmont High School, was fatally wounded by a .22 caliber bullet from a rifle. The shot, intended as a sound effect for a school play, hit him in the chest during a rehearsal just minutes before the play was to take place.|
|October 17, 1961||Denver, Colorado||2||0||14-year-old Tennyson Beard, got into an argument with 15-year-old William Hachmeister, at Morey Junior High School, and wounded him. Another shot fatally struck 14-year-old Deborah Faith Humphrey.|
|April 27, 1966||Bay Shore, New York||1||0||48-year-old teacher, John S. Lane, was fatally wounded when he tried to stop 16-year-old student James Arthur Frampton. The youth was walking through the halls of Bay Shore Senior High School with a shotgun, searching for boys whom he had argued with earlier that day. Lane died about six weeks later of his wounds.|
|August 1, 1966||Austin, Texas||17||31||University of Texas massacre: 25-year-old engineering student, Charles Whitman, got onto the observation deck at the University of Texas-Austin, from where he killed seventeen people and wounded thirty-one during a 96-minute shooting rampage. He had earlier murdered his wife and mother at their homes. It was the deadliest shooting on a U.S. college campus until the Virginia Tech shooting in 2007.|
|October 5, 1966||Grand Rapids, Minnesota||1||1||Grand Rapids High School student, 15-year-old David Black, killed school administrator Forrest Willey and seriously wounded fellow student, 14-year-old Kevin Roth.|
|November 12, 1966||Mesa, Arizona||5||2||18-year-old Bob Smith, took seven people hostage at Rose-Mar College of Beauty and ordered them to lie down in a circle. He shot each in the head. Four women and a 3-year-old girl died, a woman and a baby were injured but survived. Police arrested Smith, who reportedly admired Richard Speck and Charles Whitman.|
|May 3, 1967||Northlake, Illinois||1||1||18-year-old dropout, Michael Pisarski killed his former girlfriend, 17-year-old Christine Mitchell inside West Leyden High School. The school's athletic director was wounded.|
|January 30, 1968||Miami, Florida||1||0||16-year-old Blanche Ward killed fellow student, 16-year-old Linda Lipscomb, at Miami Jackson High School. According to Ward, she was threatened with a razor by Lipscomb during an argument over a fountain pen, and in the ensuing struggle the gun went off.|
|February 8, 1968||Orangeburg, South Carolina||3||27||In the days leading up to February 8, 1968, about two hundred mostly student civil rights protesters gathered on the campus of South Carolina State University to protest the continued racial segregation of the All Star Bowling Lane after passage in 1964 of federal legislation prohibiting such action. That night, students started a bonfire. As police attempted to put out the fire, an officer was struck and injured by an object. Police later said they believed they were under attack by small weapons fire. The officers fired into the crowd, killing 18-year-old Samuel Hammond Jr., 17-year-old Delano Herman Middleton, and 19-year-old Henry Ezekial Smith, and wounding twenty-seven others.|
|March 25, 1968||High Point, North Carolina||1||0||15-year-old David Lee Walker, was killed just outside Central High School, by 15-year-old Gerald Locklear.|
|May 22, 1968||Miami, Florida||0||2||Ernest Lee Grissom, a 15-year-old student at Drew Junior High School, seriously wounded a teacher and a 13-year-old student after he had been reprimanded for behavior.|
|January 17, 1969||Los Angeles, California||2||0||Alprentice Carter and John Huggins, two student members of the Black Panther Party, were fatally shot during a student meeting inside Campbell Hall at the University of California, Los Angeles. Reportedly there was disagreement over who would control the school's African American Studies Center. The shooter, Claude Hubert, was never found; three other men were later arrested in connection with the shooting.|
|January 23, 1969||Washington, D.C.||1||0||45-year-old Cardozo Senior High School assistant principal, Herman Clifford, was killed in the school's hallway, by 18-year-old Ronald Joyner, while trying to stop him and two other youths who had robbed the school's bank.|
|May 13, 1969||Winston-Salem, North Carolina||1||0||13-year-old Ernest Napoleon Carter Jr. was accidentally killed, by a 13-year-old classmate at Hanes Junior High School who was armed with a pistol. The shooter was charged with involuntary manslaughter. Carter's mother filed a lawsuit against the Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Board of Education for $50,000 in damages.|
|November 19, 1969||Tomah, Wisconsin||1||0||46-year-old Martin Mogensen, principal of Tomah Junior High School, was killed in his office by a 14-year-old boy.|
|January 5, 1970||Washington, D.C.||1||1||15-year-old Tyrone Perry, was killed at Hine Junior High School.|
|February 11, 1970||Philadelphia, Pennsylvania||1||2||University of Pennsylvania professors, 40-year-old Walter Koppelman, and 45-year-old Oscar Goldman, were shot by 33-year-old disgruntled graduate student, Robert Cantor, during a seminar. Cantor then took his own life. Koppelman died March 5 from his injuries, but Goldman recovered.|
|May 4, 1970||Kent, Ohio||4||9||Kent State shootings: During protests of the Vietnam War at Kent State University, armed National Guard Soldiers opened fire on unarmed students, killing four people.|
|May 15, 1970||Jackson, Mississippi||2||12||Jackson State killings: Two students were killed and twelve others injured when police opened fire on students gathered to protest the US military presence in Cambodia.|
|November 20, 1970||Chicago, Illinois||0||2||Two students were shot while standing in a second floor hallway of Harlan High School. 15-year-old Kenneth House, was shot in the lower left abdomen, his condition was described as serious. 14-year-old Portia Walls, suffered a superficial wound on her lower back. The incident was thought to have involved gang recruiting in the school.|
|February 2, 1971||Philadelphia, Pennsylvania||1||0||56-year-old teacher, Samson L. Freedman, was killed as he left Morris E. Leeds School, by 14-year-old student, Kevin Simmons. Freedman had suspended Simmons earlier in the day for cursing in the hallway.|
|November 11, 1971||Spokane, Washington||2||4||21-year-old former MIT student, Larry J. Harmon, armed with a rifle, killed 68-year-old caretaker, Hilary Kunzon, who came upon him wrecking St. Aloysius Roman Catholic Church, then fled onto the campus of Gonzaga University, where he wounded four more people before police officers killed him. Harmon was described by his father as a religious fanatic claiming to have visions.|
|February 26, 1973||Richmond, Virginia||1||0||17-year-old Wayne Phillips, was killed when he was caught between two youths who were fighting in the hallway of Armstrong High School.|
|November 6, 1973||Oakland, California||1||1||School superintendent Marcus Foster, was killed and his assistant Robert Blackburn, was wounded when members of the Symbionese Liberation Army opened fire on them as they exited a school board meeting. Two members of the SLA were later arrested and convicted of the crime. Both were sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole. The SLA had reportedly believed that Foster supported a measure to install police on school grounds and make students carry identification cards. In reality, Foster opposed both measures.|
|January 17, 1974||Chicago, Illinois||1||0||52-year-old elementary school principal, Rudolph Jezek Jr., was killed in his office by 14-year-old Steven Guy, a former student said to be angry about being transferred to a social adjustment center.|
|March 22, 1974||Brownstown, Indiana||1||0||48-year-old Jessie Blevins, athletic director at Brownstown Central High School, was fatally shot in the school parking lot by a 17-year-old student waiting for him. He gave the police no motive.|
|October 4, 1974||Kent, Ohio||0||1||19-year-old McKeesport student, Ray D. Gilmore, was wounded in a scuffle with two men in his third floor campus dormitory room. 26-year-old Benjamin F. Goodman and 22-year-old Carl Bell, who were not students, had their .32 caliber pistols taken and were wrestled to the floor by other students.|
|December 30, 1974||Olean, New York||3||11||During a two-and-a-half-hour siege, 18-year-old honor student, Anthony Barbaro, the best on his rifle team, killed three adults in and around his high school and wounded eleven other persons. He shot from the windows out at the street and neighborhood. The school was closed for the Christmas holiday.|
|February 24, 1975||Penns Grove, New Jersey||1||1||24-year-old David Gary killed the 33-year-old Reverend Thomas Quinlan, inside a classroom at St. James School. Quinlan was the school's principal. A teacher was also wounded.|
|March 18, 1975||St. Louis, Missouri||1||0||16-year-old Stephen Goods, a bystander, was killed during a fight between other teens. Three youths were convicted for the homicide.|
|September 11, 1975||Oklahoma City, Oklahoma||1||5||Student James Briggs killed fellow student Randy Truitt at Grant High School, wounding several others.|
|February 12, 1976||Detroit, Michigan||0||5||Intruders entered Murray-Wright High School, shooting and wounding five students after an apparent dispute over a girlfriend of one of the intruders.|
|July 12, 1976||Fullerton, California||7||2||The gunman, 37-year-old Edward Charles Allaway, was a custodian at the California State University, Fullerton library. Allaway killed seven people and wounded two others in the library's first-floor lobby and at the building's Instructional Media Center (IMC), located in the basement.|
|November 10, 1976||Detroit, Michigan||1||0||46-year-old Al Lewis, killed his estranged wife, 46-year-old Betty McCaster, as she was teaching thirty-six 6-and-7-year-old students at Burt Elementary School.|
|April 7, 1977||Whitharral, Texas||1||0||High School principal, M. O. Tripp, was killed on the front steps of the school by 17-year-old student, Ricardo Lopez, for unknown reasons.|
|January 11, 1978||Hopkinsville, Kentucky||0||1||At 8:10 a.m., 13-year-old student, Andre Davis, was wounded while watching a fight between two students in the front lobby of Christian County Middle School, one of whom had a gun. A 16-year-old was charged with the assault.|
|February 9, 1978||St. Albans, West Virginia||1||0||14-year-old Hayes Junior High School student, Stuart Wayne Perrock, killed 14-year-old schoolmate, Arthur Clinton Smith.|
|February 22, 1978||Lansing, Michigan||1||1||After being taunted for his beliefs, 15-year-old Roger Needham, self-proclaimed Nazi, killed one student and wounded a second with a pistol at Everett High School.|
|April 26, 1978||Dallas, Texas||1||0||38-year-old Woodrow Porter, a janitor at Paul Dunbar Elementary School, was killed by the 56-year-old grandmother of an 8-year-old who was allegedly spanked by Porter earlier.|
|May 18, 1978||Austin, Texas||1||0||13-year-old John Daniel Christian, son of Lyndon B. Johnson's former press secretary George Christian, killed his English teacher, 29-year-old Wilbur Grayson, with his father's rifle in front of approximately thirty classmates at Murchison Junior High School. Christian was arrested and charged but not prosecuted; he was committed to a mental hospital where he was treated for a period and released.|
|October 17, 1978||University City, Missouri||0||4||18-year-old Larry Ward and two companions were escorted from the halls of University City High School following a fight with 18-year-old student, Carl Triplett. Ward ran back into the building with a gun and fired shots into a group, critically injuring Triplett in the chest and hip, and wounding 17-year-old Angela Darden and 16-year-old Jennifer Pride. Ward sustained a head injury as he was tackled by assistant principal, Franklin McCallie. His companions grabbed the gun and fled.|
|October 17, 1978||Lanett, Alabama||1||0||13-year-old Robin Robinson, was paddled by Lanett Junior High School principal, Lewis Hoggs, after having a disagreement with another student. Robinson left the school, and returned with a .22-caliber handgun and shot Hoggs, grazing the top of his head. Robinson was arrested two hours later about two blocks from the school, and later charged in juvenile court.|
|January 29, 1979||San Diego, California||2||9||Cleveland Elementary School shooting: 16-year-old Brenda Spencer opened fire on Grover Cleveland Elementary School from her home across the street, killing two adults and wounding nine people.|
|April 16, 1979||Milwaukee, Wisconsin||0||1||17-year-old Timothy Stahle was critically wounded in the leg and upper thigh, with shot gun pellets, as he threw rocks at the windows of Wisconsin Lutheran High School. 28-year-old school janitor, Kenneth B. Stein, was arrested.|
|September 28, 1979||Charlestown, Massachusetts||0||1||15-year-old sophomore, Darryl Williams, was shot in the neck by a sniper during the half-time interval, while standing with teammates and coach in the end zone of the Charlestown High School football field. The player for the predominantly black Jamaica Plain High School team was left paralysed. A racial motivation was determined by Mayor Kevin White. 17-year-old white youths, Joseph Nardone and Stephen McGonagle, were charged with the shooting and received ten year sentences.|
|January 7, 1980||Stamps, Arkansas||1||0||16-year-old Evan Hampton, high school freshman student at Stamps High School, waited in a classroom for 19-year-old student Mike Sanders, whom he immediately killed. Hampton went to the principal's office, turning in the gun and waiting for his arrest by police.|
|March 20, 1980||Dallas, Texas||1||0||49-year-old fifth grade teacher, Rosie Pearson, was killed in J. Leslie Patton School by an unknown assailant.|
|March 26, 1980||Big Rapids, Michigan||1||0||Business professor Robert Brauer was killed in class by his 20-year-old student, Thomas Kakonis, at Ferris State College; Kakonis had failed an exam in his class. Kakonis is the son of an associate dean at the college.|
|October 31, 1980||Hueytown, Alabama||1||1||17-year-old Rudy Farmer, pulled out a .22 caliber pistol and wounded a fellow student in the art room of Hueytown High School, he then turned his gun on himself.|
|January 27, 1981||Fayetteville, Arkansas||1||1||19-year-old former freshman, James Howard Taylor, brought a 12-gauge single-shot shotgun into the Delta Delta Delta sorority house on the University of Arkansas campus. He entered the house at 5:45 p.m. and terrorized an initiation dinner. After attempting to negotiate a surrender, he was shot by police when he aimed his shot gun into the dining room.|
|April 17, 1981||Ann Arbor, Michigan||2||0||As students fled their rooms, after a homemade firebomb set a minor blaze on the sixth floor hallway of Bursley Hall dormitory, 22-year-old psychology student, Leo E. Kelly Jr., fired a sawn-off 12-gauge shotgun at his University of Michigan schoolmates at point-blank range. 19-year-old pre-medical student, Edward Siwik, and 21-year-old resident advisor, Douglas C. McGreaham, died at hospitals a few hours later. Kelly had been dismissed from UM once and was on the verge of another dismissal because of falling grades. In 1982, he was convicted on two counts of first-degree murder and sentenced to life.|
|December 16, 1981||Portland, Oregon||2||0||Shortly before noon in Engineering Hall on the school's campus in north Portland, 34-year-old University of Portland night janitor, John C. Holbrook, killed 37-year-old engineering teacher, Brian D. Massey, before taking his own life.|
|March 19, 1982||Las Vegas, Nevada||1||2||17-year-old Valley High School student, Patrick Lizotte, killed his teacher Clarence Pigott and wounded two students.|
|April 7, 1982||Littleton, Colorado||1||0||13-year-old Deer Creek Junior High School student, Scott Darwin Michael, was killed by 14-year-old classmate, Jason Price Rocha. Rocha was tried as an adult and sentenced to twelve years, plus one year of parole.|
|November 12, 1982||Jackson, Mississippi||2||0||18-year-old school dropout, James Hartzog, killed his girlfriend, 17-year-old Faye Williams in her algebra class at Wingfield High School. Hartzog then took his own life.|
|January 20, 1983||St. Louis County, Missouri||2||1||Eighth grade Parkway South Middle School student David F. Lawler entered a study hall classroom and opened fire, killing 15-year-old Randall Koger, and injuring 15-year-old Greg Saffo. Lawler then took his own life.|
|February 24, 1984||Los Angeles, California||2||12||Tyrone Mitchell killed two people and wounded twelve others when shooting at students leaving 49th Street Elementary School.|
|April 20, 1984||Detroit, Michigan||1||0||13-year-old Kelly Crittendon, was accidentally killed by two classmates in a classroom at the Precious Blood School.|
|May 17, 1984||Pleasant Hill, Iowa||2||0||17-year-old student, Todd Dunahoo, killed 16-year-old Valerie Rockafellow in the hallway at Southeast Polk High School, then turned the gun on himself.|
|October 24, 1984||Celina, Ohio||1||0||45-year-old Shirley Shindeldecker, killed school bus driver 54-year-old Gene Green, as he stopped to pick up the son of Shindeldecker's estranged husband. After serving nineteen months of her sentence, Shindeldecker was found innocent by reason of insanity, and released.|
|January 21, 1985||Goddard, Kansas||1||3||Armed with a rifle and a handgun, 14-year-old James Alan Kearbey, killed principal, James McGee, and wounded two teachers and a student at Goddard Junior High School.|
|October 18, 1985||Detroit, Michigan||0||6||Murray-Wright High School shooting: During half-time of the homecoming football game between Northwestern and Murray-Wright high schools, a youth opened fire with a shotgun, injuring six students with whom he had fought earlier in the day.|
|November 27, 1985||Spanaway, Washington||3||0||14-year-old Heather Smith, killed 15-year-old Gordon Pickett, who was her ex-boyfriend, and 14-year-old Christopher Ricco, in the gymnasium at Spanaway Junior High School. She later took her own life.|
|December 3, 1985||Concord, New Hampshire||1||0||At Concord High School, Louis Cartier, a 16-year-old dropout, entered the school with a shotgun and took students hostage, 18-year-old Patrick Lena Lena and 16-year-old Scott Hayes. Responding police officers fatally shot him after he aimed at football coach, Don LeBrun.|
|December 10, 1985||Portland, Connecticut||1||2||After being suspended for refusing to take off his hat while at school, 13-year-old student Floyd Warmsley pulled out a firearm at Portland Junior High School, shooting and wounding the 53-year-old school secretary Lynn Haddad, and killing 36-year-old janitor David Bangston.|
|March 6, 1986||Dolton, Illinois||0||1||At about 9:40 a.m., as 52-year-old math teacher Norma Cooper`s third-period algebra class was beginning in a second-floor classroom in the C Building at Thornridge High School, she was shot in the shoulder by a freshman student, with a large-caliber handgun, registered to the youth`s father, a security guard. He is charged with attempted murder, unlawful use of a weapon and aggravated battery. The freshman, a resident of Harvey, was enrolled in the class and apparently had recently received poor grades.|
|April 29, 1986||Senath, Missouri||1||0||A new student, 16-year-old Ritchie Overman, killed studious 15-year-old Leslie Lynn Wyatt, using a 20-gauge shotgun, in front of twenty-six "totally horrified" science class students and teacher Sheila Adams, at Senath-Hornersville High School.|
|May 9, 1986||Fayetteville, North Carolina||0||3||A 17-year-old student shot three classmates at Pine Forest High School with a .25-caliber handgun wounding them. One student was critically injured and treated for a neck wound.|
|May 16, 1986||Cokeville, Wyoming||2||74||Cokeville Elementary School hostage crisis: 43-year-old former town marshal David Young, and his 47-year-old wife, Doris Young, took 136 children and eighteen adults hostage at Cokeville Elementary School.|
|December 4, 1986||Lewistown, Montana||1||3||14-year-old Kristofer Hans intended to shoot his French teacher at Fergus High School, for a failing grade. Instead, Henrietta Smith, who was substituting for LaVonne Simonfy, was shot in the face and died. Hans fired several other shots as he fled, wounding vice principal John Moffatt, and two students. He then ran about a mile to his home, where he was arrested after the police surrounded his house. A classmate said Hans had repeatedly threatened to kill Ms. Simonfy, saying, "I'm going to blow Simonfy's head off." He was charged as an adult, convicted and sentenced to 206 years in prison.|
|February 4, 1987||Northridge, California||2||0||35-year-old associate professor of Computer Science Djamshid (Amir) Asgari was confronted in the Engineering Building of California State University, Northridge by 25-year-old graduate student Fawwaz Abdin. Abdin was angry about a low grade Asgari had given him a year earlier, which caused him to be put on academic probation. After Asgari refused to change his grade, Abdin shot him twice, then himself. Asgari later died at the Northridge Hospital.|
|March 2, 1987||De Kalb, Missouri||2||0||After constant teasing about his weight, 12-year-old honors student Nathan Ferris killed a 13-year-old classmate, Timothy Perrin, after he bullied him, then turned the gun on himself.|
|April 16, 1987||Detroit, Michigan||1||2||Murray-Wright High School second shooting: A ninth-grade student at Murray-Wright High School killed 17-year-old Chester Jackson, a student athlete, and wounded 17-year-old Damon Matthews, and 18-year-old Tomeka Turner.|
|September 28, 1987||Lansing, Illinois||0||1||After being kicked off the soccer team for smoking on school grounds, 16-year-old student Blake Docter, of Illiana Christian High School wounded 44-year-old John Hoogewerf in the chest, the teacher who had reported him for smoking.|
|December 16, 1987||Katy, Texas||1||0||After being refused a date from his classmate, 15 year-old Ramesh Guzman Tumalad shot and killed himself with a .357 Magnum revolver before 23 of his fellow freshman Algebra students at Mayde Creek High School. The evening prior to the shooting, the boy discussed committing suicide to the girl after she informed school administration of his obsession with her.|
|February 11, 1988||Largo, Florida||1||2||Pinellas Park_High shooting: 15-year-old students, Jason Harless and Jason McCoy, took stolen .38-caliber revolvers to Pinellas Park High School. Harless shot two assistant principals and a student-teacher inside the school's cafeteria. 53-year-old Richard Allen died from his injuries, Nancy Blackwelder and intern Joseph Bloznalis were wounded.|
|May 20, 1988||Winnetka, Illinois||1||5||30-year-old Laurie Dann, killed 8-year-old Nick Corwin, inside Hubbard Woods School. Five additional students were wounded. Dann later committed suicide after taking hostages in a nearby home.|
|July 10, 1988||Milwaukee, Wisconsin||0||1||25-year-old Robin Jenkins, was shot in the elbow after a basketball game turned violent about 7:45 p.m.at Siefert Elementary School. A 28-year-old man was taken into custody the following day.|
|September 26, 1988||Greenwood, South Carolina||2||9||Oakland Elementary School shooting: 19-year-old James William Wilson entered Oakland Elementary School and started firing shots in the cafeteria. Two students were wounded and a first-grade teacher. After reloading his gun in a girls' restroom, he was confronted by physical education teacher, Kat Finkbeiner, who tried to stop him; she was wounded twice. He then entered a third-grade classroom and shot toward the students, killing 8-year-olds Shequila Tawoon Bradley and Tequila Maria Thomas, and wounding five others.|
|November 22, 1988||Abilene, Texas||0||1||16-year-old student Mason Staggs shot Cooper High School teacher, Rick Maloney in the face with a pistol, severely injuring the teacher. Staggs left the school and went fishing.|
