Second Gerbrandy cabinet

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Second Gerbrandy cabinet
Third London cabinet
Flag of the Netherlands.svg
39th cabinet of the Netherlands
KabinetGerbrandyII.jpg
Meeting of the Second Gerbrandy cabinet in late 1944
Date formed27 July 1941 (1941-07-27)
Date dissolved23 February 1945 (1945-02-23)
(Demissionary from 21 January 1945 (1945-01-21))
People and organisations
Head of stateQueen Wilhelmina
Head of governmentPieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy
Deputy head of governmentHendrik van Boeijen (Unofficially)
No. of ministers17
Ministers removed
(Death/resignation/dismissal)
6
Total no. of ministers19
Member partyRoman Catholic
State Party

(RKSP)
Social Democratic
Workers' Party

(SDAP)
Anti-Revolutionary Party
(ARP)
Christian Historical Union
(CHU)
Free-thinking
Democratic League

(VDB)
Liberal State Party
(LSP)
Status in legislatureNational unity government (War cabinet)
History
Legislature term(s)1937–1946
PredecessorFirst Gerbrandy cabinet
SuccessorThird Gerbrandy cabinet
Azure, billetty Or a lion with a coronet Or armed and langued Gules holding in his dexter paw a sword Argent hilted Or and in the sinister paw seven arrows Argent pointed and bound together Or. [The seven arrows stand for the seven provinces of the Union of Utrecht.] The shield is crowned with the (Dutch) royal crown and supported by two lions Or armed and langued gules. They stand on a scroll Azure with the text (Or) "Je Maintiendrai" (French for "I will maintain".)
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The Second Gerbrandy cabinet, also called the Third London cabinet was the Dutch government-in-exile from 27 July 1941 until 23 February 1945. The cabinet was formed by the political parties Roman Catholic State Party (RKSP), Social Democratic Workers' Party (SDAP), Anti-Revolutionary Party (ARP), Christian Historical Union (CHU), Free-thinking Democratic League (VDB) and the Liberal State Party (LSP) following the resignation of First Gerbrandy cabinet on 12 June 1941. The national unity government (War cabinet) was the third of four war cabinets of the government-in-exile in London during World War II.[1]

Formation[edit]

On 12 June 1941 the First Gerbrandy cabinet fell after a conflict between Queen Wilhelmina and Minister of Defence Adriaan Dijxhoorn, leading to the dismissal of the minister. Immediately also the other ministers resigned and the cabinet continued for five weeks as a demissionary cabinet until the ministries were redistributed and the Second Gerbrandy cabinet was installed on 27 July 1941.

Term[edit]

The cabinet became the main inspiration for many of the resistance fighters in the Netherlands through radio addresses by Queen Wilhelmina. Important actions of the cabinet include the recognition of the Soviet Union in July 1942, the declaration of war against Japan on 7 December 1942, the announcement that after the war the relations between the Netherlands and the Dutch Indies will change and the re-establishment in July 1943 of the representation at the Vatican. During the first and second cabinet of Gerbrandy plans are made for post-war prosecution of "wrongful" (foute) Dutch civilians (collaborators with the Germans).

On 27 January 1945 Minister of the Interior Jaap Burger (SDAP) was asked to resign by Prime Minister Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy (ARP) after holding a radio speech, differentiating between "wrongful" Dutch civilians (foute Nederlanders) and Dutch civilians who made a mistake (Nederlanders die een fout hebben gemaakt). But because Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy did not discuss this with rest of the cabinet all Social Democratic Workers' Party ministers resigned in response. The demissionary cabinet continued until the installation of the Third Gerbrandy cabinet on 23 February 1945.

Changes[edit]

On 17 November 1941 Minister of Finance, Minister of Commerce, Industry and Shipping and Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries Max Steenberghe (RKSP) and Minister of Colonial Affairs Charles Welter (RKSP) both resigned after disagreements with the cabinet policy. Minister of Water Management Willem Albarda (SDAP) took over as Minister of Finance and Minister of Social Affairs Jan van den Tempel (SDAP) took over as Minister of Commerce, Industry and Shipping and Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries.

On 31 May 1944 Minister of Commerce, Industry and Shipping and Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries Piet Kerstens (RKSP) was dismissed over a disagreement about the post-war food distribution policy. Both the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Shipping and the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries where subsequently reorganized. Minister of Finance Johannes van den Broek took over as Minister of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture adding the portfolio of Agriculture to the Commerce ministry. Government adviser Jim de Booy was appointed as Minister of Shipping and Fisheries combing the portfolios of Shipping and Fisheries.

Minister of Foreign Affairs of Belgium Paul-Henri Spaak, Minister of Foreign Affairs Eelco van Kleffens and Minister of Foreign Affairs of Luxembourg Joseph Bech sign a monetary agreement that later became the foundation of the Benelux Union on 21 October 1943 in London.

Cabinet Members[edit]

Ministers Title/Ministry Term of office Party
Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy Dr.
Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy
(1885–1961)
Prime Minister 3 September 1940 –
25 June 1945
[Retained]
Anti-Revolutionary Party
Minister General Warfare 21 May 1942 –
25 June 1945
Hendrik van Boeijen Hendrik van Boeijen
(1889–1947)
Minister General Affairs 3 September 1940 –
23 February 1945