|December 16, 1988||Virginia Beach, Virginia||1||1||At Atlantic Shores Christian School, 16-year-old student Nicholas Elliott shot two teachers with a Mac-10 9-millimeter machine pistol, killing 41-year-old Karen Farley, and critically wounding 37-year-old Sam Marino, then began firing on a classroom full of students before the gun jammed and any students were hit.|
|January 17, 1989||Stockton, California||6||32||Stockton schoolyard shooting: 24-year-old Patrick Edward Purdy fatally shot five children and wounded 32 others at the Cleveland Elementary School, before taking his own life. The victims were children of refugees from Southeast Asia. Purdy had a history of violence, alcoholism and drug addiction, and criminality.|
|February 10, 1989||Kearns, Utah||0||0||At Thomas Jefferson Junior High School, a 12-year-old boy fired a handgun at a vice principal, William Crumbaugh. No one was injured.|
|December 5, 1989||McKeesport, Pennsylvania||1||1||While riding the school bus, 16-year-old Serra Catholic High School student, Robert Butler, shot 16-year-old schoolmate, Adam Ference, in the back of the head before fatally shooting himself. Ference was in critical condition but survived.|
|March 27, 1990||Brooklyn, New York||0||1||A black youth was taunted with racial slurs by three white youths in the stairwell of a public school in the Bensonhurst area of Brooklyn. The 14-year-old was then shot and slightly wounded, because he had acted as peacemaker when the same boys had clashed with another black teen the month before.|
|September 11, 1990||San Antonio, Texas||0||3||3 students were wounded when gunfire broke out at Sam Houston High School. The incident took place at 11:55 a.m. and was gang related. 17-year-old John Campbell was wounded in the right foot, 18-year-old Larry Johnson was wounded in the right thigh and calf, and a 16-year-old received a chest wound. 18-year-old Kenneth Wolford, and two other male students were arrested and charged.|
|February 6, 1991||Donna, Texas||1||0||15-year-old Raul Calvo shot himself dead while playing Russian roulette inside a biology classroom at Donna High School.|
|April 23, 1991||Compton, California||1||0||A teenager aimed and fired a handgun at a security guard who had chased him and three friends off the grounds of Ralph J. Bunche Middle School. He instead killed 11-year-old Alejandro Vargas, a bystander and student at the school.|
|September 18, 1991||Crosby, Texas||1||0||17-year-old Arthur Jermel Jack, was killed by 15-year-old LaKeeta Cadoree, in the cafeteria at Crosby High School.|
|November 1, 1991||Iowa City, Iowa||6||1||University of Iowa shooting: 28-year-old former graduate student, Gang Lu, killed four members of University of Iowa's faculty and a research student, and seriously wounded another student. 47-year-old professor of physics and astronomy, Christoph K. Goertz, 45-year-old associate professor of physics and astronomy, Robert Alan Smith, 44-year-old chairman of the physics and astronomy department, Dwight R. Nicholson, 56-year-old associate vice president for academic affairs, Dr. Theresa Anne Cleary, shot in the head and died the following day, and 27-year-old research investigator in physics and astronomy, Dr. Shan Linhua. 23-year-old Miya Rodolfo-Sioson, Dr. Cleary's temporary student receptionist in the grievance office, survived but was left paralyzed from the neck down. Lu then shot himself in the head, he died shortly after police arrived.|
|November 25, 1991||Brooklyn, New York||1||0||Thomas Jefferson High School shooting: During an argument between two teens, a stray bullet killed a third, uninvolved 16-year-old student. In 1992, 14-year-old shooter Jason Bentley, was sentenced to three to nine years in prison.|
|December 12, 1991||Kent, Ohio||1||0||51-year-old custodian, John Frazier, was killed outside a campus auditorium of Kent State University.|
|January 29, 1992||Kent, Ohio||0||1||26-year-old graduate student, Sarah Smith, was wounded in the chest as she was waiting for her husband to pick her up at Kent State University.|
|February 26, 1992||Brooklyn, New York||2||0||Thomas Jefferson High School second shooting: 15-year-old Kahlil Sumpter, killed fellow students, 16-year-old Tyrone Sinkler and 17-year-old Ian Moore, on the school's second-floor hallway. In 1993, he was sentenced to between 6⅔ and twenty years in prison. He was released on parole in 1998.|
|May 1, 1992||Olivehurst, California||3||10||Lindhurst High School shooting: Former student, 20-year-old Eric Houston, killed three students and one teacher, and wounded nine other students and teacher before surrendering to police.|
|October 19, 1992||The Bronx, New York||0||3||Two 14-year-old girls and a 16-year-old boy were shot at outside a Bronx high school.|
|November 4, 1992||Detroit, Michigan||0||11||11 students were hit by gunfire during a four-hour period in three separate school incidents, five were hospitalized. Six students at Finney High School were grazed by buckshot after three ski-masked gunmen opened fire in a crowded hallway. A 14-year-old was in custody for shooting three Foch Middle School students as they passed by the Marcus Garvey Academy. In the third incident, 16-year-old DeWayne Boyd was hit in the chest, when shots were fired at two Mumford High School students.|
|January 6, 1993||Brentwood, New York||0||1||Brentwood High School. Former student, Matthew Hunter, was shot by two gunmen during a basketball game between Brentwood High School and Sachem High School. The assault was over a dispute about the theft of a gold chain.|
|January 18, 1993||Grayson, Kentucky||2||0||East Carter High School shooting: 17-year-old Scott Pennington, a student at East Carter High School, fatally shot his 48-year-old English teacher, Deanna McDavid, and 52-year-old head custodian, Marvin Hicks.|
|February 22, 1993||Los Angeles, California||1||0||15-year-old Robert Heard, fatally shot 17-year-old Michael Shean Ensley in the corridor of the Reseda High School's science building.|
|April 15, 1993||Acushnet, Massachusetts||1||0||44-year-old David Taber entered Ford Middle School and took three hostages. He killed school nurse Carol Day. He was found not guilty of the murder by reason of insanity.|
|May 14, 1993||Irving, Texas||1||0||17-year-old Max Alexander Martinez, killed 17-year-old Jose Balderas, with a .38 caliber revolver in a hallway in Nimitz High School during a dispute over girls.|
|May 24, 1993||Pennsburg, Pennsylvania||1||0||15-year-old student Jason Smith killed another student who had bullied him at Upper Perkiomen High School. He was charged as an adult and sentenced to between twelve and twenty-five years in prison.|
|September 17, 1993||Sheridan, Wyoming||1||4||29-year-old Kevin Newman, wounded four students before killing himself at Central Junior High School.|
|November 4, 1993||New Britain, Connecticut||1||0||18-year-old Miguel DeJesus, was gunned down on the steps of New Britain High School. Rival gang members, 24-year-old Maurice Flanagan and 23-year-old Thomas Mejia, were charged.|
|December 1, 1993||Wauwatosa, Wisconsin||1||0||Wauwatosa West High School shooting: 21-year-old former student, Leonard D. McDowell, shot 46-year-old associate principal, Dale Breitlow, three times with a revolver in a second-floor hallway of Wauwatosa West High School. McDowell was found guilty of the murder and sane at the time of the shooting, he was sentenced to life in prison. His sentence was upheld by the state Court of Appeals in April 1997.|
|January 24, 1994||Columbia, South Carolina||1||0||18-year-old Floyd Eugene Brown, shot fellow Eau Claire High School student, 17-year-old Earnest Dunlap, following an argument the week before. Brown was arrested shortly after at his home. A 16-year-old boy was also arrested for kicking Dunlap after the shooting.|
|January 31, 1994||Seattle, Washington||1||0||24-year-old Darrell Cloud, a former student at Whitman Middle School in North Seattle, killed 45-year-old Neal Summers, who had sexually abused Cloud since he was thirteen. Cloud served nine years in prison. He later received a $250,000 settlement in a civil suit against Seattle Schools, charging that Summers had not been adequately supervised.|
|February 18, 1994||Spartanburg, South Carolina||0||1||At around 10 p.m., 24-year-old Roosevelt Johnson was shot in the leg, after a basketball game at Spartanburg High School.|
|March 1, 1994||Boonville, Missouri||2||0||33-year-old Dante D. Hayes, a hunter and ex-convict, killed 58-year-old Richard Vancena, a cafeteria manager, and 33-year-old Robin Michelle Coleman, a cook, in the mess hall of Kemper Military School and College. He was drunk and looking for his wife Anna Hayes with whom he had a fight the night before. No students were harmed.|
|April 12, 1994||Butte, Montana||1||0||10-year-old Jason Osmanson, teased because his parents have AIDS, killed an 11-year-old student on the playground of Margaret Leary Elementary School. Osmanson was sent to a private residential treatment center.|
|April 21, 1994||Nashville, Tennessee||1||0||14-year-old Jeremy Bryant, killed 13-year-old Terrence Murray, in music class at J.T. Moore Middle School.|
|October 12, 1994||Greensboro, North Carolina||1||1||After being suspended for smoking, 16-year-old Nicholas Atkinson, returned to Grimsley High School with a 9 mm pistol. After wounding assistant principal, Bill Whites, Atkinson took his own life.|
|October 17, 1994||Chicago, Illinois||0||1||A 16-year-old female student was shot in the thigh outside Hubbard High School when a teenage boy rode past on a bicycle and fired into a crowd. It is believed the shooting was meant for rival gang members, but the girl was hit instead. The boy lived in the neighborhood.|
|November 7, 1994||Wickliffe, Ohio||1||4||Wickliffe Middle School shooting: 37-year-old former student, Keith A. Ledeger, killed 41-year-old custodian, Pete Christopher, at Wickliffe Middle School, and wounded 47-year-old assistant principal, Jim Anderson, 47-year-old police officer, Thomas Schmidt, and 50-year-old teacher, Lowell Grimm, before being injured and taken into custody.|
|December 14, 1994||Albany, New York||0||1||Ralph J. Tortorici, 26, a military veteran and psychology major at the State University of New York at Albany held hostage a large lecture hall from 9:10 a.m. until 11:30 a.m. Tortorici, armed with a .270-caliber rifle with more than two dozen rounds of ammunition and a hunting knife, walked into the ancient history class of Hans Pohlsander, saying, "Don't worry. Nobody move. You guys are getting held hostage." The standoff ended when Tortorici had his gun taken away by Jason McEnaney, a 19-year-old student. McEnaney was shot in the leg, groin, and abdomen in the exchange. Tortorici suffered from a well-document history of mental illness, argued during the hostage crisis that the government had implanted a control chip in his head during a procedure at Albany Medical Center, and ultimately committed suicide in 1999 in prison while serving a 15 1/2 year sentence.|
|January 12, 1995||Seattle, Washington||0||2||A 15-year-old student at Garfield High School left school during the day and returned with his grandfather's handgun. He wounded two students.|
|September 29, 1995||Tavares, Florida||1||0||14-year-old student Keith E. Johnson, killed 13-year-old Joey Summerall, at Tavares Middle School with a handgun that he had stolen from his neighbor's home. He was convicted and sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole.|
|October 12, 1995||Blackville, South Carolina||2||1||Blackville-Hilda High School shooting: Suspended student, 16-year-old Toby R. Sincino, killed 56-year-old math teacher, Phyllis Senn, and wounded 38-year-old math teacher, Johhnny Thompson, before committing suicide at Blackville-Hilda High School.|
|November 15, 1995||Lynnville, Tennessee||2||1||Richland High School shooting: 17-year-old James Rouse, killed a student and teacher at Richland High School and seriously wounded another teacher with a rifle.|
|January 19, 1996||Washington, D.C.||1||0||Two masked gunmen killed 14-year-old Damion Blocker in a stairwell at Winston Education Center. 16-year-old shooter, Darrick Evans, was sentenced to 41 years to life in prison.|
|February 2, 1996||Moses Lake, Washington||3||1||Frontier Middle School shooting: 14-year-old Barry Loukaitis, killed a teacher and two students and wounded another student when he opened fire on his algebra class. Loukaitis was sentenced to life in prison.|
|February 29, 1996||St. Louis, Missouri||1||1||30-year-old Mark Boyd, hired 23-year-old Malik Nettles, to kill 15-year-old Kyunia Taylor, as she rode on a school bus bound for Beaumont High School. Taylor was pregnant with a child fathered by Boyd, a baby girl was delivered by emergency caesarean section, but died 23 days later. The bus driver was also shot, he survived.|
|August 15, 1996||San Diego, California||3||0||San Diego State University shooting: At San Diego State University, 36-year-old graduate student, Frederick Martin Davidson, killed three professors, 32-year-old Chen Liang, 44-year-old D. Preston Lowrey III, and 36-year-old Costas Lyrintzis, that he believed were involved in a conspiracy against him. Davidson was sentenced to serve three life terms.|
|September 17, 1996||State College, Pennsylvania||1||2||19-year-old Jillian Robbins, killed one student and injured two outside Pennsylvania State University's HUB–Robeson Center.|
|September 25, 1996||Decatur, Georgia||1||2||16-year-old David Dubose Jr., killed English teacher, Horace Morgan, on the steps of Dekalb Alternative School. Dubose was found not guilty by reason of insanity and was committed indefinitely to a state mental hospital.|
|October 9, 1996||Sherwood, Arkansas||1||0||14-year-old Willis Ward Johnson, killed 20-year-old James Earl Routt, as they rode a school bus.|
|January 27, 1997||West Palm Beach, Florida||1||0||14-year-old Conniston Middle School student, Tronneal Mangum, fatally shot 14-year-old classmate, John Pierre Kamel, just minutes before school started, over a $40 debt.|
|February 19, 1997||Bethel, Alaska||2||2||Bethel Regional High School shooting: 16-year-old student, Evan Ramsey, killed Bethel Regional High School principal, Ron Edwards, and 15-year-old student, Joshua Palacios, and wounded two other students.|
|October 1, 1997||Pearl, Mississippi||3||7||Pearl High School shooting: 16-year-old Luke Woodham, murdered his 50-year-old mother, Mary, at home before killing his ex-girlfriend, 16-year-old student, Christina Menefee, and 17-year-old student, Lydia Kaye Dew, then wounding seven others at Pearl High School.|
|October 15, 1997||Palmetto, Florida||0||1||After an argument between them the day before, 13-year-old Brandon Hartsoe took a .38 revolver from his mother's dresser drawer and shot 13-year-old Lincoln Middle School classmate, Trent Murray, in the back causing serious injury, then continued to fire three more shots in the general area of other students. Hartsoe was sentenced in 1998 to serve until his 18th birthday. His probation was set to end in October 2009.|
|December 1, 1997||West Paducah, Kentucky||3||5||Heath High School shooting: Three students were killed and five wounded by 14-year-old Michael Carneal, as they participated in a prayer circle. Carneal was sentenced to life in prison.|
|December 15, 1997||Stamps, Arkansas||0||2||Concealed in a wooded area on school grounds, 14-year-old Joseph "Colt" Todd, wounded two students as they were entering Stamps High School.|
|March 1, 1998||Philadelphia, Pennsylvania||1||3||At around 4:15 p.m., gunfire broke out as a crowd streamed from the Palestra after a high school championship basketball game near the University of Pennsylvania. A 22-year-old man was shot in the back and killed, and a student working at the fine arts building was shot in the leg.|
|March 24, 1998||Craighead County, Arkansas||5||10||Westside Middle School shootings: 13-year-old Mitchell Johnson, and 11-year-old Andrew Golden, killed a teacher and four students, and wounded ten others, as Westside Middle School emptied during a fire alarm intentionally set off by Golden.|
|April 24, 1998||Edinboro, Pennsylvania||1||3||Parker Middle School dance shooting: 14-year-old student, Andrew Wurst, fatally shot 48-year-old teacher, John Gillette, and wounded two students and another teacher at an 8th grade graduation dance. He is serving a thirty to sixty-year sentence in a prison for young offenders.|
|May 19, 1998||Fayetteville, Tennessee||1||0||18-year-old Jacob Lee Davis, shot 18-year-old Robert Creson, at Lincoln County High School in a dispute over a girl. Davis received a life sentence on July 29, 1999.|
|May 21, 1998||Springfield, Oregon||4||23||Thurston High School shooting: After killing his parents at home, 15-year-old Kip Kinkel, drove to Thurston High School, where he killed two students and wounded 23 others. After pleading guilty, he was sentenced to 111 years of prison.|
|June 15, 1998||Richmond, Virginia||0||2||14-year-old student, Quinshawn Brooker, wounded 45-year-old basketball coach and history teacher, Gregory Carter, and 74-year-old Head Start volunteer, Eloise Wilson, in the hallway of Armstrong High School.|
|December 10, 1998||Detroit, Michigan||1||0||52-year-old Professor Andrzej Olbrot, was killed by 48-year-old graduate doctoral student, Wlodzimierz Dedecjusat, at Wayne State University.|
|January 8, 1999||Carrollton, Georgia||1||1||15-year-old Andrea Garrett was found dead, and 17-year-old Jeff Miller seriously wounded in the girls' restroom at Central Carrollton County High School, after a suicide pact because Garrett's mother had previously forbidden her to see Miller.|
|April 16, 1999||Notus, Idaho||0||0||15-year-old Shawn Cooper, fired two shots from a shotgun near the front desk at Notus Jr. Sr. High School. There were no serious injuries, but some students were close enough to the blast to be grazed by shrapnel from the tile floor. Cooper had been undergoing treatment for bipolar disorder.|
|April 20, 1999||Littleton, Colorado||15||21||Columbine High School massacre: 18-year-old Eric Harris and 17-year-old Dylan Klebold, students at Columbine High School, killed twelve students and one teacher. They injured 21 additional people, and three more were injured while attempting to escape the school. The pair committed suicide at the end of the massacre. |
|May 20, 1999||Conyers, Georgia||0||6||15-year-old student Thomas "T.J." Solomon Jr., wounded six students at Heritage High School. A 15-year-old girl was hospitalized in critical condition, and the other victims suffered from non-life-threatening injuries. Solomon initially faced up to 351 years of prison if convicted of aggravated assault and other charges. In 2000 he was found guilty but mentally ill and was sentenced to forty years in prison and sixty-five years of probation.|
|November 19, 1999||Deming, New Mexico||1||0||13-year-old Victor Cordova Jr., fatally shot 13-year-old Deming Middle School schoolmate, Araceli Tena. Cordova said he had intended to commit suicide but was jostled by others and his gun moved.|
|December 6, 1999||Fort Gibson, Oklahoma||0||6||Before his middle school opened, 13-year-old Seth Trickey opened fire in the courtyard. While there were no fatalities, several students felt sparks from the bullets hitting the building walls. Five were injured, including a girl who was shot in the face. Trickey brought the gun from home.|
A 2015 investigation by CNN identified "more than 40 people...charged with Columbine-style plots" since the 1999 Columbine High School massacre and found that almost all were white male teenagers and almost all had studied the Columbine attack or cited the Columbine perpetrators Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold as inspiration.
|February 29, 2000||Flint, Michigan||1||0||Shooting of Kayla Rolland: At Buell Elementary School, 6-year-old Dedrick Owens fatally shot 6-year-old classmate Kayla Rolland. Owens has since been the youngest documented school shooter.|
|May 26, 2000||Lake Worth, Florida||1||0||13-year-old honor student, Nathaniel Brazill, was sent home for throwing water balloons, but returned to his Lake Worth Middle School with a family pistol. He fatally shot teacher Barry Grunow, a popular teacher, he was Brazill's favorite.|
|August 28, 2000||Fayetteville, Arkansas||2||0||36-year-old James Easton Kelly, a PhD candidate in Comparative Literature at University of Arkansas, killed 67-year-old Dr. John R. Locke, the English professor overseeing his coursework. Kelly had been dismissed from this PhD program for lack of progress toward his degree. Kelly shot Dr. Locke three times before committing suicide in the director's office, which had been isolated by campus police.|
|September 26, 2000||New Orleans, Louisiana||0||2||13 year-olds Darrel Johnson, and Alfred Anderson were initially charged with attempted first-degree murder in the shooting of 15 year-old William Pennington. Pennington, after being shot, managed to gain control of the gun and shoot Johnson in the back. Charges were later reduced to Aggravated Battery.|
|December 1, 2000||San Diego, California||0||1||A 15-year-old Junipero Serra High School student who showed off a handgun on campus and threatened to shoot a classmate, ended up accidentally shooting himself, causing minor injuries.|
|March 5, 2001||Santee, California||2||13||Santana High School shooting: 15-year-old student, Charles Andrew Williams, killed two students, 14-year-old Bryan Zuckor, and 15-year-old Randy Gordon, at Santana High School and wounded thirteen others. He was arrested and convicted of murder and attempted murder. He was sentenced to life with the chance of parole after serving fifty years.|
|March 7, 2001||Williamsport, Pennsylvania||0||1||14-year-old student, Elizabeth Catherine Bush, wounded fellow student Kimberly Marchese in the cafeteria of Bishop Neumann High School.|
|May 16, 2001||Parkland, Washington||2||0||40-year-old music instructor and organist James D. Holloway was shot multiple times with a .22-caliber handgun at Pacific Lutheran University by a 55-year-old man from Tacoma. The shooter was not a student or employee of the university and also killed himself. The victim was apparently chosen at random as the shooter had a personal dispute with a different staff member who was not on campus that day.|
|March 22, 2001||El Cajon, California||0||5||18-year-old former student, Jason Hoffman, opened fire at Granite Hills High School, injuring five people. He was convicted of assault and sentenced to prison, where he committed suicide in 2002.|
|March 30, 2001||Gary, Indiana||1||0||17-year-old Donald Ray Burt Jr., fatally shot Neal Boyd, IV with one bullet to the head in a parking lot outside Lew Wallace High School.|
|January 15, 2002||New York City, New York||0||2||17-year-old Vincent Rodriguez, wounded two students at Martin Luther King, Jr. High School in Manhattan, with a semi-automatic pistol. He was retaliating for the victims having harassed his girlfriend. In February 2003, Rodriguez was sentenced to ten years in prison on charges of assault and attempted assault.|
|January 16, 2002||Grundy, Virginia||3||3||Appalachian School of Law shooting: Recently dismissed graduate student, 42-year-old Peter Odighizuwa, killed three at the Appalachian School of Law. 42-year-old dean Anthony Sutin, and 41-year-old professor Thomas Blackwell were killed along with 33-year-old student, Angela Dales. Three other students were also wounded. Odighizuwa received three life sentences and an additional 28 years without the possibility of parole until 2005.|
|February 20, 2002||Milwaukee, Wisconsin||1||0||16-year-old Washington High School student, Joseph Johnson Jr., was killed by Phillip D. Jackson Jr., when violence erupts between rival fans in the parking lot, after a basketball game between Vincent High School.|
|June 11, 2002||Conception, Missouri||3||2||71-year-old Lloyd Robert Jeffress opened fire at random in the halls of Conception Abbey, a monastery in northwest Missouri.
He killed two monks and seriously wounded another two before fatally shooting himself. Two weapons, a Chinese-made replica of the AK-47 and a sawed-off .22-caliber rifle, were found near the body.
|October 7, 2002||Bowie, Maryland||0||1||In the Beltway sniper attacks, one victim of several was 13-year-old Iran Brown, who was wounded as he arrived at Benjamin Tasker Middle School in Bowie, Maryland. His aunt, a nurse who had just dropped him off, rushed him to a hospital emergency room. Despite serious injuries, Brown survived the attack.|
|October 28, 2002||Tucson, Arizona||4||0||Failing nursing college student and Gulf War veteran, 40-year-old Robert Stewart Flores Jr., killed three assistant professors of nursing at the University of Arizona, 50-year-old Robin Rogers, 44-year-old Cheryl McGaffic, and 45-year-old Barbara Monroe, before turning the gun on himself.|
|October 29, 2002||Jersey City, New Jersey||0||1||A 15-year-old student was shot in the abdomen and wounded inside a basement of Lincoln High School, during an argument with another student. Another 15-year-old student was arrested and charged with attempted murder.|
|April 14, 2003||New Orleans, Louisiana||1||3||John McDonogh High School shooting. 18-year-old Steven Williams, and 17-year-old James Tate opened fire with an AK-47 and a handgun in the gymnasium of John McDonogh High School, killing a 15-year-old student and wounding three female students. Williams was sentenced to life imprisonment, and Tate was sentenced to fifteen years.|
|April 24, 2003||Red Lion, Pennsylvania||2||0||14-year-old student James Sheets, entered Red Lion Area Junior High School armed with his stepfather's pistols. He killed the school's principal, Eugene Segro, before killing himself.|
|May 9, 2003||Cleveland, Ohio||1||2||On May 9, 2003, Biswanath Halder, a 62-year-old business school alumnus of Case Western Reserve University, killed a graduate student and wounded a professor and another student using a semi-automatic rifle. He held the building and its nearly 100 occupants hostage for seven hours before being apprehended by a SWAT team. He was sentenced to life in prison.|
|September 24, 2003||Cold Spring, Minnesota||2||0||Rocori High School shooting: 15-year-old John Jason McLaughlin, shot 15-year-old freshman Seth Bartell and 17-year-old senior Aaron Rollins at Rocori High School. Rollins was killed immediately, and Bartell died from his wounds sixteen days later. McLaughlin was sentenced to life in prison with the chance of parole in 2038.|
|February 2, 2004||Washington, D.C.||1||0||Thomas J. Boykin was acquitted of the murder of 17-year-old James Richardson, a football player at Ballou High School in Southeast Washington.|
|February 9, 2004||East Greenbush, New York||0||1||Jon W. Romano in East Greenbush, New York fired two rounds from a shotgun, wounding one teacher. He was tackled by the assistant principal and charged with one count of attempted murder.|
|May 7, 2004||Randallstown, Maryland||0||4||Two students were charged with a school shooting that arose from a dispute after a basketball game at Randallstown High School. Four persons were injured, two seriously. One student was paralyzed from the waist down.|
|February 8, 2005||Chicago, Illinois||0||1||An 18-year-old student at Bowen High School was shot in the leg as she left the school around 2:30 p.m.|
|March 2, 2005||Dover, Tennessee||1||0||14-year-old Jason Clinard, killed his bus driver, 47-year-old Joyce Gregory, as she stopped to pick him up. Gregory had earlier reported Clinard for using snuff on the school bus. Clinard was given a life sentence.|
|March 21, 2005||Red Lake, Minnesota||10||7||Red Lake shootings: 16-year-old student Jeffrey Weise, killed his grandfather and grandfather's companion at their home, where he had been living, at the Red Lake Indian Reservation. He drove to Red Lake Senior High School. Armed with his grandfather's police weapons, Weise killed five students, one teacher, and one security guard, wounding seven others, before committing suicide.|
|September 13, 2005||Chicago, Illinois||0||1||At Harlan Community Academy High School, a fight broke out between two 15-year-old boys in the gymnasium. Christopher Huff took out a pistol, shooting the other youth in the leg. A police officer on duty at the school arrested the gunman. The suspected shooter was charged as an adult with aggravated battery with a firearm.|
|November 8, 2005||Jacksboro, Tennessee||1||2||Campbell County High School shooting: Inside the Campbell County High School office, 15-year-old Kenneth Bartley, shot the school principal, Gary Seale. He shot assistant principals Ken Bruce and Jim Pierce. Bruce later died from his wound. Bartley was sentenced to forty-five years in prison with chance of parole after twenty-nine years.|
|January 13, 2006||Longwood, Florida||0||1||15-year-old Christopher Penley, took a pellet gun to class at Milwee Middle School. After refusing to drop the weapon, he was shot when he pointed it at a police officer.|
|February 23, 2006||Roseburg, Oregon||0||1||14-year-old freshman Vincent Wayne Leodoro, shot student 16-year-old Joseph Monti, four times in the back with a semi-automatic handgun at Roseburg High School. Leodoro walked away from the school campus, and was confronted near a restaurant by six police officers. He threatened suicide but was persuaded to surrender. He was found guilty of attempted murder and assault in July 2006, and will be held in prison until he turns twenty five years old.|
|March 14, 2006||Reno, Nevada||0||2||Pine Middle School shooting: In the hallway of Pine Middle School, 14-year-old James Scott Newman, injured two 14-year-old classmates, Alexander Rueda and Kenzie McKeon, with a revolver belonging to his parents. Two students received minor wounds. Newman was subdued by a physical education teacher. The youth was arrested and charged as an adult for attempted murder, use of a deadly weapon and use of a firearm by a minor. He later pleaded guilty to charges of two counts of battery with a deadly weapon, and was sentenced as a juvenile. Newman was sentenced to house arrest until he completed two-hundred hours of community service.|
|August 24, 2006||Essex Junction, Vermont||2||3||Christopher Williams, 26, shot his girlfriend's mother, Linda Lambesis, 57 at her home and from there he went to Essex Elementary School where Andrea, his girlfriend, worked. After he arrived at the elementary school, which was not in session at the time, he shot and killed Mary Alicia Shanks, 56, and shot Mary Snedeker, 52, nonfatally. He left the school and allegedly shot Chad Johansen, 26 nonfatally. He then turned the gun on himself, but did not die as a result.|
|August 30, 2006||Hillsborough, North Carolina||0||2||After shooting and killing his father, teenager Alvaro Castillo went to his high school, where he wounded two students. He was reportedly obsessed with the Columbine shootings and had written an email to the current Columbine high school principal before committing his own crime.|
|September 2, 2006||Shepherdstown, West Virginia||3||0||49-year-old Douglas W. Pennington, killed himself and his two sons, 26-year-old Logan P. Pennington, 24-year-old Benjamin M. Pennington, during a visit to the campus of Shepherd University.|
|September 17, 2006||Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania||0||5||Five Duquesne basketball players were shot early Sunday morning during an apparent act of random violence on campus, leaving three hospitalized — two of them in critical condition.|
|September 27, 2006||Bailey, Colorado||2||0||Platte Canyon High School hostage crisis: 53-year-old drifter, Duane Roger Morrison, walked into Platte Canyon High School and took six girls hostage. He sexually assaulted them. As a SWAT team stormed the classroom, he killed 16-year-old Emily Keyes, then took his own life.|
|September 29, 2006||Cazenovia, Wisconsin||1||0||Weston High School shooting: At around 8 a.m., 15-year-old freshman, Eric Hainstock, entered Weston High School. He aimed a 20-gauge shotgun at social studies teacher, Chuck Keller, before it was wrestled from him by school custodian, Dave Thompson. Hainstock then shot 49-year-old high school principal, John Alfred Klang, with a .22 caliber revolver. Klang died later that afternoon. Hainstock was charged and convicted of murder, and is serving a life sentence. He will be eligible for parole in 2037.|
|October 2, 2006||Nickel Mines, Pennsylvania||6||3||West Nickel Mines School shooting: 32-year-old milk truck driver, Charles Carl Roberts IV, killed five Amish girls and wounded five others before killing himself in an Amish school in the hamlet of Nickel Mines, in Bart Township, Lancaster County.|
|October 9, 2006||Joplin, Missouri||0||0||13-year-old student Thomas White fired one shot from a Mac-90 rifle at a hallway ceiling at Memorial Middle School. The gunshot struck a water pipe, and nobody was injured. He also tried repeatedly to shoot principal Stephen Gilbreth at near-point-blank range as Gilbreth ushered him out of the school. Joplin police say the attempt was foiled by an improperly seated ammunition clip in the rifle. The principal was not injured. White was tried as an adult on charges of assault and firearms possession, and in 2009 he was sentenced to ten years of prison.|
|January 3, 2007||Tacoma, Washington||1||0||18-year-old student Douglas S. Chanthabouly, killed 17-year-old Samnang Kok, in the hallways of Henry Foss High School following a personal disagreement. In 2009, Chanthabouly was sentenced to 23 years in prison on a charge of second-degree murder.|
|March 7, 2007||Compton, California||0||1||During an argument with several non-students and students, a student was shot in the elbow and wounded in the eating area at Centennial High School. The shooting occurred an hour after classes were dismissed, and students in after-school activities were sent home.|
|April 16, 2007||Blacksburg, Virginia||33||23||Virginia Tech shooting: 23-year-old student, Seung-Hui Cho, killed thirty-two students and faculty members at Virginia Tech, and wounded another seventeen students and faculty members in two separate attacks before committing suicide. The incident is the third-deadliest mass shooting by a single gunman in modern U.S. history.|
|October 10, 2007||Cleveland, Ohio||1||4||SuccessTech Academy shooting: Asa H. Coon, a 14-year-old suspended student, returned to SuccessTech Academy, where he fired shots at people inside the school building, wounding two teachers and two students. He shot himself in the head, committing suicide.|
|November 6, 2007||Miami Gardens, Florida||0||1||43-year-old 11th grade algebra teacher, Sergio Miranda, was shot by 19-year-old Patrick Lively, outside Miami Carol City Senior High School during a robbery but was expected to survive. In 2011, Lively received a life sentence.|
|February 4, 2008||Memphis, Tennessee||0||1||At Hamilton High School, a student shot a 16-year-old student in the leg during a classroom argument over rap music. The victim's injury was not life-threatening.|
|February 8, 2008||Baton Rouge, Louisiana||3||0||Latina Williams, a 23-year-old nursing student at Louisiana Technical College killed two classmates and herself in a second floor classroom.|
|February 11, 2008||Memphis, Tennessee||0||1||Following a feud that started off campus earlier in the week, a 19-year-old senior was shot by a 17-year-old sophomore during a gym class held in the cafeteria with about 75 other students at Mitchell High School, before handing the gun to a coach making no attempt to flee. The victim suffered at least two gunshot wounds and was in critical condition, the suspected shooter was in custody. "He walked up to him, shot him, and made a statement to the coach that 'It's over now,' ", said principal, Daniel Ware.|
|February 12, 2008||Oxnard, California||1||0||Murder of Larry King: 14-year-old Brandon McInerney, shot 15-year-old Lawrence "Larry" King, twice in the head in the computer laboratory of E.O. Green Junior High School. McInerney was apprehended in a nearby neighborhood. King, who was openly homosexual, died two days later. McInerney was initially charged with a hate crime, but that charge was dropped. McInerney pleaded guilty to second-degree murder and was sentenced to 21 years in prison.|
|February 14, 2008||DeKalb, Illinois||6||21||Northern Illinois University shooting: 27-year-old Steven Kazmierczak, shot multiple people with a shotgun in a classroom of Northern Illinois University, killing five and injuring 21, before taking his own life. Kazmierczak was not enrolled at the university, but had attended in the years prior to the attack.|
|August 14, 2008||Federal Way, Washington||1||0||26-year-old Omero Mendez was waiting at the Lakota Middle School campus to pick up his girlfriend's son. He was confronted by 16-year-old Luis F. Cosgaya-Alvarez and two of his friends, driving in an SUV. Cosgaya-Alvarez flashed gang signs at Mendez, and shot him once in the head. Mendez later died of his injuries. Cosgaya-Alvarez was arrested a few days later in Seattle and was charged with murder. Cosgaya-Alvarez pleaded guilty to murder and weapon enhancements, and was sentenced to eighteen years in prison.|
|August 21, 2008||Knoxville, Tennessee||1||0||At Central High School, 15-year-old Jamar Siler killed 15-year-old Ryan McDonald. In 2011, Siler was sentenced to thirty years in prison after pleading guilty to murder in a plea agreement.|
|September 2, 2008||Willoughby, Ohio||0||0||A 15-year-old student brought a handgun into South High School, and shot two rounds, one into the ceiling and one shattering a trophy case. The student then put the gun to his head. Then Assistant Principal Jeff Lyons talked the student out of doing any harm.|
|October 16, 2008||Detroit, Michigan||1||3||16-year-old Christopher Walker, was killed, and three other teenagers were seriously wounded during a drive-by shooting near Henry Ford High School, soon after classes let out. Three teenagers were arrested and charged in connection with the shooting. The shooter, 15-year-old William Morton, was sentenced to life without parole, and Devon Bell was sentenced to forty-two years of prison.|
|October 26, 2008||Conway, Arkansas||2||1||University of Central Arkansas shootings: Four young men fatally shot two students, 18-year-old Ryan Henderson, and 19-year-old Chavares Block, and wounded a 19-year-old campus visitor in the leg, outside the Arkansas Hall dormitory of University of Central Arkansas.|
|November 13, 2008||Fort Lauderdale, Florida||1||0||15-year-old Amanda Collette, was killed in the hallway at Dillard High School. The shooter, 15-year-old Teah Wimberly, was sentenced to twenty-five years to life on a first-degree murder charge.|
|January 9, 2009||Chicago, Illinois||0||5||After attendees were leaving a basketball game at Dunbar High School, a truck pulled over and someone inside fired shots at the crowd, wounding five people, three critically. 18-year-old Georgio Dukes, was arrested and charged a week later with five counts of felony aggravated battery with a firearm. Police believe that the attack was gang-related.|
|April 26, 2009||Hampton, Virginia||0||3||18-year-old Odane Greg Maye, a former student of Hampton University, followed a 43-year-old pizza delivery man into his former dormitory. Armed with three guns, Maye wounded the delivery man, then the dorm monitor. Lastly, Maye shot himself in a suicide attempt. He survived and was convicted of two charges of malicious wounding, two counts of using a gun in a felony; burglary; and shooting in an occupied building. He was sentenced to fourteen years of prison in November 2009, and was ordered by a judge to pay more than $62,000 in restitution to his victims for lost wages.|
|May 18, 2009||Cambridge, Massachusetts||1||0||20-year-old Jabrai Copney, 23-year-old Jason Aquino, and 19-year-old Blayn Jiggetts, of New York City, invited 21-year-old Justin Cosby, of Cambridge, into a Harvard College dormitory. After trying to rob him of a pound of marijuana, they shot him. Copney turned himself in four days later. Copney was convicted of murder. His partners pleaded guilty to armed robbery and manslaughter. His girlfriend, 21-year-old Brittany Smith, pleaded guilty to accessory after the fact, firearm possession, and misleading a grand jury.|
|May 18, 2009||Larose, Louisiana||1||0||15-year-old Larose-Cut Off Middle School student, Justin Doucet, carried his backpack to a restroom, where he put on camouflage clothes and took out a semi-automatic handgun before storming into a nearby classroom. He attempted to shoot a teacher, Jessica Plaisance, but the gun did not fire. He returned to the restroom and shot himself in the head, dying a week later of his wounds.|
|June 16, 2009||San Francisco, California||0||3||After students were being let out of International Studies Academy on the first day of summer school classes, a man left a car and opened fire, wounding three people, including a 17-year-old female student. An 18-year-old man was arrested for being an accessory in the crime.|
|September 3, 2009||San Bruno, California||0||1||A 20-year-old student was wounded in the parking lot of Skyline College after an argument between him and other men. The college campus was placed on lockdown. Three San Francisco residents, 18-year-old Germaine B. Benjamin, 20-year-old Dimaryea J. McGhee, and 18-year-old Jacori W. Bender, were each arrested and charged with felony firearm offenses.|
|October 16, 2009||Conway, South Carolina||1||0||16-year-old student, Trevor Varinecz was killed by a school resource officer after allegedly stabbing the officer.|
|March 7, 2018 | Birmingham, Alabama | 1 | 1 |Two students were shot at a high school in Birmingham Alabama. When students were being dismissed for the day at least two shots were fired. The gunshots resulted in the death of a 17 year old female and injuries to a 17 year old male. Both students attended Huffman high school. The school was placed on lock down while police were dispatched to the scene. The police considered the incident to be an accidental shooting. |-
|February 5, 2010||Madison, Alabama||1||0||14-year-old student, Hammad Memon, killed 14-year-old Todd Brown at Discovery Middle School as classes were changing. The shooting was possibly related to gang activitiy. In May 2013, Memon pleaded guilty to the murder and was sentenced to thirty years of prison. After Memon is released from prison, he is likely to be deported to his native Pakistan.|
|February 12, 2010||Huntsville, Alabama||3||3||2010 University of Alabama in Huntsville shooting: 44-year-old biology professor, Amy Bishop, killed the chairman of the biology department, 52-year-old Gopi K. Podila, and biology professors, 50-year-old, Maria Ragland Davis and 52-year-old Adriel D. Johnson. She also wounded biology professors, Luis Rogelio Cruz-Vera and Joseph G. Leahy, and staff assistant, Stephanie Monticciolo.|
|February 19, 2010||DeKalb, Illinois||0||1||Less than a week after Northern Illinois University solemnly marked the second anniversary of a mass shooting on campus that claimed the lives of five students, the DeKalb school was the scene of further gun violence. 24-year-old NIU student, Brian Mulder, refused entry to 22-year-old Zachary R. Isaacman, when he had tried to follow a female resident into the Stevenson Residence Hall North, where they were living, because he was not a resident. Moments later, while outside the dorm smoking with a friend, Mulder was shot by Isaacman, with a handgun in the leg above the knee. Isaacman tried to flee, but was caught by police within minutes.|
|February 23, 2010||Littleton, Colorado||0||2||At Deer Creek Middle School, 32-year-old Bruco Strong Eagle Eastwood opened fire from a rifle in a parking lot, and wounded two eighth-graders Reagan Webber and Matt Thieu, before being restrained by 57-year-old Math teacher, David Benke, and held until his arrest. The boy's wounds were critical for the four days following the shooting. In October 2011, Eastwood was found not guilty by reason of insanity.|
|March 9, 2010||Columbus, Ohio||1||1||51-year-old Ohio State University custodian, Nathaniel Brown, killed a co-worker and wounded another.|
|September 8, 2010||Detroit, Michigan||0||2||Two students were wounded in front of Mumford High School by 17-year-old Steven Jamal Hare. He was tried as an adult and charged with assault with intent to kill. In 2012, Hare was sentenced to 27 years in prison.|
|September 28, 2010||Austin, Texas||1||1||A 19-year-old sophomore student Colton Tooley, wielding an AK-47 and wearing a ski mask, opened fire and then killed himself in a University of Texas library|
|October 1, 2010||Salinas, California||1||0||15-year-old student Jose Daniel Cisneros was killed after being shot several times on an athletic field at Alisal High School while walking to school. Police said that the shooting was gang-related.|
|October 8, 2010||Carlsbad, California||0||2||41-year-old Brendan O'Rourke climbed over a fence and opened fire with a handgun in a playground of Kelly Elementary School, which had 230 students; two second-grade female students were grazed in the arms before O'Rourke was subdued by a construction worker. He was found guilty of seven counts of attempted murder and was sentenced to 189 years to life in prison.|
|November 29, 2010||Marinette, Wisconsin||1||0||15-year-old Samuel Hengel, took 23 students and a teacher hostage inside a classroom of Marinette High School for five hours. He had stormed into the class, firing with a handgun at a movie projector. Police persuaded Hengel to release the hostages. After officers entered the building, Hengel shot himself in the head. He died the next day.|
|December 6, 2010||Aurora, Colorado||0||1||In a gang-related attack outside Aurora Central High School, a 17-year-old girl was paralysed. She was one of a group of students outside the school. 20-year-old Luis Enrique Guzman-Rincon, had fired shots from a car trying to hit gang rivals. Guzman-Ricon was sentenced to thirty-five years in prison.|
|January 5, 2011||Omaha, Nebraska||2||2||At Millard South High School, 18-year-old student, Robert Butler Jr., killed assistant principal Dr. Vicki Kaspar and wounded principal Curtis Case before opening fire at police in the front office area, causing the school nurse to be wounded by gunshot debris. Butler then drove to a parking lot and shot himself as police cornered him.|
|March 25, 2011||Martinsville, Indiana||0||1||Michael Phelps, a 15-year-old suspended student, returned to Martinsville West Middle School with a handgun. In the entrance of the school, Phelps shot 15-year-old Chance Jackson twice in the abdomen, critically wounding him. Phelps fled the school and dropped the handgun; he was arrested shortly after. Jackson had to undergo surgery three times to save his life; he suffers from post-traumatic stress disorder. Phelps was convicted of attempted murder in August 2011, and was sentenced to thirty years in prison and five years of probation.|
|March 31, 2011||Houston, Texas||1||5||Multiple gunmen opened fire during a powder puff football game at Worthing High School. One man, an 18-year-old former student named Tremaine De Ante’ Paul, died. Five other people were injured.|
|May 23, 2011||Pearl City, Hawaii||0||1||A 14-year-old male student is accused of firing a handgun on the campus of Highlands Intermediate School, wounding one student. The gunman was arrested on suspicion of attempted murder. Two other suspects were arrested in connection with the shooting.|
|October 24, 2011||Fayetteville, North Carolina||0||1||Cape Fear High School shooting: 15-year-old Catilyn Abercrombie, was shot in the neck with a rifle by fellow student, 15-year-old Charles Underwood, at Cape Fear High School. She was hospitalized for two months in a serious condition. Underwood was arrested and charged with attempted murder. He was convicted of attempted first-degree murder and sentenced to fifteen years in prison.|
|December 8, 2011||Blacksburg, Virginia||2||0||22-year-old, Ross Truett Ashley, part-time business student at Radford University, killed a police officer engaged in an unrelated traffic stop on the campus of Virginia Tech, he then committed suicide in a nearby parking lot.|
|December 9, 2011||Edinburg, Texas||0||2||Two students were shot after school at Harwell Middle School in Edinburg, Texas while trying out for their school's basketball team. The shooting allegedly was done by an adult off campus, who was shooting at a target range.|
|January 10, 2012||Houston, Texas||0||1||A student opened fire with a handgun at North Forest High School, wounding another student. The shooter said that he had been confronted by three students who had been bullying him and he shot in self-defense. He hit a 16-year-old bystander in the leg. The 18-year-old suspect was charged with aggravated assault with a deadly weapon.|
|February 27, 2012||Chardon, Ohio||3||3||Chardon High School shooting: 17-year-old Thomas "T. J." Lane, took a semi-automatic handgun and a knife to Chardon High School, where he fired ten shots at a group of students sitting in the cafeteria. He killed three boys and wounded three other students. One 16-year-old died immediately, two others died the following day. Lane was arrested early the next morning while standing near his car. He was charged as an adult with murder, attempted murder, and firearms offenses. In March 2013, he was convicted and sentenced to three life sentences without the possibility of parole.|
|March 6, 2012||Jacksonville, Florida||2||0||A murder-suicide resulted in two deaths on the campus of the Episcopal School of Jacksonville. Shane Schumerth, a Spanish teacher who had been fired that morning returned to the campus in the early afternoon via a pedestrian entrance, armed with an AK-47 which he concealed in a guitar case. He entered the office of the Head of School, Dale Regan, and fired multiple shots, fatally wounding her. Schumerth then killed himself, in the office.|
|April 2, 2012||Oakland, California||7||3||Oikos University shooting: 43-year-old One L. Goh, was accused of shooting dead seven students with a handgun and wounding three others at Oikos University, a Christian college. He fled the scene, stealing a victim's car, and was apprehended hours later nearby. Goh was charged with seven counts of murder. In January 2013, Goh was determined to be mentally unfit for trial and committed for treatment.|
|August 16, 2012||Memphis, Tennessee||0||2||Two Hamilton High School students were wounded in the parking lot of the school. The attack was believed to be gang-related.|
|August 27, 2012||Perry Hall, Maryland||0||1||15-year-old Robert Gladden, fired two shots with a shotgun inside the cafeteria at Perry Hall School. He hit a 17-year-old senior in the lower back, causing critical wounds. The youth has Down syndrome. Gladden was subdued by two school faculty members, and arrested. In February 2013, he was sentenced to thirty-five years in prison on attempted murder charges.|
|September 7, 2012||Normal, Illinois||0||0||A 14-year-old student fired multiple gunshots in a classroom ceiling at Normal Community High School, and was tackled by a teacher. Nobody was injured. The student was arrested and charged with sixteen felony counts.|
|October 6, 2012||Mobile, Alabama||1||0||A University of South Alabama student, Gil Collar, was fatally shot by a campus police officer while having a medical emergency. Collar, 18, had ingested a legal lab chemical. It is unknown if he had done so voluntarily. Acting erratically, he approached the police station while naked and battered. Officer Trevis Austin, equipped with pepper spray and a baton, felt his life was threatened by the unarmed 140 lb teen. Video shows that the officer shot Collar before the student approached within five feet of him. Austin was cleared of any wrongdoing by the university.|
|October 19, 2012||Chicago, Illinois||1||0||18-year-old Banner Academy South student, Terrance Wright, was killed during an attempted robbery. Wright was approached by five would-be robbers as he left the school about 3:40 p.m.. He was shot in the chest as he fought back when one assailant was going through his pockets. Wright had been picked on at his previous high school because he was gay, which led him to transfer to Banner.|
|October 31, 2012||Los Angeles, California||0||4||At a Halloween party on the University of Southern California campus, an argument escalated and 20-year-old Brandon Spencer, used a handgun to shoot rival gang member, Geno Hall, seven times, critically wounding him. Spencer wounded three other people, none were students at USC, they were hospitalized with less serious injuries. Spencer was arrested just minutes after the shooting, which took place outside USC’s Grand Ballroom at around 11:30 p.m. In April 2014, he was convicted of attempted murder and sentenced to forty years to life in prison.|
|December 14, 2012||Newtown, Connecticut||28||2||Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting: 20-year-old Adam Lanza, killed twenty-six people and himself. He first killed his mother at their shared home before taking her guns and driving to the school. Lanza brought four guns with him. He killed twenty first-grade children aged six and seven during the attack at school, along with six adults, including four teachers, the principal, and the school psychologist. Two other persons were injured. Lanza then killed himself as police arrived at the school.|
|January 7, 2013||Fort Myers, Florida||1||0||Shots were fired at Apostolic Revival Center Christian School, leaving 27-year-old Kristopher Smith dead in what was believed to be a retaliation killing, possibly for his talking with police about a previous incident.|
|January 10, 2013||Taft, California||0||2||16-year-old student, Bryan Oliver, entered a science classroom of Taft Union High School with a shotgun and opened fire, critically wounding 16-year-old student Bowe Cleveland. He shot at but missed another student. The classroom teacher Ryan Heber convinced Oliver, to drop his weapon. He was later arrested. On January 14, he was charged with two counts of attempted murder and assault with a firearm. He was convicted and accepted a plea deal with a sentence of 27 years and 4 months. According to the attorney for the Cleveland family, they were not satisfied with the sentence.|
|January 12, 2013||Detroit, Michigan||0||1||A 16-year-old Osborn High School student is wounded after a basketball game.|
|January 15, 2013||St. Louis, Missouri||0||2||A 34-year-old gunman wounded an administrator in his office on the fourth floor of Stevens Institute of Business and Arts. The suspected gunman, Sean Johnson, a part-time student, wounded himself in a stairwell. Both the administrator and Johnson were hospitalized in stable conditions. Johnson was charged with three felony charges, including assault.|
|January 15, 2013||Hazard, Kentucky||3||0||Two people were killed and a third person was wounded at the parking lot of Hazard Community and Technical College. The third victim, 12-year-old Taylor Cornett, died from her wounds the next day. 21-year-old Dalton Lee Stidham, was arrested and charged with three counts of murder.|
|January 16, 2013||Chicago, Illinois||1||0||A 17-year-old boy, Tyrone Lawson, was killed in a parking lot of Chicago State University. The shooting happened after high school basketball games held on the campus, where Lawson had been a spectator. Police arrested two brothers, Michael McNabb, 33, and Brian Hewlett (under the alias Stephen Gilbert), 30 after the shooting and recovered a weapon.|
|January 22, 2013||Houston, Texas||0||3||Lone Star College–North Harris shooting: Outside Lone Star College–North Harris, two men got into an argument. One wounded the other. He also wounded a maintenance man, and accidentally shot himself in the leg. The shooter fled into the woods and was arrested hours later. The charges against the initial suspect were dropped and another man was arrested.|
|January 31, 2013||Phoenix, Arizona||0||0||An argument between two rival gangs escalated to what police described as a "gun battle" at Cesar Chavez High School. Approximately fifteen shots were fired in the vicinity of people waiting to get into a scheduled boys' basketball game. No one was injured.|
|January 31, 2013||Atlanta, Georgia||0||2||A 14-year-old male student was wounded at Price Middle School. The gunman, a 15-year-old student, was believed to be arguing with the other student before using a handgun to shoot him. A teacher was also wounded. Afterward, the gunman was disarmed by a school resource officer and arrested; police charged him with aggravated assault.|
|March 18, 2013||Orlando, Florida||1||0||At the University of Central Florida, 30-year-old student James Oliver Seevakumaran pulled a fire alarm at the Tower One dormitory, to attract a crowd. He pointed a handgun at his roommate and threatened to shoot him in their room; he released the roommate, who ran out and called 9-1-1. Seevakumaran then fatally shot himself in the head. Authorities found an assault weapon, a couple hundred rounds of ammunition and four homemade bombs inside his backpack.|
|April 12, 2013||Dublin, Virginia||0||2||New River Community College shooting incident: Two women were wounded during a shooting at the campus of New River Community College. 18-year-old Neil Allen MacInnis, was taken into custody. In June 2014, he was sentenced to 38 years in prison.|
|April 16, 2013||Grambling, Louisiana||0||3||Three students were injured on the campus of Grambling State University.|
|April 18, 2013||Cambridge, Massachusetts||2||1||At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, near Building 32, the Ray and Maria Stata Center, a campus police officer was shot multiple times and killed. The shooting was believed to be perpetrated by the suspects of the Boston Marathon bombings three days prior to this shooting. The two suspects were brothers Dzhokhar Tsarnaev and Tamerlan Tsarnaev. About three hours after the MIT shooting, Tamerlan died in a gunfight with police in Watertown, Massachusetts. Another officer was seriously wounded. Dzhokhar was arrested 18 hours afterward in Watertown, and was hospitalized in critical condition from a gunshot wound to the neck.|
|May 14, 2013||Birmingham, Alabama||0||0||Allegedly responding to a student fight, a mother of a student fired a weapon on the campus of Ossie Ware Mitchell Middle School. No one was injured.|
|June 7, 2013||Santa Monica, California||6||4||2013 Santa Monica shooting: 23-year-old John Zawahri, began a killing spree at his home. After killing his 55-year-old father, Samir "Sam" Zawahri, and 25-year-old brother, Chris Zawahri, he set the house ablaze. Dressed all in black with body armor and wielding an AR-15-type semi-automatic rifle, Zawahri carjacked 41-year-old Laura Siska, shooting 50-year-old Debra Fine, as she attempted to intervene, before forcing Siska to drive to Santa Monica College. Upon arriving on the college campus, Zawahri began shooting at passing vehicles, including a police car and a city bus, leaving three people with minor injuries. Zawahri next targeted a Ford Explorer, killing the driver, 68-year-old campus groundskeeper, Carlos Navarro Franco, and fatally wounding the passenger, his 26-year-old daughter Marcela Diaz-Franco, a student at the college, who died two days later. 68-year-old Margarita Gomez, who was collecting cans outside the library, died after being shot in the abdomen and chest. Zawahri opened fire on students who were trying to run away. It ended at the college library where he opened fire on students studying for finals, before being fatally wounded in an exchange of gunfire with responding police officers.|
|August 20, 2013||Decatur, Georgia||0||0||Armed with an automatic rifle, 21-year-old Michael Brandon Hill fired six shots inside the front office of Ronald E. McNair Discovery Learning Academy. He barricaded himself in the office, where police returned fire. Nobody was injured. Children were evacuated. After talking with school bookkeeper, Antoinette Tuff in the front office, he was persuaded to surrender before anyone was hurt. Hill was arrested and charged.|
|August 23, 2013||Sardis, Mississippi||1||2||15-year-old student, Roderick Bobo, was killed during a football game at North Panola High School in what was termed a gang-related shooting. Two others were injured in the shooting. Three men were charged as being responsible for the crime.|
|August 30, 2013||Winston-Salem, North Carolina||0||1||A 15-year-old male student was shot at Carver High School, at 2:30 p.m.. He was hospitalized with minor injuries. An 18-year-old male student was apprehended without further incident. The suspected gunman is charged with assault with a deadly weapon inflicting serious injury, carrying a concealed gun, possessing and discharging a firearm, and carrying a firearm onto educational property. The shooting was believed related to a dispute between the suspect and the victim.|
|October 4, 2013||Pine Hills, Florida||0||2||A 16-year-old student was shot in the hip outside Agape Christian Academy after a fight broke out at 2 p.m.. An innocent bystander was hit by a stray bullet or shrapnel. The two victims were treated for minor injuries. The suspected shooter reportedly fled in a car with several other males, and was not caught.|
|October 21, 2013||Sparks, Nevada||2||2||12-year-old seventh-grade student Jose Reyes opened fire with a handgun at the basketball courts of Sparks Middle School, injuring one student in the shoulder. Michael Landsberry, a teacher and veteran, tried to intervene and was killed by Reyes. Reyes also wounded a student trying to help the teacher. Reyes then committed suicide by shooting himself in the head. The shooting happened before classes, and the school was evacuated and was closed for the week.|
|November 2, 2013||Greensboro, North Carolina||0||1||A 21-year-old student was wounded at North Carolina A&T State University. The victim was hospitalized for serious but non-life-threatening injuries. The university was temporarily locked down that night. No suspects are in custody.|
|November 3, 2013||Lithonia, Georgia||0||2||A Stephenson High School student and a janitor were shot in an apparent confrontation between football team members and a group of teens who were not attending the school. Both were innocent bystanders.|
|November 13, 2013||Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania||0||3||After classes ended, at least one gunman came out of the woods and opened fire on three students as they were walking to their cars at Brashear High School. One student was grazed in the head, another was struck in the neck and shoulder, and a third was hit in the leg and foot. Six people were taken into custody. The shooting is believed to be drug-related.|
|December 4, 2013||Winter Garden, Florida||0||1||A 15-year-old student was wounded by a 17-year-old student near a soccer field on the campus of West Orange High School. The shooting occurred after a fight broke out between the two students. The 17-year-old suspected shooter was taken into custody several miles away from the school, and is charged with attempted murder, aggravated battery with a firearm, possession of a firearm by a minor and possession of a firearm on school grounds. In October 2014, the shooter was sentenced to twenty-five years in prison.|
|December 13, 2013||Centennial, Colorado||2||0||18-year-old Karl Pierson, shot 17-year-old student Claire Davis in the head, fatally injuring her, in a hallway in Arapahoe High School. Pierson then took his own life. Pierson was armed with a shotgun, three Molotov cocktails, and a machete. His intention was to shoot the librarian who had disciplined him. Claire Davis died from her injuries on December 21, 2013.|
|December 19, 2013||Fresno, California||0||1||Four teens (16, 16, 16 and 17 years old) entered Edison High School in what was believed as a gang-initiation process. After accosting a 62-year-old woman about a mile away from school grounds, they found an athletic trainer who taught at Edison High and shot him several times in the leg and stomach.|
|January 9, 2014||Jackson, Tennessee||0||1||A 16-year-old student was charged with bringing a gun to school at Liberty Technology Magnet High School and shooting a classmate in the thigh. The incident occurred outside the front of the school.|
|January 13, 2014||New Haven, Connecticut||0||1||A 14-year-old boy was shot outside of a basketball game at the Hillhouse High School athletic facility, suffering wounds in his hand and leg.[cite]|
|January 14, 2014||Roswell, New Mexico||0||3||Two people were wounded inside the gymnasium of Berrendo Middle School, at about 8:10 a.m.. An 11-year-old boy and a 13-year-old girl were airlifted to a hospital in Lubbock, Texas in critical condition. The 12-year-old suspected shooter, Mason Campbell, a seventh grade student, was apprehended at the scene after he was talked down by a staff member and dropped the shotgun. A staff member received minor injuries. Campbell was charged with three counts of aggravated battery with a deadly weapon. He was sentenced to a maximum sentence of confinement in a juvenile detention facility until he is twenty one years old.|
|January 17, 2014||Philadelphia, Pennsylvania||0||2||A student allegedly shot two other students in the gymnasium at Delaware Valley Charter School. Both victims, a male and a female, were shot in the arm. They were taken to a nearby hospital and are in stable condition, police say. Police Commissioner Charles Ramsey said at a news conference that the shooter ran out of the school after the shooting but was taken into custody near his home. 17-year-old Raisheem Rochwell was arrested and charged as an adult for aggravated assault, recklessly endangering another person and firearms offenses. Rochwell was sentenced to two years of juvenile detention.|
|January 20, 2014||Chester, Pennsylvania||0||1||One person was critically injured at Widener University. The incident occurred around 10 p.m. outside the university sport’s complex and led to an 8-hour university lock-down. The suspect was not immediately found.|
|January 21, 2014||West Lafayette, Indiana||1||0||A 21-year-old student, Andrew Boldt, was killed in a classroom building on the campus of Purdue University. 24-year-old student Cody Cousins was found guilty of the murder and was sentenced to sixty-five years of prison. In October 2014, Cousins committed suicide in his cell.|
|January 24, 2014||Orangeburg, South Carolina||1||0||A 20-year-old student was killed at South Carolina State University. A 19-year-old was arrested and charged with murder.|
|January 25, 2014||Los Angeles, California||1||0||A man was killed at Los Angeles Valley College. Two suspects were arrested in the fatal shooting.|
|January 27, 2014||Carbondale, Illinois||0||1||A group of students at Rebound High School got in an argument in the school's parking lot. One student pulled out a gun and shot another student in the ensuing altercation. An 18-year-old suspect is facing charges of attempted murder.|
|January 28, 2014||Nashville, Tennessee||0||1||One student was shot in the leg in an apparent altercation over a gambling debt at Tennessee State University.|
|January 30, 2014||Palm Bay, Florida||0||1||Three students were fighting in a parking lot of Eastern Florida State College and one pulled out a gun and shot another of the students. All three students claimed self-defense.|
|January 31, 2014||Des Moines, Iowa||0||1||After a basketball game at North High School, there was gunfire in a parking lot of the school. Six males in a black jeep had come moments before the shooting and returned at the time it happened. A 15-year-old girl was injured by a ricocheting bullet. While officers were gaining control of the area, teachers on the scene led students into the school building for safety.|
|February 10, 2014||Salisbury, North Carolina||0||1||A 16-year-old student was shot in the stomach on the campus of Salisbury High School during a dispute in the school gym. 17-year-old suspect was charged with assault with a deadly weapon with intent to kill inflicting serious injury, possession of a firearm on school property and discharging a weapon on school property.|
|February 10, 2014||Lyndhurst, Ohio||0||0||Five shots were fired in the parking lot of Charles F. Brush High School, including one which hit an unoccupied police car. No one was reported to be injured, though a school basketball game was going on at the time.|
|February 12, 2014||Los Angeles, California||0||1||A male victim was shot in the back in a possible gang-related drive-by shooting near the University of Southern California. The suspect fled into the University Campus. The victim was last reported in stable condition before being transported to a local hospital.|
|February 22, 2014||Augusta, Georgia||0||1||A shooting involving a campus police officer occurred at a Georgia Regents University dormitory complex. A male suspect entered a vehicle and nearly struck an officer, who opened fire. The suspect was taken to Georgia Regents Medical Center with injuries that were not believed to be critical.|
|March 12, 2014||Miami, Florida||1||0||An elementary school teacher was killed outside The Academy of Knowledge Preschool by her husband.|
|March 25, 2014||College Park, Georgia||0||0||An argument between students led to shots being fired in a Benjamin Banneker High School parking lot during the afternoon. Investigators believe multiple people were present when shots were fired, but it was not known how many could face charges for the incident. No one was injured in the shooting.|
|April 9, 2014||Greenville, North Carolina||0||0||Just after the lunch hour, at D. H. Conley High School, a car drove past the school and witnesses said an occupant reached out of a car window and fired shots in the direction of the school. This incident occurred on Worthington and Tull Roads, directly in front of the school. No one was injured.|
|April 11, 2014||Detroit, Michigan||1||0||After a Friday evening student awards ceremony called "Grammy Night", four men who were affiliated with a gang fired into a crowd in the parking lot of East English Village Preparatory Academy. One 19-year-old, Darryl Smith, was fatally shot in the head. Smith was not a student at the academy.|
|May 4, 2014||Augusta, Georgia||0||1||Two men fired shots inside a dormitory at Paine College on Sunday, injuring one student in the head. Neither of the suspects were students at the college.|
|May 5, 2014||Augusta, Georgia||0||1||An active shooter situation was reported at Paine College on Monday with one person reported to be shot. The suspect was apparently apprehended and in custody. It was the second shooting incident to occur at the college campus in two days.|
|May 8, 2014||Lawrenceville, Georgia||0||1||A person was shot on a student parking lot roof at Georgia Gwinnett College, receiving an injury. The specific cause has not been identified.|
|May 14, 2014||Richmond, California||0||1||A 14-year-old student was injured during a drive-by shooting in front of John F. Kennedy High School at 8:30 a.m.. He was shot as he was running towards the school campus after a fight took place. The student suffered a serious but stable injury to his leg. Police are searching for a suspect.|
|June 5, 2014||Seattle, Washington||1||3||19-year-old students, Paul Lee and Sarah Williams, and 24-year-old student, Thomas Fowler, were shot inside a hallway of Otto Miller Hall at Seattle Pacific University. Freshman Lee was rushed to Harborview Medical Center but later died. The shooter was subdued with pepper spray and tackled to the ground by student building monitor, Jon Meis, as he paused to reload his shotgun. 26-year-old Aaron Rey Ybarra was arrested at the scene and has been charged with premeditated and attempted murder.|
|June 10, 2014||Troutdale, Oregon||2||1||At around 8:30 a.m. shots were fired at Reynolds High School. 14-year-old freshman Emilio Hoffman was killed, a physical education teacher was injured, and the gunman, 15-year-old Jared Padgett, exchanged gunfire with police officers and then committed suicide in a restroom stall.|
|September 9, 2014||Miami, Florida||0||1||Towards the end of the school day, one alternative school student in Miami was shot as a small group of students tussled. The injury was minor, requiring hospitalization, and five young adults were later questioned.|
|September 11, 2014||Taylorsville, Utah||0||1||An elementary school teacher with a concealed weapon permit had her gun fire accidentally in a faculty bathroom. The bullet shattered a toilet, and fragments of both the bullet and the porcelain injured her leg.|
|September 27, 2014||Terre Haute, Indiana||0||1||A 20-year-old Indiana State University student was shot by another student on Saturday inside a residence hall. The injuries were not fatal, and a full recovery was expected. The shooter was arrested on the following day.|
|September 30, 2014||Albemarle, North Carolina||0||1||Two students got in an argument at Albemarle High School around 7:30 a.m. on Tuesday, and one of the students shot the other twice including once in the leg. The student who committed the shooting was allegedly involved in a stabbing of a football player last year at West Montgomery High School, which is only 20 miles (32 km) away in Mount Gilead, North Carolina. The school had held an active shooter training over the summer, which prepared the school for this incident.|
|September 30, 2014||Louisville, Kentucky||0||1||One student was injured at Fern Creek Traditional High School. The incident occurred around 1 p.m., reportedly after student became enraged in a hallway and pulled out a gun. The student was arrested later that day.|
|October 3, 2014||Fairburn, Georgia||1||0||After a homecoming football game, a fatal shooting of 17-year-old Kristofer Hunter, occurred in the Langston Hughes High School parking lot. The assailant, 18-year-old Eric Dana Johnson Jr., turned himself in a week later.|
|October 24, 2014||Marysville, Washington||5||1||Marysville Pilchuck High School shooting. 15-year-old freshman, Jaylen Fryberg, shot five students in the school cafeteria of Marysville Pilchuck High School, fatally wounding four, before committing suicide.|
|November 20, 2014||Tallahassee, Florida||1||3||At around 12:40 a.m. EST, a gunman opened fired in or near the Strozier Library at Florida State University. Three people suffered gunshot injuries and were taken to a local area hospital. One was in critical condition, another was in good condition, and the third was shortly released after treatment. The gunman, later identified as Myron May, an alumnus from the school, started firing towards responding police officers and was fatally shot by them on the steps of the library.|
|November 20, 2014||Miami, Florida||1||1||Two teens were shot during a fight at Miami Carol City High School. One of the boys died.|
|December 5, 2014||Claremore, Oklahoma||1||0||38-year-old Thomas Floyd Fees, a former Tulsa police officer, fired two gunshots the campus of Rogers State University before committing suicide. He had previously been arrested the day before for entering a female student's dormitory room with observable intent to commit a sexual assault.|
|December 12, 2014||Portland, Oregon||0||4||Rosemary Anderson High School shooting: A gunman shot three students and a man outside Rosemary Anderson High School in north Portland. A 16-year-old girl was in critical condition, while the others suffered minor injuries. Two men, aged eighteen and twenty-two, were arrested in connection with the shooting.|
|January 15, 2015||Milwaukee, Wisconsin||0||3||A 15-year-old boy, a student's father, and a teacher were each injured in the school parking lot at Wisconsin Lutheran High School. The student had unspecified injuries that were treated. The father was shot in the knee and the teacher was grazed in the toe. A 36-year-old man was charged in the shooting.|
|January 16, 2015||Ocala, Florida||0||2||Two were injured in gunfire that occurred after a Friday night basketball game. One was injured directly by a bullet, the other by ricocheting glass.|
|February 4, 2015||Frederick, Maryland||0||2||Two students were shot near the gymnasium of Frederick High School during a junior varsity (JV) boys' basketball game. Approximately two hundred students, staff, and faculty were placed on lockdown for several hours after the shooting while police searched for the suspects. No suspects have been apprehended, although witnesses report seeing four black males dressed all in black who are considered by police to be suspects in this shooting.|
|February 14, 2015||Merced, California||1||0||A teenager was found killed in the parking lot of Tenaya Middle School. The shooting was reported to have occurred after school hours.|
|February 23, 2015||Daytona Beach, Florida||0||3||Two students argued outside the music building at Bethune-Cookman University when one pulled out a gun. Both had guns and it is not disclosed who did the shooting, injuring three students. A reward was offered to help solve this case.|
|March 30, 2015||University City, Missouri||0||1||Police said one person has been arrested for a shooting at Pershing Elementary School. The shooting occurred in the parking lot, with a 34-year-old-man being shot in the buttocks.|
|April 13, 2015||Goldsboro, North Carolina||1||0||A faculty member was killed with a rifle in the school library of Wayne Community College. The suspected 20-year-old gunman, Kenneth Stancil, was arrested in Florida the next day. As of January 2017, Stancil, an admitted Neo-Nazi is being investigated for a hate crime.|
|April 16, 2015||Paradis, Louisiana||0||1||A police officer was shot outside a school in a school zone while he was directing school buses into J.B. Martin Middle School, and the suspect was apprehended at the scene.|
|April 27, 2015||Lacey, Washington||0||0||A 15-year-old student at North Thurston High School walked into the commons area and fired two shots into the ceiling from a .357 magnum pistol. Brady Olson, a teacher at the school, was able to tackle the student before they could turn the gun on other students. No one was injured or killed. The student is facing charges of firing and possessing a gun on school property.|
|May 12, 2015||Jacksonville, Florida||0||2||Police report that a 16-year-old shot five bullets into a school bus and injured two students. Apparently, there was an argument that touched on previous events.|
|May 24, 2015||Flint, Michigan||0||7||In the early morning hours of Memorial Day weekend, a group of people were at Southwestern Classical Academy in the parking lot. Shots rang out and seven were injured, with two men being apprehended and charged.|
|August 27, 2015||Savannah, Georgia||1||0||22-year-old student Christopher Starks was fatally shot in a student union building at Savannah State University. The shooter has not been identified.|
|September 3, 2015||Sacramento, California||1||2||A man was arguing with at least one other person escalated into a physical fight on the parking lot of Sacramento City College. A man opened fire, killing a 25-year-old student and wounding two others. The shooting suspect has not been arrested.|
|September 14, 2015||Cleveland, Mississippi||2||0||A geography professor at Delta State University fatally shot a fellow history professor. The geography professor was chased by police and eventually died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound.|
|September 30, 2015||Harrisburg, South Dakota||0||1||A principal was shot in the arm and wounded at Harrisburg High School after an argument with a student. The suspect, a 16-year-old student at the school, was taken into custody and is charged with first-degree attempted murder.|
|October 1, 2015||Roseburg, Oregon||10||9||Umpqua Community College shooting: At around 10:40 a.m. PDT, a gunman, identified as 26-year-old student Christopher Harper-Mercer, opened fire in a hall on the Umpqua Community College campus, killing eight students and one teacher, and injuring nine others. Mercer then committed suicide after engaging responding police officers in a brief gunfight.|
|October 9, 2015||Flagstaff, Arizona||1||3||One student died and three others were wounded in a shooting at Northern Arizona University. It is unclear what sparked the shooting, which took place near Mountain View Hall, a dormitory that houses most of the campus' students involved in Greek organizations. An 18-year-old student was arrested and charged with murder and aggravated assault.|
|October 9, 2015||Houston, Texas||1||1||One person died and another person was injured after someone opened fire outside a Texas Southern University dorm.|
|October 22, 2015||Nashville, Tennessee||1||3||One person was killed and three others were wounded in a shooting at an outdoor courtyard at Tennessee State University. The shooting may have stemmed from an argument over a dice game. A suspect has not been identified or arrested.|
|November 1, 2015||Winston-Salem, North Carolina||1||1||One person died and another person was injured after someone opened fire on the campus of Winston-Salem State University. A 21-year-old non-student suspect is sought.|
|November 20, 2015||North Las Vegas, Nevada||1||0||A 16-year-old student was fatally shot during a fight after school hours that involved multiple people on the campus of Mojave High School.|
|January 22, 2016||Indianapolis, Indiana||0||1||A 15-year-old male was shot in the leg and injured during a night-time basketball game at Lawrence Central High School.|
|January 29, 2016||Philadelphia, Pennsylvania||0||0||A gunshot was fired during a fight in a stairwell at Franklin High School, and no injuries were reported. Three people were detained.|
|February 9, 2016||Muskegon Heights, Michigan||0||4||Four people, including two students, were injured during a basketball game event in the parking lot of Muskegon Heights High School.|
|February 12, 2016||Glendale, Arizona||2||0||Two 15-year-old girls died in an apparent Murder-Suicide at Independence High School.|
|February 29, 2016||Middletown, Ohio||0||4||15-year-old Cameron Smith, and 14-year-old Cooper Caffrey, were shot when 14-year-old James Austin Hancock, opened fire in the Madison High School cafeteria with a .380 caliber handgun. 15-year-old Brant Murray, and 14-year-old Katherine Douchette, also suffered shrapnel injuries. Hancock was apprehended in a nearby wooded field.|
|April 23, 2016||Antigo, Wisconsin||1||2||Two students at a prom at Antigo High School were shot and injured by 18-year-old former student Jakob Wagner. Wagner later exchanged fire with a school resource officer in the school's parking lot, and was captured after being shot and wounded by police. He died hours later in a hospital.|
|June 1, 2016||Los Angeles, California||2||0||2016 UCLA shooting. Mainak Sarkar, age 38, a Ph.D. student, killed his former professor, William S. Klug, age 39, a professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering, in an engineering building at UCLA. Sarkar then killed himself. Sarkar, who lived in Minnesota, also killed his former wife, Ashley Hasti, age 31, in her Brooklyn Park, Minnesota home.|
|June 8, 2016||Dorchester, Massachusetts||1||3||One student was killed and three other individuals were injured when gunfire erupted outside of the Jeremiah Burke High School following a fire-alarm causing an evacuation of the school. Two suspects have been arrested.|
|September 9, 2016||Alpine, Texas||1||2||A 14-year-old female student shot a 16-year-old girl in an Alpine High School restroom before committing suicide. A police officer accidentally shot another officer during the incident.|
|September 28, 2016||Townville, South Carolina||2||2||Townville Elementary School shooting: Two students and one teacher were wounded after a teen opened fire at Townville Elementary School. The suspect's father was found dead at his home soon after the shooting. One of the victims, six-year-old Jacob Hall, died 3 days after the shooting.|
|October 11, 2016||Mobile, Alabama||0||1||A student was shot in the abdomen and wounded at Vigor High School. The suspect, a 16-year-old boy, turned himself in and was charged with assault.|
|October 13, 2016||Columbus, Ohio||0||2||Two students were shot and wounded on the front lawn of Linden McKinley STEM Academy. One was shot in the shoulder, and the other shot in the chest, and were hospitalized in stable condition.|
|October 18, 2016||San Francisco, California||0||4||Four students were shot outside June Jordan High School for Equity, a San Francisco public high school. One female victim was in critical condition, while three male victims suffered minor injuries. . Two people were arrested in the shooting.|
|October 25, 2016||Sandy, Utah||0||1||Police say the two teens ages 14 and 16 were involved in a confrontation on the far north end of Union Middle School. The boys got into an argument. The argument lead to a shooting. The 14 year old shot the 16 year old twice. He was sent to the hospital in critical but stable condition.|
|December 1, 2016||Bountiful, Utah||0||0||At Mueller Park Junior High School, a 15-year-old student fired one shot into the ceiling and then pointed the weapon at his own neck. The student was confronted verbally by a teacher and another student and later arrested in possession of a shotgun, a handgun, and ammunition for each.|
|January 20, 2017||West Liberty, Ohio||0||1||A 17-year-old student was charged with attempted murder and other crimes after bringing a gun to West Liberty-Salem High School and firing two shots at 17-year-old student in a bathroom with a shotgun. The victim was injured. The student was "also is accused of discharging the weapon in the school’s hallway before returning to the bathroom, where he was eventually taken into custody."|
|January 20, 2017||Seattle, Washington||0||1||A 34-year-old man was shot in Red Square at University of Washington while protesting the visit of controversial journalist Milo Yiannopoulos. The shooter turned himself in to the university police and later questioned and released without being charged with a crime.|
|March 21, 2017||King City, California||0||1||An 18-year-old King City High School student was shot outside the school's auditorium. The gunman ran across the school's campus and baseball field, and fled the area. The school was then placed on lockdown. The victim was hospitalized with life-threatening injuries. A suspect was arrested in August 2017.|
|April 10, 2017||San Bernardino, California||3||1||North Park Elementary School shooting: Cedric Anderson, age 53, of Riverside, California, died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound after shooting and killing his estranged wife, Karen Elaine Smith, age 53, in a classroom. An eight-year-old student was also fatally shot, and a seven-year-old student was injured.|
|May 4, 2017||Irving, Texas||2||0||North Lake College: Adrian Victor Torres killed a 20-year-old student, Janeera Nickol Gonzalez, whom he was stalking. He fatally shot her three times and the college went into lockdown before discovering that the suspect has died from a self-inflicted gunshot wound.|
|September 13, 2017||Rockford, Washington||1||3||Freeman High School: Three students injured and one killed after a shooter opened fire. The suspect, a 15-year-old student, was taken into police custody.|
|September 20, 2017||Mattoon, Illinois||0||1||Mattoon High School: A 14-year-old male student was subdued by a female teacher when he attempted to open fire in the school cafeteria at 11:33 a.m. Multiple shots were fired in the process, and one student was struck in the chest and was driven to a nearby hospital suffering non-life-threatening wounds. The student was taken into custody without further incident.|
|November 14, 2017||Rancho Tehama Reserve, California||6||18||Rancho Tehama Reserve shootings: Neighbor on a rampage injured one student at Rancho Tehama Elementary School and fatally shot five adults at several locations. The secretary heard the gunfire near the school and ordered the school to go on lockdown. After a custodian and the teachers put it into action, 43 year-old Kevin Neal rammed a truck into the gate of the school and fired at the classrooms hitting one student when a bullet pierced the wall. Neal fatally shot himself after sheriff's deputies rammed his vehicle during a pursuit.|
|December 7, 2017||Aztec, New Mexico||3||0||Aztec High School shooting: William Atchison, 21-year-old former male student snuck into Aztec High School disguised as a student and hid in an unlocked washroom with a Glock 9mm hidden in his bag. He retreated from the washroom after being spotted by a school custodian who chased him shouting "active shooter" and "lockdown". Atchinson was able to shoot and kill two students who were caught in the hallway before he killed himself. He had been investigated in 2016 by the FBI when he asked "where to find cheap assault rifles for a mass shooting" on an online forum.|
|January 9, 2018||Forest City, Iowa||0||0||A man shot a pellet gun at a school bus full of children, shattering a window. No one was injured.|
|January 20, 2018||Winston-Salem, North Carolina||1||0||A student was fatally shot at a party at 1 a.m. on the campus of Wake Forest University.|
|January 22, 2018||Italy, Texas||0||1||A 16-year-old male student fired at a 15-year-old female classmate that he had briefly dated in the cafeteria of Italy High School. The gunman left the school immediately after opening fire and was arrested.|
|January 22, 2018||New Orleans, Louisiana||0||1||Shots were fired from a truck in the parking lot of NET Charter High School, targeting a crowd of students during lunch time. One student was slightly injured, apparently from injuries unrelated to gunfire. One person was arrested in connection with the shooting.|
|January 23, 2018||Marshall County, Kentucky||2||18||Marshall County High School shooting: A 15-year-old male student shot 16 people in the lobby at Marshall County High School and caused non-gunshot injuries to 4 others. Two 15-year-old students died: one killed at the scene, another died of wounds at Vanderbilt Medical Center.|
|February 1, 2018||Los Angeles, California||0||5||Two 15-year-old students, a boy and a girl, were shot and injured inside a classroom at Sal Castro Middle School, which shares a campus with Belmont High School. Three other people suffered injuries unrelated to gunfire. A 12-year-old girl was arrested and charged with negligent discharge of a firearm.|
|February 5, 2018||Oxon Hill, Maryland||0||1||A student was taken to hospital after exiting Oxon Hill High School and going to speak to individuals in a vehicle who then attempted to rob, and subsequently shot and wounded him in the school's parking lot. Two other students were arrested and charged with attempted murder and robbery.|
|February 14, 2018||Parkland, Florida||17||14||Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School shooting: A 19-year-old former student who had been expelled began shooting students and staff members with a semi-automatic rifle at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School after pulling a fire alarm. 17 people were killed, and fourteen others were injured. The suspect, Nikolas Cruz, blended in with the crowd of fleeing students and was arrested in a residential area of neighboring Coral Springs after walking away from the school. He is facing charges of murder and attempted murder.|
|March 2, 2018||Mount Pleasant, Michigan||2||Central Michigan University shooting: Student shot and killed his mother and father when they came to campus to take him home.|
Studies of United States school shootings
During 1996, the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) together with the US Department of Education and the United States Department of Justice, published a review of deaths related to schools occurring as a result of violence, including explicitly "unintentional firearm-related death", for the academic years 1992-1993 and 1993-1994. A second study (Anderson; Kaufman; Simon 2001), a continuation from the 1996 study, was published December 5, and covered the period 1994-1999.
Californian punk rock group The Offspring has created two songs about school shootings in the United States. In "Come Out and Play" (1994), the focus is on clashing school gangs, lamenting that "[kids] are getting weapons with the greatest of ease", "It goes down the same as a thousand before / No one's getting smarter / No one's learning the score / A never ending spree of death and violence and hate". In the 2008 song "Hammerhead", a campus gunman thinks he is a soldier in a warzone.
The following is a list of shooting incidents that have occurred at schools in Canada.
|Markdale School shooting||Markdale, Ontario||August 25||1884||1||The 28-year-old head teacher, William Norris wounded Fanny Ford, a teacher who had rejected his advances, with three shots. He then fatally shot himself through the head.|
|Kingston School shooting||Kingston, Ontario||April 28||1902||1||Beatrice Holland, a 14-year-old student, is shot and killed by a fellow student at the Frontenac School. The shooter, 15-year-old Eric Sharp, fled the scene but later turned himself in to the police.|
|Altona schoolhouse shooting||Altona, Manitoba||October 10||1902||2||Henry J. Toews, a schoolteacher, confronted on the road three school trustees with whom he had some problems, drew a revolver, and shot all of them. Toews then returned to the schoolhouse and shot three female students who were the children of the trustees before turning the gun on himself. One of the students died and the shooter died months later.|
|Ross Sheppard High School shooting||Edmonton, Alberta||March 16||1959||1||19-year-old Stan Williamson opened fire with a .22 calibre rifle inside a crowded corridor of Ross Sheppard High School, killing 16-year-old Howard Gates and wounding five teenage girls. The shooting ended when three 18-year-old students held the gunman down until he could be arrested by police.|
|Centennial Secondary School shooting||Brampton, Ontario||May 28||1975||3||16-year-old gunman Michael Slobodian shot and killed a fellow student and a teacher, and injured 13 other students before turning the gun on himself and committing suicide in a school hallway. Slobodian is the first recorded high-school aged school shooter in the country.|
|St. Pius X High School shooting||Ottawa, Ontario||October 27||1975||3||Robert Poulin, an 18-year-old St. Pius student, opened fire on his classmates with a shotgun, killing one and wounding five before turning the gun on himself and committing suicide. Poulin had raped and stabbed his 17-year-old friend Kim Rabot to death prior to the shooting. A book entitled Rape of a Normal Mind was written about the incident.|
|Sturgeon Creek High School Shooting||Winnipeg, Manitoba||October||1978||1||A 17-year-old student shot a 16-year-old to death, allegedly for ridiculing the American rock band Kiss. He was arrested and found not guilty of first-degree murder by reason of insanity.|
|Weston Collegiate Institute||Toronto, Ontario||1989||0||The school principal escorted a group of trespassers off school property. They returned an hour later and when confronted by the principal a male (19) shot at him while fleeing the property. No one was injured. A fence around the perimeter was later erected due to this incident.|
|École Polytechnique massacre||Montreal, Quebec||December 6||1989||15||25-year-old Marc Lépine, armed with a legally obtained semi-automatic rifle and a hunting knife, embarked on a shooting spree throughout the school, killing fourteen women and injuring ten other women and four men before killing himself.|
|Concordia University massacre||Montreal, Quebec||August 24||1992||4||Dr. Valery Fabrikant, a 52-year-old former associate professor of mechanical engineering at Concordia, shot and killed four of his ex-colleagues and wounded a fifth before being subdued by two people he took hostage and being arrested by police.|
|W. R. Myers High School shooting||Taber, Alberta||April 28||1999||1||A 14-year-old student, Todd Cameron Smith, walked into his school and randomly shot at three students, killing one named Jason Lang and injuring another before being arrested. This shooting took place only eight days after the Columbine High School massacre and is widely believed to have been a copycat crime.|
|Bramalea Secondary School||Brampton, Ontario||December 10||2004||1||On December 10, 2004, a gunman shot 47-year-old grade 10 teacher Aysegul Candir in the head multiple times in a Bramalea Secondary School parking lot. Mrs. Candir was pronounced dead in hospital later in the day. Peel Regional Police would later apprehend Candir's 62-year-old husband, Erhun, and charge him with murder. The incident was considered as a domestic dispute, and even though the school was locked down for most of the day, students were never in harms way. Mrs. Candir is remembered as a "wonderful" teacher.|
|Dawson College shooting||Montreal, Quebec||September 13||2006||2||25-year-old Kimveer Gill began shooting outside the de Maisonneuve Boulevard entrance to the school, hitting several students and visitors, and moved towards the atrium by the cafeteria on the main floor, where he shot dozens of additional victims. The shooter later committed suicide by shooting himself in the head after being shot in the arm by police. One victim died at the scene, while another 19 were injured, eight of whom were listed in critical condition with six requiring surgery.|
|C. W. Jefferys Collegiate Institute shooting||Toronto, Ontario||May 23||2007||1||Two 17-year-old Canadian citizens, whom the media can not identify under the provisions of Canada's Youth Criminal Justice Act, were arrested on May 27, 2007, and charged with the first-degree murder of a 15-year-old student at the C. W. Jefferys Collegiate Institute. Prior to one of the arrests, police had taken the unusual step of obtaining a judicial order to publish one suspect's name and photograph as he was considered armed and dangerous. Media reported his identity and photo, then had to take the stories off their websites after he was arrested hours later.|
|Bendale Business and Technical Institute shooting||Toronto, Ontario||September 16||2008||0||A 16-year-old boy was shot in the chest in the school's parking lot following an altercation involving several people. The victim was hospitalized in critical condition. On September 17, 2008, Toronto Police announced it had made two arrests in the case; 18-year-old Mark Deicsics, was charged with armed robbery.|
|Central Technical School shooting||Toronto, Ontario||September 30||2010||0||At least one gunshot was fired from a handgun following a confrontation between four students, causing a victim to suffer a graze wound to his temple. The school was placed under lock down, and two 17-year-olds were charged by police, one with charges related to the shooting, and the other with conspiracy.|
|Les Racines de vie Montessori||Gatineau, Quebec||April 5||2013||2||A gunman killed one man and himself at a small daycare. There were 53 children present at the school, which is divided between two houses. Daycare staff at the houses, 225 and 229 Gamelin St., called 911 at 10:27 a.m. about a man threatening people. Police arrived and found one man dead with a shotgun beside him, apparently a suicide. A second dead man was found soon after. Police have identified one of the dead as Robert Charron but have not named him the shooter.|
|York University shooting||Toronto, Ontario||March 6||2014||0||One woman was shot and suffered non-life-threatening injuries and another woman received minor non-gun-related injuries from the suspect during a shooting that took place at the University Student Centre. Kemon Edwards, 22, is alleged to have been carrying a gun that accidentally discharged in the crowded student centre around 10:45 p.m. during the weekly pub night at the Underground, which is connected to the cafeteria. He faces 17 charges including discharging a firearm, careless use of a firearm and aggravated assault.|
|La Loche shootings||La Loche, Saskatchewan||January 22||2016||4||Two people were killed and seven others were injured when a 17-year-old student opened fire inside of the La Loche Community School. Prior to the school shooting, the suspect shot dead two of his cousins at a home. The suspect was apprehended and is currently in custody.|
The following is a list of incidents of shootings that occurred at schools in Mexico.
|Ciudad Juárez school shooting||Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua||August 24||2011||1||Two cars drove up to an elementary school at around noontime, as parents were waiting for their children to be released from school. The men in the cars started firing assault rifles, killing one man, and wounding four women and one man. The elementary school was placed on lock-down and students were released after the situation was being handled. While the motive of the attack is reported to be unknown, schools in the Ciudad Juárez area have reported receiving threats and extortion demands in the past.|
|Ciudad Juárez school shooting||Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua||January 12||2012||1||A 30-year-old man was killed by being shot nine times in front of children at an elementary school as they were leaving for the day. The shooting induced panic from parents of children, some of whom witnessed the shooting. The gunman was unidentified, as of 2012.|
|Atizapán school shooting||Atizapán de Zaragoza, Estado de México||May 6||2014||1||13-year-old Ricardo Ordonez was shot and killed at a school. 15-year-old Édgar Yoevani was arrested.|
|Monterrey school shooting||Monterrey, Nuevo León||Jan 18||2017||2||Colegio Americano del Noreste 2017 shootings 15-year-old Federico Guevara Elizondo committed suicide after shooting 2 students and a teacher. The teacher died more than 2 months later in hospital.|
|UNAM school shooting||Mexico City, Mexico||Feb 23||2018||2||2 drug dealers that operated within the Ciudad Universitaria were apparently shot by two drug dealers from opposing cartels. The two victims, of ages 20 and 29, died the same day in a medical clinic. They had no relation to the institution.|
The following is a list of incidents of shootings that occurred at schools in the continent of Europe.
|Bremen school shooting||Bremen, Germany||June 20||1913||5||29-year-old unemployed teacher Heinz Schmidt indiscriminately shot at students and teachers, killing four girls and wounding more than twenty others before being subdued by school staff. A fifth girl also died during the incident when she fell down a staircase.|
|Wilno school massacre||Wilno, Second Polish Republic
(now Vilnius, Lithuania)
|May 6||1925||5||A student of Joachim Lelewel High School, Stanisław Ławrynowicz, fired shots and detonated a hand grenade which killed him, two students and a teacher while sitting Matura (final exams). His friend, Janusz Obrębalski attempted to detonate another grenade, which turned out to be faulty. Obrębalski then committed suicide by shooting himself in the head. A bomb left by the two was later found in one of the classrooms.|
|Zadar school shooting||Zadar, Yugoslavia||October||1972||2||19-year-old student Milorad Vulinović shot and killed two of his professors using his father's stolen gun.|
|Kungälv school shooting||Kungälv, Sweden||March 4||1961||1||A 17-year-old student fired fifteen bullets into a crowd at a school dance at Kungälvs Läroverk (aka Thorildskolan), killing one student and wounding six others before escaping. He turned himself in to local police the following morning and was arrested.|
|Cologne school massacre||Cologne, Germany||June 11||1964||11||42-year-old Walter Seifert attacked numerous students and adults with a home-made flamethrower, killing eight students before murdering his last two victims, both female teachers, with a spear. He then swallowed parathion, and died the following day.|
|Eppstein school shooting||Eppstein, Germany||June 3||1983||6||34-year-old Czech refugee Karel Charva opened fire in a sixth-grade classroom, first shooting and wounding the teacher, then killing three students and injuring fourteen others. He then killed a teacher and a police officer who tried to intervene before committing suicide. An additional thirty children suffered from shock during the incident.|
|Ferres Comprehensive School||Higham Ferrers, England, United Kingdom||January 6||1988||0||Three months after he was expelled, Darren Fowler returned to his former school, Ferres Comprehensive School, shooting and wounding two teachers and two pupils before he was overpowered by staff.|
|Raumanmeri school shooting||Rauma, Finland||January 24||1989||2||Two students were fatally shot by a 14-year-old student at the Raumanmeri secondary school. The shooter had claimed to be a victim of bullying.|
|Aarhus University shooting||Aarhus, Denmark||April 5||1994||3||35-year-old student Flemming Nielsen shot and killed two people and wounded two others with a sawed-off shotgun before taking his own life.|
|Dunblane massacre||Dunblane, United Kingdom||March 13||1996||18||43-year-old Thomas Hamilton opened fire in a gymnasium, killing sixteen children and one adult and injuring fifteen others before committing suicide. It remains the deadliest attack on children in British history.|
|ROC de Leijgraaf||Veghel, Netherlands||December 7||1999||0||A 17-year-old student opened fire at ROC de Leijgraaf school, wounding three students and one teacher. One student was critically injured. It was the first school shooting in the history of the Netherlands.|
|Erfurt massacre||Erfurt, Germany||April 26||2002||17||19-year-old Robert Steinhäuser began shooting through his former school, targeting teachers and faculty members. Twelve teachers and one administrator were killed, along with two students and a police officer; only one other person was injured. The shooter then committed suicide.|
|Coburg shooting||Coburg, Germany||July 3||2003||1||A 16-year-old student, known only as Florian K., shoots and wounds his teacher and an intervening school psychiatrist before taking his own life.|
|Terra College||The Hague, Netherlands||January||2004||1||A student shoots the school principal, Hans van Wieren, in the head.|
|Rötz school shooting||Rötz, Germany||March 7||2005||0||After being ordered to leave the classroom, a 14-year-old student returned with a gun and threatened the life of the 35-year-old class teacher. During a struggle the weapon was fired and taken from the student. Investigators' findings state that the student did not intend to kill the teacher, but himself. No one was injured.|
|Geschwister Scholl School attack||Emsdetten, Germany||November 20||2006||1||18-year-old Bastian Bosse, a former student of the school, fired several shots with two sawed-off rifles and a caplock pistol and also threw several homemade smoke bombs before killing himself. The incident ended with no other fatalities, with 37 people being injured, including four students who suffered gunshot wounds, one teacher wounded by being hit in the face with a smoke bomb, sixteen police officers who suffered from smoke inhalation, and the school custodian who was shot in the abdomen inside the school.|
|Jokela school shooting||Tuusula, Finland||November 7||2007||9||18-year-old Pekka-Eric Auvinen opened fire in the school's main hallway, killing six students, school principal Helena Kalmi, and the school nurse before shooting and wounding himself in a suicide attempt; he later died at a hospital. One other person suffered gunshot wounds, and eleven people were injured by shattering glass while escaping from the school building. The day before the incident, Auvinen posted a video on YouTube predicting the massacre at the school.|
|Kauhajoki school shooting||Kauhajoki, Finland||September 23||2008||11||22-year-old student Matti Juhani Saari entered the school via the basement and opened fire in a classroom he attended before setting it on fire with homemade Molotov cocktails and then fleeing the scene. Nine students and one staff member died in the incident. A woman was shot in the head and critically wounded, but survived after having two operations, while ten other students sustained minor injuries such as sprains and cuts from broken glass. Authorities eventually found Saari, who had shot himself but was still alive; he died a short time later. It was assumed that the Jokela case, the previous year (above), inspired Saari to commit the massacre.|
|Winnenden school shooting||Winnenden, Germany||March 11||2009||16||17-year-old Tim Kretschmer, a former student of the school, opened fire in two classrooms and a chemistry laboratory, killing nine and injuring seven others. He then successfully escaped the school, killing two female teachers in the process. Afterwards, he shot and killed the caretaker of a psychiatric facility and then carjacked a motorist, who drove him into another town before escaping unharmed. The shooter opened fire in a car showroom after unsuccessfully trying to steal a car, killing two and injuring two others. He then committed suicide after a brief shootout with police.|
|OAED Vocational College shooting||Athens, Greece||April 10||2009||1||19-year-old Dimitris Patmanidis shot and wounded a student and two workers from a nearby technical company before shooting and wounding himself in the head in a suicide attempt. He died later at a hospital.|
|Kanebogen Elementary School shooting||Harstad, Norway||April 28||2009||0||A nine-year-old student fires a shotgun in schoolyard; however, nobody was injured in the incident. The shooter was disarmed and subdued by a female teacher, but due to his age, he wasn't tried for the crime, although his father was fined for not keeping the shotgun, a rifle, and ammunition according to Norwegian rules. This was the first Norwegian school shooting.|
|University of Pécs shooting||Pécs, Hungary||November 26||2009||1||A 23-year-old student entered the building of the university's biophysics research institute and opened fire in the classroom, killing one man. In earlier reports, two people were reported to be in critical condition and a third in serious condition.|
|Toulouse school shooting||Toulouse, France||March 19||2012||5||23-year-old Mohammed Merah opened fire at a Jewish day school, killing three schoolchildren and a teacher. The incident was the last of three terrorist attacks against French soldiers and Jewish civilians, occurring in an eight-day span. The shooter was later shot and killed by police after a massive three-day manhunt and a 30-hour standoff at his home.|
|2014 Moscow school shooting||Moscow, Russia||February 3||2014||2||High school student Sergey Gordeyev, armed with two rifles, forced his way past a security guard, took hostages, and killed his geography teacher. He then killed a police officer and wounded another who arrived at the scene. He later released the hostages and was captured by the police after his father came to the school.|
|2014 Viljandi school shooting||Viljandi, Estonia||October 27||2014||1||A 15-year-old boy killed his German language teacher with gun in Paalalinna school. All students were evacuated in school hall and police arrested the shooter. As of now, it remains unclear as to why the shooting took place.|
|2015 Joan Fuster school shooting||Barcelona, Spain||April 20||2015||1||A 13-year-old boy armed with a crossbow and a machete killed a teacher and injured 4. The first ever student to organise a school shooting in Spain had a breakdown when his PE teacher managed to talk with him, then proceeded to sit in a classroom until the police arrived. Under the Spanish law, the boy is exempt from legal responsibility because he's under 14.|
|Tocqueville high school shooting||Grasse, France||March 16||2017||0||Kylian Barbey, a 17-year-old boy, armed with a rifle, two handguns, a revolver and two grenades opened fire at Alexis de Tocqueville high school. A total of four were injured, three students and the school's principal. Anti-terrorist commandos were sent to the scene and the shooter was arrested. The perpetrator's Facebook and YouTube accounts showed that he was interested in the Columbine Massacre and watched videos on how to make homemade weapons.|
The following is a list of incidents of shootings that occurred in South American schools.
|Limeira school shooting||Limeira, Brazil||March 6, 2001||1||During an argument with his girlfriend's brother a 16-year-old student drew a pistol and began shooting at his high school, hitting three students nearby, one of them fatally.|
|Carmen de Patagones school shooting||Carmen de Patagones, Argentina||September 28, 2004||4||Four students killed and five wounded by a 15-year-old student in a town 620 miles south of Buenos Aires.|
|Realengo massacre||Rio de Janeiro, Brazil||April 7, 2011||13||A former student (23) fatally shot 12 people inside the school and committed suicide after being shot down by a policeman.|
|Goyases School Shooting||Goiania, Brazil||October 20, 2017||2||A Student of the Goyases Private School fatally shot 2 classmates and left 4 injuries, tries to commit suicide but is convinced not to do it by a teacher, being arrested right after the crime|
The following is a list of incidents of shootings that occurred in schools in the continent of Asia.
|Li Shing Junior High School||Taipei, Taiwan||January 26, 1962||7||Tsui Yin, a 41-year-old former physical education teacher at Li Shing junior high school in Taipei, shot and killed the principal, the principal's wife and five other faculty members with a pistol, in revenge for his dismissal. He wounded three others, among them the principal's daughter, before escaping in a taxi. He was arrested and sentenced to death.|
|Ma'alot massacre||Ma'alot, Israel||May 15, 1974||25||The Ma'alot massacre was a terrorist attack carried out by the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine at the Netiv Meir elementary school in the town of Ma'alot. It included a two-day hostage-taking of 115 people which ended in the deaths of over 25 hostages.|
|Sanaa massacre||Sana'a, Yemen||March 30, 1997||8||The Sanaa massacre was a school massacre that occurred in Sana'a, Yemen, on March 30, 1997. Mohammad Ahman al-Naziri, 48, attacked hundreds of pupils at two schools, killing six children and two adults with an assault rifle. Naziri, whose five children attended the Tala'i school, alleged that one of his daughters had been raped by the school administrator. No evidence was found of this. Naziri was sentenced to death the next day and executed on April 5, 1997|
|University of the Philippines shooting||Quezon City, Philippines||February 19, 1999||1||A student was shot dead by a fraternity member after being mistaken for a member of the rival fraternity.|
|Longzhou County Middle School shooting||Longzhou County, China||October 19, 1999||1||After spending the afternoon drinking, school guard Liang Yongcheng walked into a students' dormitory at a middle school in Longzhou county and threatened to kill everybody who tried to stop him. He eventually committed suicide, but not before shooting a teacher and six students with a hunting rifle.|
|Number 34 Middle School||Lanzhou, China||September 26, 2002||2||Yang Zhengming, who worked as a mini-bus driver for Number 34 Middle School in Lanzhou, killed a teacher and wounded two others at the school with a hunting rifle, one of the wounded being his former girlfriend. Police finally shot him dead after negotiating with him for two hours while he was standing on the roof and threatened to commit suicide.|
|Pak Phanang school shooting||Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand||June 6, 2003||2||17-year-old Anatcha Boonkwan killed two, injured four of his fellow students after losing a fist-fight with one of his classmates.|
|Niutoushan Primary School shooting||Guangde County, China||October 5, 2005||0||18 people, among them 16 children, were injured when Liu Shibing shot them with six home-made guns at Niutoushan Primary School in Guangde.|
|Beirut Arab University shooting||Beirut, Lebanon||January 25, 2007||4||Four people were shot dead in clashes between pro- and anti-government activists on Thursday and about 200 were hurt in the violence that flared after a scuffle between students at a Beirut university. The opposition accused the government camp of starting the riots and the four dead included two Hezbollah students, who were fired at from rooftops.|
|Euro International school shooting||Gurgaon, India||December 12, 2007||1||A shooting occurred at Euro International, a private secondary school in Gurgaon, Haryana, India. The gunmen were students 14-year-old Akash Yadav and 13-year-old Vikas Yadav, who shot and killed a 14-year-old student.|
|Mercaz HaRav shooting||Jerusalem, Israel||March 6, 2008||9||Alaa Abu Dhein, an Israeli Arabic yeshiva bus driver, entered the Mercaz HaRav yeshiva with guns blazing, killing eight and wounding seven, before being shot dead himself by a part-time student. This incident, as do many massacres in the Levant, soon took on racial and religious overtones, pitting Palestinians and Israeli Arabs against Jews.|
|Azerbaijan State Oil Academy shooting||Baku, Azerbaijan||April 30, 2009||13||29-year-old Farda Gadirov opened fire with a Makarov PM semi-automatic pistol inside the school building of Azerbaijan State Oil Academy, killing 12 people, and wounding 13 others. He committed suicide by shooting himself in the head.|
|Xuwen school shooting||Xuwen, Guangdong, China||October 27, 2011||1||A 16-year-old student was shot and killed at the entrance gate of a public school.|
|2014 Peshawar school attack||Peshawar, Pakistan||December 16, 2014||145||A group of nine Taliban gunmen stormed the Army Public School, shooting and lobbing grenades.|
The following is a list of incidents of shootings that occurred in Oceanic region.
|Waikino Schoolhouse shooting||New Zealand||October 19, 1923||2||Two children killed and nine wounded, including the headmaster, by John Higgins. This is the first and only school shooting to occur in New Zealand.|
|Orara High School||Coffs Harbour, Australia||June 19, 1991||0||A student brought a rifle to school injuring 2 teachers and 1 student. The shooter was tackled to the ground by fellow students. This was the first known school shooting to occur in Australia.|
|La Trobe University shooting||Melbourne, Australia||August 3, 1999||1||A student opened fire in a La Trobe University campus restaurant that he used to be employed by, killing the restaurant's manager. Other patrons were injured.|
|Monash University shooting||Melbourne, Australia||October 21, 2002||2||A student shot his classmates and teacher, killing two and injuring five. It took place at Monash University in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.|
|Tomaree High School||Salamander Bay, Australia||April 3, 2003||0||The shooter threw petrol bombs before opening fire, seriously wounding 2 students.|
|Modbury High School||Adelaide, Australia||May 7, 2012||0||A Year eight student took a revolver on school grounds, firing shots, nobody was injured.|
The following is a list of incidents of shootings that occurred in schools in the continent of Africa.
|Soweto school||Soweto, South Africa||September 19, 1994||0||An 18-year-old student shot and wounded seven of his schoolmates with a rifle, after he had been reprimanded. The youth then escaped in his father's car.|
|Soweto school||Soweto, South Africa||July 29, 1999||3||Teacher Charles Raboroko shot and killed three of his colleagues in the staffroom at Anchor Comprehensive High School in Soweto. When he tried to escape he was hindered by angry students outside the school, whereupon he hid in a classroom, where he was later arrested by police. Raboroko was said to have borne a grudge against one of his victims, Henry Lebea, whom he killed with five shots in the head.|
|Welkom school||Welkom, Free State, South Africa||August 31, 2009||2||Jaco Stiglingh, a teacher at Gimnasium High School in Welkom, South Africa shot and killed deputy principal Johan Liebenberg, 53, inside his office before turning the gun on himself and committing suicide.|
|January 26, 2010||2||After an argument a 25-year-old man shot and seriously wounded his girlfriend, who was working as a clerk at Jongingaba Junior-Secondary School. A 12-year-old girl was also killed inside a classroom by a stray bullet, before the gunman tried to escape. He was later caught and killed by an angry mob.|
|Spes Bona High School||Cape Town, South Africa||May 14, 2013||1||17-year-old Enrico Martin was shot in the head while he was entering Spes Bona High School. He later died in a hospital. Authorities believe that the attack was gang-related. No arrests have been made.|
|Yobe State school shooting||Mamudo, Nigeria||July 6, 2013||42||42 people were fatally shot while 6 were injured.|
|Garissa University College attack||Garissa, Kenya||April 3, 2015||147||Somali Al-Shabaab militants killed 147 students at Garissa University College.|
School shootings and other mass killings have had a major political impact. Governments have discussed gun-control laws, to increase time for background checks. Also, bulletproof school supplies have been created, including backpacks, desks, bullet-resistant door panels, and classroom whiteboards (or bulletin boards) which reinforce walls or slide across doors to deflect bullets. Another organization that has proposed possible solutions to school shootings is the National Rifle Association (NRA), to allow teachers to carry weapons on school grounds as a means of protecting themselves and others. So far,[when?] ten states have already introduced legislation to allow weapons on school property with eighteen states already allowing guns to be carried on school grounds, but not without constraints. Most states also require the gun carriers to receive advance permission from the districts' superintendents or trustees. "In New York State, written permission from the school is required in order to carry a firearm on school grounds."
Due to the political impact, this has spurred some to press for more stringent gun control laws. In the United States, the National Rifle Association is opposed to such laws, and some groups have called for fewer gun control laws, citing cases of armed students ending shootings and halting further loss of life, and claiming that the prohibitions against carrying a gun in schools do not deter the gunmen.[better source needed] One such example is the Mercaz HaRav Massacre, where the attacker was stopped by a student, Yitzhak Dadon, who shot him with his personal firearm which he lawfully carried concealed. At a Virginia law school, there is a disputed claim that three students retrieved pistols from their cars and stopped the attacker without firing a shot. Also, at a Mississippi high school, the Vice Principal retrieved a firearm from his vehicle and then eventually stopped the attacker as he was driving away from the school. In other cases, such as shootings at Columbine and Red Lake High Schools, the presence of an armed police officer did little to nothing to prevent the killings.
The Gun-Free Schools Act was passed in 1994 in response to gun related violence in schools, as a result to that a lot of school system started adopting the Zero-Tolerance Law. The Gun-Free school act required people to be expelled from the school for a year. By the year of 1997 the Zero-Tolerance for any type of weapon was implemented by more than 90 percent of U.S public schools.
Police response and countermeasures
Analysis of the Columbine school shooting and other incidents where first responders waited for backup has resulted in changed recommendations regarding what bystanders and first responders should do. An analysis of 84 mass shooting cases in the US from 2000 to 2010 found that the average response time by police was 3 minutes. In most instances that exceeds the time the shooter is engaged in killing. While immediate action may be extremely dangerous, it may save lives which would be lost if people involved in the situation remain passive, or a police response is delayed until overwhelming force can be deployed. It is recommended that civilians involved in the incident take active steps to evacuate, hide, or counter the shooter and that individual law enforcement officers present or first arriving at the scene attempt immediately to engage the shooter. In many instances, immediate action by civilians or law enforcement has saved lives. For these reasons, it is recommended that civilians are properly trained in how to respond to active shooter situations.
College and university response and countermeasures
The Massengill Report was an after-action report created in the wake of the Virginia Tech shooting, which brought national attention to the need for colleges and universities to take concerning behavior and threats seriously. It has led to the creation of hundreds of behavioral intervention teams which help access and coordinate institutional responses to behavioral concerns on college and university campuses.
There has been considerable policy discussion about how to help prevent school and other types of mass shootings. One suggestion that has come up is the idea to allow firearms in the classroom. "Since the issue of arming teachers is a relatively new topic, it has received little empirical study. Therefore, most of the literature does not come from peer reviewed sources but rather published news reports. In addition, most of these reports are not objective and clearly appear to support a specific side of the debate." So far, data has been inconclusive as to whether or not arming teachers would have any sort of benefit for schools. For years, some areas in the US have allowed "armed classrooms" to deter (or truncate) future attacks by changing helpless victims into armed defenders. Advocates of arming teachers claim that it will reduce fatalities in school shootings, but many others disagree.
Many teachers have had their concerns with the idea of armed classrooms. "One teacher stated that although she is pro-gun, she does not feel as though she could maintain gun safety on school grounds (Reuters, 2012). Teachers expressed the fear that bigger students could overpower them, take the weapon, and then use it against the teacher or other students." Some members of the armed forces have also had concerns with armed classrooms. Police forces in Texas brought up the potential for teachers to leave a gun where a student could retrieve and use it. "They are further concerned that if every teacher had a gun, there would be an unnecessarily large number of guns in schools (even including elementary schools). This large number of guns could lead to accidental shootings, especially those involving younger children who do not understand what guns do."
On the other hand, there are some teachers who want to carry a firearm to protect their students. Kasey Hansen, a special needs teacher in Utah thinks that every teacher should carry. She says, "We are the first line of defense. Someone is going to call the cops and they are going to be informed, but how long is it going to take for them to get to the school? And in that time how many students are going to be affected by the gunman roaming the halls?"
In order to diminish school shootings all together there are many preventative measures that can be taken such as:
- Installing wireless panic alarms to alert law enforcement.
- Limiting points of entry with security guarding them.
- Strategically placing telephones for emergencies so police are always reachable at any point in the campus.
- Employing school psychologists to monitor and provide mental health services for those that need help.
- Coordinating a response plan between local police and schools in the event of a threat.
In a 2013 research report published by the Center for Homicide Research, they find that many also reject the idea of having armed classrooms due to what is termed the "weapons effect," which is the phenomenon in which simply being in the presence of a weapon can increase feelings of aggression. "In Berkowitz & LaPage's (1967) examination of this effect, students who were in the presence of a gun reported higher levels of aggressive feelings towards other students and gave more violent evaluations of other students' performance on a simple task in the form of electric shocks. This finding points to possible negative outcomes for students exposed to guns in the classroom (Simons & Turner, 1974; Turner & Simons, 1976)."
In 2008, Harrold Independent School District in Texas became the first public school district in the U.S. to allow teachers with state-issued firearm-carry permits to carry their arms in the classroom; special additional training and ricochet-resistant ammunition were required for participating teachers. Students at the University of Utah have been allowed to carry concealed pistols (so long as they possess the appropriate state license) since a State Supreme Court decision in 2006. In addition to Utah, Wisconsin and Mississippi each have legislation that allow students, faculty and employees with the proper permit, to carry concealed weapons on their public university's campuses. Colorado and Oregon state courts have ruled in favor of Campus Carry laws by denying University's proposals to ban guns on campus. Ruling that the UC Board of Regents and the Oregon University System did not have the authority to ban weapons on campus. A selective ban was then re-instated, wherein Oregon state universities enacted a ban on guns in school building and sporting events or by anyone contracted with the university in question. A commentary in the conservative National Review Online argues that the armed school approach for preventing school attacks, while new in the US, has been used successfully for many years in Israel and Thailand. Teachers and school officials in Israel are allowed and encouraged to carry firearms if they have former military experience in the IDF, which almost all do. Statistics on what percentage of teachers are actually armed are unavailable and in Israel, for example, the intent is to counter politically motivated terrorist attacks on high value, soft targets, not personal defense against, or protection from, unbalanced individual students.
The National Rifle Association has explicitly called for placing armed guards in all American schools. However, Steven Strauss, a faculty member at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government, offered a preliminary calculation that placing armed guards in every American school might cost as much as $15 billion/year, and perhaps only save 10 lives per year (at a cost of $1.5 billion/life saved).
A preventive measure proposed for stopping school shooting has been focused on securing firearms in the home. A shooting in Sparks, Nevada on October 21, 2013, left a teacher and the shooter, a twelve-year-old student, dead with two seriously injured. The handgun used in the shooting had been taken from the shooter's home. Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Red Lake High School in Red Lake, Minnesota in 2005, and Heath High School in West Paducah, Kentucky in 1997 also involved legal guns taken from the home.
A 2000 study of firearm storage in the United States found that "from the homes with children and firearms, 55% reported to have one or more firearms in an unlocked place." 43% reported keeping guns without a trigger lock in an unlocked place. In 2005 a study was done on adult firearm storage practices in the United States found that over 1.69 million youth under age 18 are living in homes with loaded and unlocked firearms. Also, 73% of children under age 10 living in homes with guns reported knowing the location of their parents' firearms.
Most states have Child Access Prevention Laws – laws designed to prevent children from accessing firearms. Each state varies in the degree of the severity of these laws. The toughest laws enforce criminal liability when a minor achieves access to a carelessly stored firearm. The weakest forbid people from directly providing a firearm to a minor. There is also a wide range of laws that fall in between the two extremes. One example is a law that enforces criminal liability for carelessly stored firearms, but only where the minor uses the firearm and causes death or serious injury. An example of a weaker law is a law that enforces liability only in the event of reckless, knowing or deliberate behavior by the adult.
In 2015 Southwestern High School in Shelbyville, Indiana, was portrayed as possibly the "safest school in America". The school has been used as a "Safe School Flagship" of possible countermeasures to an active shooter.
- All teachers have lanyards with a panic button that alerts police.
- Classrooms have automatically locking "hardened doors", and windows have "hardened exterior glass" to deflect bullets and physical attack.
- Cameras, described as "military-grade", that feed video directly to Shelby County Sheriff’s Office are mounted throughout the school.
- Smoke canisters mounted in the roof of corridors can be remotely discharged to slow a shooter's movement.
- List of school massacres by death toll
- List of school-related attacks
- Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives
- Campus carry in the United States
- Chencholai bombing, Sri Lanka
- Seung-Hui Cho
- Columbine High School massacre
- Federal Bureau of Investigation
- Gun culture
- Gun politics in the United States
- Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold
- Incendiary device
- Andrew Kehoe
- Mass murder
- Nagerkovil school bombing, Sri Lanka
- Red Lake shootings
- Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting
- School bullying
- School violence
- Social rejection
- Soft target
- Suicide bombing
- Suicide by cop
- Virginia Tech shooting
- Jeff Weise
- Charles Whitman
- Youth subculture
- Vossekuil, Bryan; et al. (2004). The Final Report and Findings of the Safe School fff (PDF). Washington, DC: United States Secret Service. p. 4.
- "Mass Shootings Are Contagious". Live Science. Retrieved 2018-03-05.
- Foxman, Simone. "How school killings in the US stack up against 36 other countries put together".
- Reserved., . All Rights (December 14, 2012). "Interactive: School shootings around the world since 1996".
- Raine, A (2002) - Biological Basis for Crime in Crime: Public Policies for Crime control (J.Q. Wilson & J. Petersilia) - p.23 ICS Press 2002 Accessed February 20th, 2018
- ,  and  Accessed February 20, 2018 (1st shown at an earlier date)
- Feinberg, Irwin - Why synaptic pruning is important for the developing brain Scientific American Accessed February 15, 2018
- Raising children network, in collaboration with, the Centre for Adolescent Health - Brain development: Teenagers Australian parenting website Accessed February 15th, 2018
- Steinberg, L (2004) - Risk taking in adolescence: what changes, and why? Annals of the New York Academy of Science Accessed February 20, 2018
- Bjork, JA; Pardini, DA (February 2015) - Who are those “risk-taking adolescents”? Individual differences in developmental neuroimaging research Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Accessed February 20, 2018
- James Gilligan and Bandy Lee (February 21, 2018) - Look at the Root Causes of Gun Violence - There actually are ways to reduce the frequency of lethal shootings (7th paragraph) U.S. News and World Report Accessed February 23, 2018
- "List of countries by firearm-related death rate". Wikipedia. 2018-03-05.
- Alpers, Philip. "Guns in Iceland — Firearms, gun law and gun control". www.gunpolicy.org. Retrieved 2018-03-05.
- "The Final Report and Findings of the Safe School Initiative" (PDF). U.S. Department of Education. May 1, 2002.
- "'Profiling' School Shooters". Frontline. March 11, 2015. PBS. WGBH-TV. Retrieved March 17, 2007.
- Robertz, Frank J. "Deadly Dreams". Scientific American Mind. 18 (4): 52–59. doi:10.1038/scientificamericanmind0807-52.
- Langman, Peter (2009). Why Kids Kill: Inside the Minds of School Shooters. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0230101487.
- Langman, Peter (2015). School Shooters: Understanding High School, College, and Adult Perpetrators. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1442233560.
- Schechter DS (February 16, 2011). Forecasting Aggression: What Makes Some Troubled Youth Turn Violent? Cerebrum. http://www.dana.org/news/cerebrum/detail.aspx?id=30762
- Fein, R.A.; Vossekuil, B.; Pollack, W.; Borum, R.; Reddy, M.; Modzeleski, W. (May 2002). "Threat assessment in schools: A guide to managing threatening situations and creating safe school climates". U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Secret Service.
- Herbert, Bob (October 16, 2006). "Why Aren't We Shocked?". The New York Times. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
- "Police: Female student kills 2 others, self at Louisiana college - CNN.com". February 8, 2008. Archived from the original on February 9, 2008.
- "Parole Denied to Female School Shooter". San Diego 6. August 13, 2009. Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved October 16, 2010.
- Langman, Peter (2015). School Shooters: Understanding High School, College, and Adult Perpetrators. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 199. ISBN 978-1442233560.
- Langman, Peter. "School Shooters Who Were Not White Males" (PDF). www.schoolshooters.info. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Darling-Brekhus, Keith. "What FBI Profiles Tell Us About School Shooters and How to Prevent the Next One?" The Examiner. 15 Dec. 2012.
- Killingbeck, Donna (2001). "The Role of Television News in the Construction of School Violence as a 'Moral Panic". Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture. 8 (3): 186–202.
- "Government Vows to Take Action Following Kauhajoki Shootings". YLE. Retrieved September 23, 2008.
- Lanata, John C. (March–April 2003). "Behind the scenes.: A closer look at the school shooters". Sheriff. 55 (2): 22–26. Archived from the original on February 14, 2015.
- "Addressing Bullying in Schools". Centre for Justice and Crime Prevention. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- Yukich, Joshua; Towers, Sherry; Gomez-Lievano, Andres; Khan, Maryam; Mubayi, Anuj; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos (2015). "Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings". PLOS ONE. 10 (7): e0117259. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117259. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC . PMID 26135941.
- Mullen, Paul quoted in Hannon K 1997, "Copycats to Blame for Massacres Says Expert", Courier Mail, 4/3/1997.
- Cantor; Mullen; Alpers (2000). "Mass homicide: the civil massacre". J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 28 (1): 55–63.
- Phillips, D. P. (1980). "Airplane accidents, murder, and the mass media: Towards a theory of imitation and suggestion". Social Forces. 58: 1001–1024. doi:10.1093/sf/58.4.1001.
- Cialdini, Robert 2001. Influence: Science and Practice 4th Ed. Allyn and Bacon, pp. 121-130.
- Robertz, Frank. "Deadly Dreams: What Motivates School Shootings?". www.scientificamerican.com. Scientific American. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- Cramer, C 1993. Ethical problems of mass murder coverage in the mass media. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 9.
- Cite error: The named reference
https://www.usnews.com/news/best-states/washington/articles/2018-02-14/everett-man-arrested-on-suspicion-of-school-shooting-planwas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- O'Toole, Mary Ellen (September 1, 2014). "The Dangerous Injustice Collector: Behaviors of Someone Who Never Forgets, Never Forgives, Never Lets Go, and Strikes Back!". Violence and Gender. 1 (3): 97–99. doi:10.1089/vio.2014.1509 – via online.liebertpub.com (Atypon).
- Cullen, Dave. "Inside the Warped Mind of Vester Flanagan and Other Shooters". The New Republic. Retrieved 2015-09-23.
- Stuart, H (June 2003). "Violence and mental illness: an overview". World Psychiatry. 2: 121–4. PMC . PMID 16946914.
- "Safe School Initiative." Archived September 8, 2009, at WebCite
- Peters, Justin (December 19, 2013). "Everything You Think You Know about Mass Murder Is Wrong" – via Slate.
- Ferguson, Christopher J.; Coulson, Mark; Barnett, Jane (January 1, 2011). "Psychological Profiles of School Shooters: Positive Directions and One Big Wrong Turn". Journal of Police Crisis Negotiations. 11 (2): 141–158. doi:10.1080/15332586.2011.581523 – via Taylor and Francis+NEJM.
- McGinty, Emma E.; Webster, Daniel W.; Barry, Colleen L. (May 2013). "Effects of News Media Messages About Mass Shootings on Attitudes Toward Persons With Serious Mental Illness and Public Support for Gun Control Policies". American Journal of Psychiatry.
- Rosenberg, Jessica (Mar 2014). "Mass Shootings and Mental Health Policy". Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare. 41 (1): 107–121.
- Robertz, Frank. "Deadly Dreams". Scientific American. Scientific American Mind. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
- Robertz, Frank. "Deadly Dreams". Scientific American Mind. Scientific American. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
- Gladwell, Malcolm (October 19, 2015). "Thresholds of Violence, How school shootings catch on". The New Yorker. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
School shootings are a modern phenomenon. There were scattered instances of gunmen or bombers attacking schools in the years before Barry Loukaitis, but they were lower profile. School shootings mostly involve young white men. And, not surprisingly, given the ready availability of firearms in the United States, the phenomenon is overwhelmingly American.
- "A Look At All 11 School Shootings That Took Place In The First 23 Days Of 2018". NPR. January 24, 2018. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
- "John Anthony Gardner Davis – Biographical Information". University of Virginia School of Law – Arthur J. Morris Law Library. Archived from the original on May 5, 2016.
- "Painful Occurrence". Richmond Enquirer, Volume 37, Number 58 (Richmond, Virginia). November 17, 1840. p. 2. Archived from the original on November 29, 2016.
- "Serious Case of Shooting--Navigation". The New York Times. November 3, 1853.
- "School Master Murdered". The Daily Dispatch, Volume 10, Number 41 (Richmond, Virginia). August 16, 1856. p. 2. Archived from the original on March 13, 2016.
- "Fourth Of July North". The Daily Dispatch, Volume 14, Number 5 (Richmond, Virginia). July 7, 1858. p. 2. Archived from the original on June 2, 2016.
- "One School Boy Shoots Another Dead". The Daily Dispatch, Volume 17, Number 22 (Richmond, Virginia). January 26, 1860. p. 1. Archived from the original on June 2, 2016.
- "Murder In Ashland County". Cleveland Tri-weekly Leader, Volume 18, Number 31 (Cleveland, Ohio). February 6, 1864. p. 4. Archived from the original on March 13, 2016.
- "Terrible Shooting Affray at Knight's Ferry". The Daily Alta California, Volume 19, Number 7084 (San Francisco, California). February 17, 1867. p. 1. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016.
- "Brevities". Memphis Daily Appeal, Volume 17, Number 219 (Memphis, Tennessee). April 9, 1867. p. 4. Archived from the original on March 13, 2016.
- "A Boy Shot By His Schoolfellow-A Curious Affair". The New York Times. June 9, 1867.
- "Tragic Shooting Affair Near Chattanooga". The New York Times. December 26, 1868.
- "Sad Accident". Knoxville Daily Chronicle, Volume 1, Number 230 (Knoxville, Tennessee). January 28, 1871. p. 4. Archived from the original on March 23, 2016.
- "A School Principal Shot by a Boy". The Sun, Volume 39, Number 129 (New York City). February 2, 1872. p. 1. Archived from the original on April 20, 2016.
- "A Wisconsin father". The Daily Phoenix, Volume 8, Number 277 (Columbia, North Carolina). February 11, 1873. p. 3. Archived from the original on March 23, 2016.
- "One day last week". Nebraska Advertiser, Volume 18, Number 35 (Brownville, Nebraska) 1856–1882. February 26, 1874. p. 2. Archived from the original on March 23, 2016.
- "Accidents and Crimes". Mower County Transcript, Volume 12, Number 2 (Lansing, Minnesota). April 16, 1874. p. 1. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016.
- "The Lebanton Tragedy". Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 47, Number 7191 (Sacramento, California). April 22, 1874. p. 1. Archived from the original on April 19, 2016.
- "The shooting of one school boy by another". Daily Globe, Volume 1, Number 132 (St. Paul, Minnesota). May 26, 1878. p. 4. Archived from the original on March 23, 2016.
- "Shot by a Telegraph Operator". The New York Times. May 26, 1879.
- "Local Brevities". Los Angeles Daily Herald, Volume 16, Number 88 (Los Angeles, California). December 2, 1881. p. 3. Archived from the original on August 20, 2016.
- "By Telegraph". Daily Evening Bulletin, Volume 1, Number 27 (Maysville, Kentucky). December 22, 1881. p. 2. Archived from the original on June 5, 2016.
- "Savonburg Siftings". The Iola Register, Volume 16, Number 8 (Iola, Kansas). February 10, 1882. p. 4. Archived from the original on June 2, 2016.
- "Condensed Telegrams". The Milan Exchange, Volume 9, Number 7 (Milan, Tennessee). April 15, 1882. p. 2. Archived from the original on June 5, 2016.
- "Criminally Careless". Omaha Daily Bee, Volume 12, Number 264 (Omaha, Nebraska). February 16, 1883. p. 8. Archived from the original on June 10, 2016.
- "More Ruffianism". Barbour County Index, Volume 4, Number 25 (Medicine Lodge, Kansas). November 23, 1883. p. 1. Archived from the original on May 31, 2016.
- "School-Butter!". Mississippi Library Commission. April 11, 2011. Archived from the original on January 31, 2016.
- "Wamack at Danville Va". The Austin Weekly Statesman, Volume 13, Number 26 (Austin, Texas). February 28, 1884. p. 2. Archived from the original on June 5, 2016.
- "Another "Jesse James" Gang". The New York Times. March 7, 1884.
- "The Work of Drunken Ruffians". The New York Times. March 16, 1884.
- "A Teacher Shot Dead". The New York Times. June 12, 1887.
- "Shooting Into A Schoolhouse". The New York Times. June 14, 1889.
- "Shot by Schoolboy". The Daily Alta California, Volume 82, Number 115 (San Francisco, California). April 25, 1890. p. 5. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016.
- "Fatal Accident at a Military School". The Daily Alta California, Volume 83, Number 181 (San Francisco, California). December 28, 1890. p. 4. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016.
- "Fourteen Persons Wounded". The Daily Alta California, Volume 84, Number 90 (San Francisco, California). March 31, 1891. p. 1. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016.
- "Fired Into A Group Of Children". The New York Times. April 10, 1891.
- "Fatal Fun". Daily Public Ledger (Maysville, Kentucky). June 29, 1892. p. 3. Archived from the original on June 5, 2016.
- "Two Students Shot". The Morning Call, Volume 72, Number 133 (San Francisco, California). October 11, 1892. p. 1. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016.
- "Shot to Death at a Dance". The Morning Call, Volume 73, Number 117 (San Francisco, California). March 27, 1893. p. 1. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016.
- "School Boys Quarrel" (PDF). The Winona Daily Republican, Volume 38 (Winona, Minnesota). October 17, 1894. p. 4.[permanent dead link]
- "Virginia Hoodlums". The Herald, Volume 26, Number 74 (Los Angeles, California). December 13, 1898. p. 3. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016.
- "Boy Shot by Teacher is Dead". The New York Times. February 28, 1903.
- "Duelists Fatally Shot". Los Angeles Herald, Volume 30, Number 288 (Los Angeles, California). July 22, 1903. p. 1. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016.
- "Tragedy Ends Rivalry For Schoolgirl's Love". The San Francisco Call, Volume 95, Number 129 (San Francisco, California). April 7, 1904. p. 4. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016.
- "Indian Lad Kills Schoolmate". The San Francisco Call, Volume 96, Number 170 (San Francisco, California). November 17, 1904. p. 7. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016.
- "High School Principal Shoots Irate Parent". The San Francisco Call, Volume 97, Number 17 (San Francisco, California). December 17, 1904. p. 6. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016.
- "Pupil Shoots Trustee". Los Angeles Herald, Volume 32, Number 132 (Los Angeles, California). February 10, 1905. p. 4. Archived from the original on April 19, 2016.
- "Assassin Shoots Teacher". The Richmond Climax, Volume 32, Number 21 (Richmond, Kentucky). October 11, 1905. p. 1. Archived from the original on June 5, 2016.
- "Tragedy in Schoolroom" (PDF). The Winona Republican-Herald, Volume 7, Number 30 (Winona, Minnesota). March 23, 1907. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 4, 2016.
- "Schoolboy Shot Dead by Pupils at Drill". Los Angeles Herald, Volume 35, Number 80 (Los Angeles, California). December 21, 1907. p. 9. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016.
- "Janitor Shot At As He Unlocks Door Of School". The Carroll Herald, Volume 40, Number 14 (Carroll, Iowa). January 15, 1908. p. 6.
- "Two Teachers Found Dead". The Kingston Daily Freeman, Volume 37, Number 117 (Kingston, New York). March 11, 1908. p. 3. Archived from the original on April 25, 2016.
- "Villain in Amateur Show Shot by Hero". The San Francisco Call, Volume 105, Number 110 (San Francisco, California). March 20, 1909. p. 5. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016.
- "Sunday School Boy Kills Superintendent". The San Francisco Call, Volume 106, Number 11 (San Francisco, California). June 11, 1909. p. 1. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016.
- "Sheriff Hunts for Vandals". Los Angeles Herald, Volume 36, Number 321 (Los Angeles, California). August 18, 1909. p. 9. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016.
- "Teacher Slays Pupil Who Would Run School". Los Angeles Herald, Volume 36, Number 346 (Los Angeles, California). September 12, 1909. p. 11. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016.
- "Maniac Shoots Into Crowd of School Boys". Los Angeles Herald, Volume 37, Number 104 (Los Angeles, California). January 13, 1910. p. 16. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016.
- "Shot at Major". Amador Ledger (Jackson, California). March 11, 1910. p. 5. Archived from the original on April 19, 2016.
- "Kentucky School Election Kills One". The San Francisco Call, Volume 108, Number 78 (San Francisco, California). August 17, 1910. p. 6. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016.
- "Girl is Shot Down in Rehearsal of Play". The San Francisco Call, Volume 109, Number 149 (San Francisco, California). April 28, 1911. p. 2. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016.
- "Boy Killed In Fight". Los Angeles Evening Herald, Volume 38, Number 110 (Los Angeles, California). February 1, 1912. p. 1. Archived from the original on April 19, 2016.
- "Boy Is Slain By Chinese Gunman". The San Francisco Call, Volume 111, Number 64 (San Francisco, California). February 2, 1912. p. 1. Archived from the original on April 19, 2016.
- "14-year-old Poughkeepsie Boy Accidentally Shoots Playmate". The New York Times. February 17, 1912.
- "Ever Hear of Such Things?". The Washington Herald, Number 2964 (Washington, D.C.). November 20, 1914. p. 2. Archived from the original on March 13, 2016.
- "Shoots Brother". The Tacoma Times, Volume 12, Number 21 (Tacoma, Washington). January 13, 1915. p. 3. Archived from the original on March 13, 2016.
- "Whipping Of Pupil Causes Fatal Fight". The Spartanburg Herald (Spartanburg, South Carolina). February 5, 1915. p. 8.
- "Posse After Teacher's Assailant". The Bemidji Daily Pioneer, Volume 14, Number 229 (Bemidji, Minnesota). September 22, 1916. p. 1. Archived from the original on June 5, 2016.
- "Girl Driven Into Woods at Point of Gun". Oklahoma City Times, Volume 28, Number 150 (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma). September 23, 1916. p. 1. Archived from the original on April 19, 2016.
- "Fatal Fight in Casey County". The Adair County News, Volume 20, Number 11 (Columbia, Kentucky). January 10, 1917. p. 2. Archived from the original on March 13, 2016.
- "Boy Accidentally Shot". Harrisburg Telegraph, Volume 86, Number 135 (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania). June 6, 1917. p. 11. Archived from the original on March 13, 2016.
- "Burglars Careers Ended". The Daily Gate City And Constitution-Democrat, Volume 125, Number 101 (Keokuk, Iowa). October 29, 1917. p. 8. Archived from the original on March 13, 2016.
- "Shooting at Manes". Mansfield Mirror, Volume 9, Number 42 (Mansfield, Missouri). December 6, 1917. p. 8. Archived from the original on March 13, 2016.
- "Murder At Lincoln Institute". The Kansas City Sun, Volume 10, Number 32 (Kansas City, Missouri). April 6, 1918. p. 1. Archived from the original on June 9, 2016.
- "Brief State News". The Ward County Independent, Volume 16, Number 52 (Minot, North Dakota). April 11, 1918. p. 10. Archived from the original on March 13, 2016.
- "Shot at a School". Monroe City Democrat, Volume 31, Number 40 (Monroe City, Missouri). January 10, 1919. p. 8. Archived from the original on June 9, 2016.
- "Boys Imitate Bill Hart And Do Strange Things Which Bring Them Into Court". The Ogden Standard, Volume 49, Number 95 (Ogden, Utah). April 21, 1919. p. 6. Archived from the original on June 4, 2016.
- "Refused Position, Man Attempts Life Of Two Professors". The Sacramento Union, Volume 209, Number 36 (Sacramento, California). August 5, 1919. p. 1. Archived from the original on April 16, 2016.
- "School Teacher Shot By Pupils Is In Very Dangerous Condition". Daily Ardmoreite, Volume 27, Number 109 (Ardmore, Oklahoma). February 15, 1920. p. 1. Archived from the original on April 19, 2016.
- "Angered By Teacher, Boy Shoots Girl". The Bismarck Tribune, Volume 39 (Bismarck, North Dakota). March 4, 1920. p. 8. Archived from the original on June 3, 2016.
- "Boy Shot At Teacher". The Watchman and Southron, Volume 50, Number 24 (Sumter, South Carolina). May 5, 1920. p. 6. Archived from the original on June 9, 2016.
- "Starters Shot Kills Woman Viewing Race". Sausalito News, Volume 36, Number 20 (Sausalito, California). May 15, 1920. p. 2. Archived from the original on April 19, 2016.
- "Police Probe Lad's Shooting". The Ogden Standard-Examiner, Volume 50, Number 197 (Ogden, Utah). August 1, 1920. p. 2. Archived from the original on June 4, 2016.
- "Spanks Boy, Teacher Shot". The Morning Tulsa Daily World, Volume 15, Number 25 (Tulsa, Oklahoma). October 23, 1920. p. 1. Archived from the original on April 19, 2016.
- "School Principal Shot For Whipping Student". The Ogden Standard-Examiner, Volume 50, Number 268 (Ogden, Utah). November 5, 1920. p. 1. Archived from the original on June 4, 2016.
- "Flashes". The Daily Ardmoreite, Volume 29, Number 42 (Ardmore, Oklahoma). February 17, 1922. p. 1. Archived from the original on April 19, 2016.
- "To Probe Guin Shooting". The Daily Ardmoreite, Volume 29, Number 151 (Ardmore, Oklahoma). August 1, 1922. p. 1. Archived from the original on April 19, 2016.
- "Janitor Unaware He Shot Youth At College Gym". The Star and Sentinel, Volume 126, Number 48 (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania). January 1, 1927. p. 3.
- "No, Mr. Huckabee, It's Not Because God Has Been Removed From Schools". The Huffington Post (New York City). May 28, 1931. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016.
- "Duluth Teacher Killed by an "Unloaded" Gun" (PDF). The Winona Republican-Herald, Volume 31, Number 80 (Winona, Minnesota). May 28, 1931. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 4, 2016.
- "Elliot Speer, Moody School Head, Slain by Shot Fired Through Window of Home". The New York Times. September 15, 1934.
- "Dr. Kyle Ends Life as He Faces Trial". The New York Times. May 9, 1935.
- "Kills Chicago Boy at College". The Chicago Tribune. May 20, 1936.
- "Lehigh Man Kills Teacher and Self". The New York Times. June 5, 1936.
- "School Boy Killed in Play Rehearsal". Reading Eagle, Volume 70, Number 128 (Reading, Pennsylvania). June 4, 1937. p. 16.
- "Teacher Shot by Boy to File No Charges". The New York Times. September 26, 1937.
- "Boy Shot in School Play Rehearsal Dead" (PDF). The Winona Republican-Herald, Volume 37, Number 288 (Winona, Minnesota). January 26, 1938. p. 4.[permanent dead link]
- Cecilia Rasmussen (July 20, 1997). "A Principal's Bloody Rampage". Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles, California). Archived from the original on October 23, 2012.
- Cecilia Rasmussen (May 7, 2010). "Jimmie Fidler in Hollywood, May 7, 1940". Los Angeles Times The Daily Mirror (Los Angeles, California). Archived from the original on April 23, 2016.
- "Timeline: 1940 South Pasadena Shooting". KPCC's databases (Pasadena, California). Archived from the original on September 13, 2016.
- Nash 1992, p. 534.
- "Father Slays Girl In Boarding School". The New York Times. July 5, 1940.
- "Two Boys Kill Teacher In School After "Showing Off" By Smoking". The New York Times. October 3, 1942.
- "Boy In School Shot, Robbed by 7 Thugs". The New York Times. June 26, 1946.
- "Husband Kills Teacher, Self" (PDF). The Winona Republican-Herald, Volume 46, Number 298 (Winona, Minnesota). February 6, 1947. p. 10.[permanent dead link]
- "Rifle Shot Kills Boy". The New York Times. December 24, 1948.
- "Boy Showoff Shoots Classmate In School". The New York Times. March 12, 1949.
- "Ohio State Student Held in Slaying" (PDF). The Winona Republican-Herald, Volume 49, Number 228 (Winona, Minnesota). November 12, 1949. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 4, 2016.
- "Student Shot at Dance". The New York Times. July 22, 1950.
- "Academy Employee Killed On Campus". Meriden Record, Volume 91, Number 21 (Meriden, Connecticut). January 25, 1961. p. 12.
- "2 Youths Held in Slaying of Teacher, Chum" (PDF). The Winona Republican-Herald, Volume 51, Number 21 (Winona, Minnesota). March 13, 1951. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 2, 2016.
- "Crazed Man Killed in Girls' School". The New York Times. June 5, 1951.
- "St. Louis Pupil Killed". The New York Times. November 27, 1951. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016.
- "Dean Shot Over Pin Ups". The New York Times. April 9, 1952. Archived from the original on March 17, 2016.
- "Killed At Her Desk". The New York Times. July 15, 1952. Archived from the original on March 17, 2016.
- "Slaying of Boy in High School Held Accident". Chicago Tribune (Chicago, Illinois). October 6, 1953. Archived from the original on March 9, 2016.
- "Forgive Boy Fatal Shooting Of Their Son". Lewiston Evening Journal, Volume 93 (Lewiston, Maine). March 31, 1954.
- "Youth Dies, 2 Shot In College Party". The New York Times. May 16, 1954. Archived from the original on March 16, 2016.
- "Enraged Proctor Opens Fire, Slays Student In Dormitory". The New London Day, Volume 73, Number 161 (New London, Connecticut) (Evening ed.). January 11, 1955. p. 1.
- "Man who shot classmate wants to attend 50th reunion". Reading Eagle (Reading, Pennsylvania) (Evening ed.). p. A7.
- "Boy Kills Teacher, Wounds 2 Others". Milwaukee Sentinel (Milwaukee, Wisconsin). May 5, 1956. p. 1.
- "Monitor Shot In School". The New York Times. October 20, 1956. Archived from the original on March 16, 2016.
- "Boy Shot In East Side School". The New York Times. October 2, 1957. Archived from the original on March 16, 2016.
- "$70,000 Bail Is Set For 8 In Shooting". The New York Times. March 6, 1958. Archived from the original on March 17, 2016.
- "Massapequa Boy Slain In School". The New York Times. May 1, 1958. Archived from the original on March 16, 2016.
- "27 Seized in Bronx With Gang Arsenal". The New York Times. September 24, 1959. Archived from the original on March 16, 2016.
- "Two Teachers Shot To Death By Principal". Park City Daily News, Volume 106, Number 28 (Bowling Green, Kentucky). February 2, 1960.
- "Youth Fatally Shot In Crowded Class". The Victoria Advocate, Volume 114, Number 328 (Victoria, Texas). March 31, 1960.
- "Principal Shot at School Desk". Spokane Daily Chronicle, Volume 74, Number 225 (Spokane, Washington). June 8, 1960. p. 1.
- "Ex State Woman's Mate Kills Friend". Milwaukee Sentinel (Milwaukee, Wisconsin). June 8, 1960. p. 1.
- "Student Killed By Shot Fired For Sound Effect". Winona Daily News (Winona, Minnesota). January 5, 1961. p. 1. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017.
- "School Fight Mushrooms Into Murder". The Spokesman-Review, Volume 79, Number 157 (Spokane, Washington). October 18, 1961. p. 6.
- "L.I. teacher shot by boy in school". The New York Times. April 28, 1966.
- "Sniper In Texas U. Tower Kills 12, Hits 33". The New York Times. August 2, 1966. Archived from the original on March 16, 2016.
- Finley 2011, pp. 524-527.
- Finley 2014, p. 323.
- "Boy, Teacher Shot by Youth at Grand Rapids". Winona Daily News (Winona, Minnesota). October 5, 1966. p. 1. Archived from the original on November 15, 2017.
- Crews 2016, p. 9.
- "Youth, 18, Slays 4 Women and Child in Beauty School". The New York Times. November 13, 1966. Archived from the original on March 16, 2016.
- "Tells of Shooting Girl in School". Chicago Tribune (Chicago, Illinois). May 4, 1967. Archived from the original on March 9, 2016.
- "Offer Made To Frisk Students". The St. Petersburg Times (St. Petersburg, Florida). February 1, 1968.
- "Curfew Imposed by Governor in Orangeburg, S.C." The New York Times. February 10, 1968. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016.
- "Student Held In Slaying". The Spokesman-Review, Volume 85, Number 317 (Spokane, Washington). October 1, 2006. p. 2.
- "Students With Guns Expelled". Evening Independent (St. Petersburg, Florida). May 24, 1968.
- "17 Black Panther Members Are Arrested at the Home of Slain Youth in Los Angeles". The New York Times. January 18, 1969. Archived from the original on February 4, 2016.
- "Principal's Aide in Capital is Killed Chasing Thieves". The New York Times. January 25, 1969. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016.
- John Hinton (May 13, 1969). "13-year-old boy at Hanes Junior High School accidentally shot and killed in 1969". Winston-Salem Journal (Winston-Salem, North Carolina).
- "Principal Slain by Tomah Boy". Milwaukee Sentinel (Milwaukee, Wisconsin). November 20, 1969. p. 1.
- "Boys Hurt, Killed In Shootings". The Spokesman-Review, Volume 87, Number 237 (Spokane, Washington). January 6, 1970. p. 1.
- "Upset Over Doctoral Thesis – Penn Student Wounds Two Professors, Takes Own Life in Seminar Shooting". Observer–Reporter, Volume 161, Number 70036 (Washington, Pennsylvania). February 12, 1970. p. C-7.
- "Heavy Guard at Kent State After 4 Students Are Killed". The Free Lance–Star, Volume 86, Number 106 (Fredericksburg, Virginia). May 5, 1970. p. 1.
- Finley 2011, pp. 247-252.
- "Jackson State – May 1970". Jackson State University (Jackson, Mississippi). Archived from the original on October 13, 2010.
- Finley 2011, p. 293.
- Finley 2014, p. 324.
- "Student injured in Harlan shooting". Chicago Tribune (Chicago, Illinois). November 21, 1970. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017.
- "Art Teacher Slain, Philadelphia Police Arrest Youth, 14". The New York Times. February 2, 1971. Archived from the original on March 17, 2016.
- Jim Spoerhase (November 12, 1971). "Fatal Rampage Details Studied". Spokane Daily Chronicle, Volume 86, Number 45 (Spokane, Washington). p. 1.
- "Boy Killed In Gun Battle". The Phoenix (Boston, Massachusetts). February 27, 1973.
- "Before Hearst SLA killed educator". San Francisco Chronicle (San Francisco, California). November 14, 2002. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015.
- "Expelled Boy Kills Chicago Principal". The Pittsburgh Press, Volume 90, Number 203 (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). January 18, 1974. p. 34.
- "Pupil Shoots, Kills Athletic Director". Milwaukee Sentinel (Milwaukee, Wisconsin). March 23, 1974. p. 9.
- "McKeesport Student Shot At Kent State". The Pittsburgh Press, Volume 91, Number 103 (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). October 5, 1974. p. 3.
- Crews 2016, p. 8.
- "3 Killed and 9 Wounded by an Upstate Sniper, 18". The New York Times. December 31, 1974. Archived from the original on March 17, 2016.
- "Priest Killed In Classroom". The Blade, Volume 140 (Toledo, Ohio). February 25, 1975. p. 8.
- "Charge Filed in Shooting". Spokane Daily Chronicle (Spokane, Washington). September 24, 1975.
- "Intruders Wound 5 Students In Shooting At Detroit School". The Blade, Volume 141 (Toledo, Ohio). February 13, 1976. p. 2.
- "Detroit teacher shot to death in front of first grade class". The Morning Record, Volume 109, Number 266 (Meriden, Connecticut). November 11, 1976. p. 5.
- "Police Don't Know Reason Student Killed His Principal". The Bryan Times, Volume 29, Number 83 (Bryan, Ohio). April 7, 1977. p. 3.
- "Student Shot In Incident Inside School". Kentucky New Era, Volume 90, Number 46 (Hopkinsville, Kentucky). January 11, 1978. p. 1.
- Floyd Abrams (2006). Speaking Freely: Trials of the First Amendment. New York: Penguin Group. pp. 80–81. ISBN 978-0-14-303675-3.
- "Roger Needham Must Answer". Evening Independent (St. Petersburg, Florida). June 5, 1978.
- "Janitor Shot at Dallas School". Spokane Chronicle, Volume 92, Number 188 (Spokane, Washington). April 27, 1978. p. 1.
- Perline & Goldschmidt 2004, p. 342.
- "3 Students Hit By Gunfire". The Blade, Volume 143 (Toledo, Ohio). October 18, 1978. p. 31.
- Klein 2013, p. 153.
- "Student Angered By Paddling Shoots Junior High Principal". Florence Times Tri-Cities Daily, Volume 109, Number 291 (Florence, Alabama). October 18, 1978. p. 1.
- Chalmers 2009, p. 10.
- Chalmers 2009, pp. 120-121.
- Finley 2011, pp. 453-458.
- "School Sniper Suspect Bragged Of 'Something Big To Get On TV'". Evening Independent, Volume 72, Number 75 (St. Petersburg, Florida). January 30, 1979. p. 2A.
- "Sniping Suspect Had a Grim Goal". Los Angeles Times, reprinted in The Milwaukee Journal, Volume 97 (Milwaukee, Wisconsin). January 30, 1979. p. 4.
- "Brenda-Spencer". San Diego Police Museum (San Diego, California). Archived from the original on February 17, 2015.
- "Brenda Spencer". The Fliegen. Archived from the original on March 25, 2016.
- "Boy Shot; School Janitor Held". The Milwaukee Journal, Volume 97 (Milwaukee, Wisconsin). April 17, 1979. p. 1.
- "Football player shot at scrimmage". The Day, Volume 99, Number 76 (New London, Connecticut). September 29, 1979. p. 32.
- "Youths Sentenced for Darryl Williams Shooting". The Lewiston Daily Sun, Volume 88 (Lewiston, Maine). March 27, 1980. p. 18.
- "Death of student makes no sense". The Bryan Times, Volume 32, Number 7 (Bryan, Ohio). January 9, 1980. p. 10.
- "Teacher Fatally Shot In School". The Ledger, Volume 74, Number 150 (Lakeland, Florida). March 21, 1980. p. 7C.
- Compiled FROM College newspapers (April 5, 1980). "Student Kills Professor in Class". The Harvard Crimson (Cambridge, Massachusetts). Archived from the original on January 6, 2015.
- "Student killed in school shooting". Wilmington Morning Star, Volume 114, Number 16 (Wilmington, North Carolina). November 1, 1980.
- "Student killed in sorority". The Milwaukee Journal (Milwaukee, Wisconsin). January 28, 1981. p. 2.
- Iver Peterson (April 18, 1981). "Student Held In Blazes And 2 Shotgun Deaths At Dorm". New York Times. Archived from the original on October 29, 2016.
- "2 students die in dorm shooting". Chicago Tribune (Chicago, Illinois). April 18, 1981. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017.
- Nash 1992, p. 81.
- "Portland collgeg janitor shoots instructor, self". Spokane Daily Chronicle, Volume 96, Number 75 (Spokane, Washington). April 21, 1984. p. 1.
- Finley 2014, p. 325.
- "Boy Sentenced: Murder". The Lewiston Daily Sun, Volume 90 (Lewiston, Maine). February 24, 2010.
- "Shotgun Murder, Suicide In High School Classroom". The Victoria Advocate, Volume 137, Number 190 (Victoria, Texas). November 13, 1982. p. 9A.
- "Mich. Girl Shot Dead, 2 Teens Face Charges". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). April 21, 1984.
- Roger Munns (May 19, 1984). "Mother devastated in school shooting". The Daily Reporter, Volume 87, Number 237 (Spencer, Iowa). p. 3A.
- "Bus Driver Killed; Woman Arrested". The Blade, Volume 149 (Toledo, Ohio). October 25, 1984. p. 33.
- "Youth quizzed after shooting at junior high". Spokane Chronicle, Volume 99, Number 105 (Spokane, Washington). January 22, 1985. p. A2.
- "Three Teen-Agers Remain in Hospital After Shooting at Prep Football Game". The Argus-Press, Volume 131, Number 247 (Owosso, Michigan). October 19, 1985. p. 6.
- "3 dead in junior high romance". The Spokesman-Review, Volume 103, Number 206 (Spokane, Washington). November 28, 1985. p. C5.
- "Teen shot after taking hostages". The Nashua Telegraph, Volume 117, Number 205 (Nashua, New Hampshire). December 5, 1985. p. 29.
- "Youth Shot After Taking Two Hostages At School". The Blade, Volume 150 (Toledo, Ohio). December 4, 1985. p. 10.
- "13-year-old held in school shooting spree". Altus Times, Volume 63, Number 294 (Altus, Oklahoma). December 11, 1985.
- Richard L. Madden (December 12, 1985). "At Junior High, Attempt To Deal With Shootings". The New York Times.
- "Teacher Shot In Shoulder By Her Student". Chicago Tribune (Chicago, Illinois). March 7, 1986. Archived from the original on March 23, 2016.
- "Student shot to death in Mo". The Lewiston Daily Sun, Volume 94 (Lewiston, Maine). April 30, 1986.
- "Missouri Youth, 15, Shot To Death In Front Of Class". Chicago Tribune (Chicago, Illinois). May 1, 1986. Archived from the original on April 7, 2016.
- "Three Wounded in High School Shooting". AP New Archive. Associate Press. 9 May 1986. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
- "Couple Take Over School But Die After Bomb Blast". The New York Times. May 17, 1986. Archived from the original on April 3, 2015.
- "Radical Right Link Suggested in Hostage Case". Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles, California). May 18, 1986. Archived from the original on December 8, 2015.
- Crews 2016, p. 5.
- Jamie Rogers (April 10, 2014). "A history of violence – Can Missoula public schools truly be prepared for a school shooting?". Missoula Independent (Missoula, Montana). Archived from the original on May 7, 2016.
After Moffatt recovered from the gunshot wound and four subsequent surgeries, he became the principal at Garfield Elementary in Lewistown, a position he held until retiring in 2010. Today, he and his wife, Maggie, live in Missoula, and Moffatt occasionally substitutes for MCPS. He applauds the district's efforts to address difficult issues, and he says he's "for anything that schools do to make the environment safer for kids." But, in his mind, any district can only achieve so much as long as gun laws remain the same. He points out that homicide is now the second leading cause of death for school-age Americans, and while school shootings are "horrific tragedies," homicides on school grounds account for less than 2 percent of the lives lost. "Some people think it always happens somewhere else, others think it's going to happen anytime," he says of school shootings, "but we need to look at the big picture. There are relatively few communities in the United States that have dealt with a school shooting ... But there are very few communities that have not lost a child to gun violence."
- "School shooting kills one". The Gadsden Times, Volume 120, Number 156 (Gadsden, Alabama). December 5, 1986. p. A1.
- "Montana boy gets 206 year prison term". The Spokesman-Review, Volume 3, Number 69 (Spokane, Washington). June 4, 1988. p. A6.
- "Killed Teacher, Self: More Light Shed on CSUN Gunman Who Took 2 Lives". Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles, California). February 10, 1987. Archived from the original on August 12, 2014.
- Donna Bryson (March 3, 1987). "School shooting linked to classmates' teasing". Lawrence Journal-World (Lawrence, Kansas).
- James Risen (April 17, 1987). "Athlete Killed in Detroit School Violence". Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles, California). Archived from the original on February 2, 2016.
- Rob Karwath (September 30, 1987). "Youth Freed On Bond In Shooting Of Teacher". Chicago Tribune (Chicago, Illinois). Archived from the original on January 8, 2014.
- "About 200 Attend Funeral for Student who Committed Suicide". Associated Press. December 20, 1987. Archived from the original on October 26, 2016.
- "Two mothers say deputy's guns were too easy for sons to steal". Boca Raton News, Volume 33, Number 65 (Boca Raton, Florida). February 24, 1988. p. 2B.
- "Winnetka police chief recounts day of horror". Chicago Tribune (Chicago, Illinois). December 5, 1988. Archived from the original on March 7, 2016.
- "Basketball game ends in shooting". The Milwaukee Journal (Milwaukee, Wisconsin). July 11, 1988. p. 4B.
- "Man Shoots 11 in S.C. elementary school". Daily Kent Stater, Volume 63, Number 18 (Kent, Ohio). September 28, 1988. Archived from the original on September 15, 2016.
- "Mason Staggs denied double jeopardy claim". Abilene Reporter-News (Abilene, Texas). February 14, 1997. Archived from the original on March 20, 2005.
- "Student With Pistol Kills One Teacher And Injures Another". The New York Times. December 17, 1988. Archived from the original on May 1, 2017.
- Crews 2016, p. 7.
- Jay Mathews; Matt Lait (January 18, 1989). "Rifleman Slays Five At School; 29 Pupils, Teacher Shot in California; Assailant Kills Self". The Washington Post (Washington, D.C.). p. A1. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017.
- Steve Fidel (February 11, 1989). "Officers Seeking Answers After Junior High Shooting". Deseret News (Salt Lake City, Utah). Archived from the original on April 20, 2016.
- Christine Vorce (December 5, 1989). "Teen shoots schoolmate, kills self on bus". The Pittsburgh Press, Volume 106, Number 163 (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). p. 1.
- "Victim goes home". Allegheny Times – An edition of the Beaver County Times (Beaver, Pennsylvania). December 17, 1989. p. A3.
- "Black youth shot by whites in school". The Free Lance–Star, Volume 106, Number 74 (Fredericksburg, Virginia). March 28, 1990. p. 6.
- "3 San Antonio teens wounded". The Victoria Advocate, Volume 145, Number 128 (Victoria, Texas). September 12, 1990. p. 3C.
- "Student fatally shoots himself". The Victoria Advocate, Volume 145, Number 274 (Victoria, Texas). February 7, 1991. p. 4C.
- Ron Russell; Michele Fuetsch (April 24, 1991). "Shot Fired at Guard Kills Boy at School". Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles, California). Archived from the original on November 7, 2012.
- "High school football star shot in cafeteria". The Gainesville Sun, Volume 116, Number 76 (Gainesville, Florida). September 19, 1991. p. 8A.
- Phil Hersh; Blair Kamin; Steve Johnson; Teresa Wiltz; Monica Copeland; Matt Murray; Allan Johnson; Helaine Olen; Jerry Crimmins; Eric Detwiler (November 2, 1991). "Student Goes On Killing Spree At Iowa Campus". Chicago Tribune (Chicago, Illinois). Archived from the original on April 19, 2016.
- Michel Marriott (November 4, 1991). "Iowa Gunman Was Torn by Academic Challenge". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 10, 2016.
- Jim Mann (June 7, 1992). "The Physics of Revenge : When Dr. Lu Gang's American Dream Died, Six People Died With It". Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles, California). Archived from the original on March 25, 2015.
- Ruthanne Shpiner (December 10, 2008). "Miya Rodolfo-Sioson, 1968–2008". Berkeley Daily Planet (Berkeley, California). Archived from the original on March 30, 2016.
- "Policeman kills suspect in Kent State shootings". Spokane Chronicle, Volume 106, Number 102 (Spokane, Washington). February 11, 1992. p. A4.
- "Student shot, wounded on Kent State campus". The Blade, Volume 157 (Toledo, Ohio). January 30, 1992. p. 4.
- Stephen O'Connor (1997). Will My Name Be Shouted Out. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-83210-4.
- "Three students shot at school". The Tuscaloosa News, Volume 174, Number 294 (Tuscaloosa, Alabama). October 20, 1992. p. 2A.
- "Security tightens after 11 Detroit students are shot". Ludington Daily News (Ludington, Michigan). November 6, 1992. p. 1.
- Mcquiston, John T. (January 7, 1993). "School Upset By Shooting Of Teen-Ager During Game". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on June 11, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
- Lebrun 2008, p. 173.
- "Student Shot, Dies at Reseda High". Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles, California). February 23, 1993. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016.
- "Student, 17, killed in Texas school shooting". Daily News (Galveston, Texas). May 16, 1993.
- Finley 2014, p. 327.
- Diane Struzzi (October 15, 1993). "Prison Term For Murder At School". Philadelphia Media Network (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). Archived from the original on December 20, 2014.
- "Gunman Kills Himself After Firing on Schoolchildren". Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles, California). September 18, 1993. Archived from the original on March 9, 2016.
- "Student Shot At a School; Gang War Is Suspected". The New York Times. November 5, 1993. Archived from the original on September 4, 2017.
- "Suspects held in murder of gang member". The Hour, Volume 124, Number 220 (Norwalk, Connecticut). September 20, 1993. p. 5.
- "Breitlow called `gentle giant'". Milwaukee Sentinel (Milwaukee, Wisconsin). December 2, 1993. p. 1.
- Perline & Goldschmidt 2004, p. 348.
- "School shooting kills teen". Times-New, Volume 117, Number 26 (Hendersonville, North Carolina). January 26, 1994. p. 8A.
- Linda Shaw (January 27, 2005). "Abuse victim who killed teacher settles with district". The Seattle Times (Seattle, Washington). Archived from the original on June 13, 2016.
- "Man wounded in shooting after school basketball game". Herald-Journal (Spartanburg, South Carolina). February 19, 1994. p. B3.
- "Gunman Kills 2 at Missouri Military School". Deseret News (Salt Lake City, Utah). March 2, 1994. Archived from the original on April 20, 2016.
- "Boy shot to death in Tenn. classroom". Boca Raton News (Boca Raton, Florida). April 22, 1994.
- "Afternoon shooting shocks students". The Dispatch, Volume 112, Number 137 (Lexington, North Carolina). October 13, 1994. p. 1.
- Perline & Goldschmidt 2004, p. 345.
- "Student Shot Outside High School". Chicago Tribune (Chicago, Illinois). October 18, 1994. Archived from the original on April 20, 2016.
- "Student Shot Outside High School". The New York Times. November 8, 1994. Archived from the original on February 2, 2016.
- Dao, James (December 15, 1994). "Gunman Terrorizes Students in Campus Siege". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on August 19, 2016. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
- "20 years after Ralph Tortorici took class hostage at UAlbany". Archived from the original on August 2, 2016. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
- "A Case Of Insanity – The Story Of Ralph Tortorici | FRONTLINE | PBS". www.pbs.org. Archived from the original on August 9, 2016. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
- "NYS Department of Corrections and Community Supervision". www.doccs.ny.gov. Archived from the original on September 19, 2016. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
- Eli Sanders (March 5, 2003). "The Shooter". The Stranger (Seattle, Washington). Archived from the original on February 2, 2016.
- "The Death Of Joey". Orlando Sentinel (Orlando, Florida). September 25, 2005. Archived from the original on February 2, 2016.
- Klein 2013, p. 154.
- "Teen kills teacher, then himself". The Tuscaloosa News, Volume 177, Number 286 (Tuscaloosa, Alabama). October 13, 1995. p. 5A.
- Finley 2014, p. 328.
- Klein 2013, p. 152.
- "Second suspect indicted in shooting death of pregnant teen on school bus". Herald-Journal (Spartanburg, South Carolina). June 2, 1996. p. A6.
- "Man pleads innocent in slaying of 3 professors Calif. prosecutors to seek death penalty for student". The Baltimore Sun (Baltimore, Maryland). August 20, 1996. Archived from the original on October 2, 2012.
- Tony Perry (May 28, 1997). "Ex-San Diego State Student Pleads Guilty to Murdering 3 Professors". Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles, California). Archived from the original on November 8, 2012.
- "Man Gets 3 Life Terms For Killing 3 Professors". The New York Times. July 19, 1997. Archived from the original on September 4, 2017.
- "Shooting at Penn State". The Behrend College Collegian, Volume 155, Number 3 (Erie, Pennsylvania). September 19, 1996.
- Van Brunt 2012, p. 264.
- "Teen shot dead on school bus". The Register-Guard (Eugene, Oregon). October 10, 1996.
- "Teen shot to death by classmate at school". Sarasota Herald-Tribune, Volume 72, Number 117 (Sarasota, Florida). January 28, 1997. p. 5B.
- Klein 2013, pp. 151-152.
- Klein 2013, pp. 56-59.
- Klein 2013, pp. 187-192.
- "Teen guilty in Mississippi school-shooting rampage". CNN. June 12, 1998. Archived from the original on June 11, 2009.
- Kellie McMaster (October 16, 1997). "School Shooting". Sarasota Herald-Tribune, Volume 73, Number 13 (Sarasota, Florida) (Morning ed.). p. 1.
- Michael A. Scarcella (October 18, 2006). "Teenager in school shooting arrested". Herald-Tribune (Sarasota, Florida). Archived from the original on April 22, 2016.
- "Timeline of Worldwide School and Mass Shootings". InfoPlease (London). Archived from the original on December 22, 2013.
- "One dead, three hurt after shooting at Penn". Reading Eagle (Reading, Pennsylvania) (Evening ed.). March 2, 1998. p. B4.
- "From wild talk and friendship, to five deaths in schoolyard". The New York Times. March 29, 1998. Archived from the original on March 14, 2017.
- Finley 2014, p. 329.
- Kristen Hays (September 10, 1999). "Edinboro teen killer sentenced". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). Archived from the original on June 29, 2011.
- Tom Sharp (May 20, 1998). "Teenage passion turns deadly at Tennessee school". Park City Daily News, Volume 144, Number 140 (Bowling Green, Kentucky). p. 10-A.
- "Davis gets life in prison". Kentucky New Era (Hopkinsville, Kentucky). May 30, 1999. p. 9A.
- Tony Clark (May 21, 1998). "Teen jailed after Oregon high school shooting spree". CNN. Archived from the original on July 13, 2016.
- "Student in custody after teacher, school aide shot". CNN. January 15, 1998. Archived from the original on March 12, 2016.
- "University professor slain during class; suspect held". Reading Eagle (Reading, Pennsylvania) (Evening ed.). December 11, 1998. p. 1.
- "Teen students killed, wounded in suicide pact". Lawrence Journal-World, Volume 141, Number 9 (Lawrence, Kansas). January 9, 1999. p. 2A.
- Dan Gallagher (April 17, 1999). "Did teen in school shooting have hit list?". Deseret News (Spokane, Washington). Archived from the original on April 19, 2016.
- Klein 2013, pp. 152-153.
- "6 hurt in Georgia high school shooting". CNN. May 20, 1999. Archived from the original on March 12, 2016.
- Michelle Koidin (November 21, 1999). "Girl dies from shooting at school in N.M." The Tuscaloosa News, Volume 181, Number 325 (Tuscaloosa, Alabama). p. 3A.
- "School shooter may end up in Lawrence". Lawrence Journal-World (Lawrence, Kansas). September 26, 2003. Archived from the original on February 2, 2016.
- Drash, Wayne (November 3, 2015). "The massacre that didn't happen". CNN. Archived from the original on April 2, 2017. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
The suspects are almost always white male teenagers who have studied the Colorado high school massacre or cite the killers as inspiration. In the 16 years since the attack in Littleton, Colorado, more than 40 people have been charged with Columbine-style plots, according to searches of news accounts.
- Davies 2008, p. 152.
- Crews 2016, p. 6.
- "U. Arkansas Deaths Murder-Suicide". CBS News. August 29, 2000. Archived from the original on September 18, 2010.
- "Wounded student shoots teen attacker with same gun". Associated Press (New Orleans, Louisiana). September 27, 2000. Archived from the original on November 29, 2016.
- "San Diego teen allegedly planned to shoot student". Berkeley Daily Planet (Berkeley, California). December 6, 2000.
- "Often Ridiculed, the Suspect Said, 'I'll Show You One Day'". Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles, California). March 6, 2001. Archived from the original on July 31, 2010.
- "School prayer follows school shooting". CBS News. March 7, 2001. Archived from the original on April 19, 2016.
- staff (16 May 2001). "Music Teacher Killed in Random Shooting at PLU". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
- "Granite Hills gunman's kin file claim vs. county, sheriff". Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles, California). May 10, 2002. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013.
- "Student fatally shot outside Indiana high school". KOTV-DT (Tulsa, Oklahoma). March 31, 2001. Archived from the original on March 11, 2016.
- Daniel J. Wakin (January 16, 2002). "Gunfire Wounds 2 Students Inside a Manhattan High School". The New York Times.
- Francilines (January 17, 2002). "3 Slain at Law School; Student Is Held". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 20, 2017.
- "Man admits law school slayings to avoid death penalty". Park City Daily News, Volume 150, Number 58 (Bowling Green, Kentucky). February 27, 2004. p. 2A.
- "Teen killed after basketball game". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (Milwaukee, Wisconsin). February 21, 2002. p. 1.
- "Man, 71, Kills 2 at Missouri Monastery and Then Himself". The New York Times. June 11, 2016. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 18, 2016.
- James Dao (October 30, 2003). "Boy tells sniper jury about getting shot outside of school". The Dispatch (Lexington, North Carolina). p. 3A.
- John Douglas; Ann W. Burgess; Allen G. Burgess; Robert K. Ressler (2006). Crime Classification Manual: A Standard System for Investigating and Classifying Violent Crimes. San Francisco, California: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 455–457. ISBN 978-0-7879-8642-1.
- "4 Dead In Univ. Of Arizona Shooting". CBS News. October 29, 2002. Archived from the original on December 14, 2013.
- "3 Students Hurt in Shooting Near Jersey City School". The New York Times. November 2, 2002. Archived from the original on July 20, 2016.
- "Two More Arrested In Fatal School Shooting In New Orleans". WAFB (Baton Rouge, Louisiana). Archived from the original on April 20, 2016.
- "Two who did time in McDonogh gym killing on trial in new murder case". The Times-Picayune (New Orleans, Louisiana). September 17, 2009. Archived from the original on April 19, 2016.
- Finley 2011, pp. 684-685.
- "York County 14-year-old shoots principal, turns gun on himself". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). April 25, 2003. Archived from the original on April 7, 2016.
- Finley 2011, p. 683.
- "Other Campus Shootings". CBS News. May 9, 2003. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013.
- Finley 2011, p. 680.
- "Teen Acquitted Of Murder in Ballou Shooting". The Washington Post (Washington, D.C.). December 14, 2004. Archived from the original on October 26, 2012.
- "Student Opens Fire at a High School Near Albany, Hitting a Teacher". The New York Times. February 10, 2004. Archived from the original on September 4, 2017.
- Reginald Fields; Jonathan Rockoff (March 8, 2004). "'It was just chaos'". The Baltimore Sun (Baltimore, Maryland). Archived from the original on February 22, 2014.
- "Student is shot at Bowen High". Chicago Tribune (Chicago, Illinois). February 9, 2005. Archived from the original on April 19, 2016.
- "A Tribute To A Special Driver". School Bus Information Council. March 3, 2005. Archived from the original on December 11, 2015.
- "School gunman stole police pistol, vest". CNN International. March 23, 2005. Archived from the original on January 11, 2014.
- "Student injured in Harlan shooting". Chicago Tribune (Chicago, Illinois). September 14, 2005. Archived from the original on April 20, 2016.
- Greg Brobeck (November 8, 2005). "One administrator killed, two injured in Campbell Co. school shooting". WATE-TV (Knoxville, Tennessee). Archived from the original on March 31, 2016.
- Cara DiPasquale; Alberto Trevino (November 9, 2005). "Student kills 1, injures 2 in high school shooting". Chicago Tribune (Chicago, Illinois). Archived from the original on April 20, 2016.
- Dennis Blank (January 14, 2006). "Gun-brandishing teen at school shot by deputy". The New York Times reprinted in The Register-Guard (Eugene, Oregon). p. A3.
- "14-Year-Old Charged in Oregon School Shooting". Fox News Channel. February 24, 2006. Archived from the original on April 20, 2016.
- "Teen found guilty in Roseburg High shooting". KATU (Portland, Oregon). June 29, 2006. Archived from the original on March 9, 2016.
- "Two Hurt in Reno Middle School Shooting". Fox News Channel. March 14, 2006. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012.
- "Accused Reno school shooter ordered held". The San Diego Union-Tribune (San Diego, California). March 20, 2006. Archived from the original on March 11, 2016.
- "Essex Shooting Rampage". www.wcax.com. Archived from the original on August 5, 2016. Retrieved April 21, 2016.
- "North Carolina Shooting Suspect Obsessed with Columbine". USA Today. August 31, 2006.
- Amy Clark (September 2, 2006). "Father Shoots 2 Sons, Self in W.Va". CBS News. Archived from the original on May 3, 2016.
- Michael Laris; Robert Samuels (September 3, 2006). "Man Kills 2 Sons, Himself At University in W.Va". The Washington Post (Washington, D.C.). Archived from the original on November 16, 2017.
- Sean Alfano (September 17, 2006). "5 Duquesne Basketball Players Shot". CBS AP. p. 7A. Archived from the original on February 16, 2017.
(CBS station KDKA-TV in Pittsburgh reports. September 17, 2006, 12:45 PM)
- Catherine Tsai (September 29, 2006). "Killer sexually assaulted schoolgirls". Sarasota Herald-Tribune (Sarasota, Florida). p. 7A.
- Lebrun 2008, p. 181.
- "Neighbor: Teen held in shooting bragged about getting into trouble". Southeast Missourian (Cape Girardeau, Missouri). October 1, 2006. Archived from the original on April 20, 2016.
- Klein 2013, p. 88.
- "Six killed in Pennsylvania school attack". The San Diego Union-Tribune (San Diego, California). October 2, 2006. Archived from the original on March 12, 2016.
- "Mo. teen who fired shot in school sentenced to 10 years". Southeast Missourian (Cape Girardeau, Missouri). September 5, 2009.
- Adam Lynn (June 5, 2009). "Young man convicted in Foss High School shooting sentenced to prison". The News Tribune (Tacoma, Washington). Archived from the original on February 26, 2014.
- "Student wounded in shooting". Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles, California). March 7, 2007. Archived from the original on March 7, 2016.
- Michael O'Malley; Gabriel Baird (October 11, 2007). "Four shot at school, gunman kills himself". The Plain Dealer (Cleveland, Ohio). Archived from the original on April 13, 2009.
- "Florida Teacher Shot During Smoke Break". CBS News. November 6, 2007. Archived from the original on April 22, 2016.
- "Teacher Shot At South Florida High School". WIBW-TV (Topeka, Kansas). November 6, 2007. Archived from the original on April 19, 2016.
- Brian Hamacher (October 26, 2011). "Family Emotional As Teacher Shooter Sentenced to Life Behind Bars". WTVJ (Miami, Florida). Archived from the original on April 24, 2016.
- Kontji Anthony (February 4, 2008). "Police investigate shooting inside classroom at Hamilton High". WMC-TV (Memphis, Tennessee). Archived from the original on March 2, 2014.
- "3 Dead in LTC Shooting". WAFB (Baton Rouge, Louisiana). February 8, 2008. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013.
- "High school student shot in class after argument". Chicago Tribune (Chicago, Illinois). February 12, 2008. Archived from the original on April 20, 2016.
- "Calif. teen Brandon McInerney sentenced to 21 years for point-blank murder of gay classmate". CBS News. December 19, 2011. Archived from the original on April 26, 2012.
- "18 shot, six dead including gunman, at Northern Illinois University". CNN International. February 14, 2008. Archived from the original on February 15, 2008.
- "Teen sought in school shooting captured, charged". KOMO-TV (Seattle, Washington). August 18, 2008. Archived from the original on August 27, 2014.
- "Teen Killed in Shooting Near Detroit High School". Fox News Channel. October 16, 2008. Archived from the original on March 9, 2009.
- "Four Men Charged in Fatal University of Central Arkansas Shooting". Fox News Channel. October 28, 2008. Archived from the original on February 26, 2014.
- Kathy Bushouse; Tonya Alanez; Mike Clary (November 14, 2008). "Student may have told Dillard High officials about gun". The Baltimore Sun (Baltimore, Maryland).[permanent dead link]
- "18-Year-Old Charged In Dunbar High Shootings". WMAQ-TV (Chicago, Illinois). January 16, 2009. Archived from the original on January 26, 2009.
- Peter Dujardin (November 11, 2009). "Former Student Gets 14 Years In Shootings". Daily Press (Newport News, Virginia). Archived from the original on December 24, 2013.
- David Harris; Jillian Fennimore (May 22, 2009). "DA: Songwriter killed Cambridge man at Harvard over drugs". The Patriot Ledger (Quincy, Massachusetts). Archived from the original on March 4, 2016.
The case is being investigated by Harvard University Police, Cambridge Police, and the Massachusetts State Police assigned to the Middlesex District Attorney’s Office.
- Valerie Faciane (May 19, 2009). "Larose middle school gets increased security after Monday's shooting". The Times-Picayune (New Orleans, Louisiana). Archived from the original on April 19, 2016.
- Matt Stamey (May 19, 2009). "Student shoots himself in head after attempting to shoot teacher". The Houma Courier (Houma, Louisiana). Archived from the original on April 23, 2016.
- Amanada Martinez (June 16, 2009). "Update: Shooting at International Studies Academy". Mission Local (San Francisco, California). Archived from the original on August 27, 2014.
- Joshua Melvin (May 10, 2010). "Man involved in Skyline shooting pleads no contest to gun charge". San Mateo County Times (San Mateo County, California). Archived from the original on August 22, 2011.
- Finley 2014, p. 334.
- "Hammad Memon pleads guilty to murder, sentenced to 30 years for 2010 shooting death of 14-year-old classmate at Discovery Middle". The Birmingham News (Birmingham, Alabama). May 28, 2013. Archived from the original on November 9, 2013.
- Angie Leventis Lourgos; Cynthia Dizikes; Andrew L. Wang (February 20, 2010). "1 hurt in NIU shooting – Attack came two years after massacre at university". Chicago Tribune (Chicago, Illinois).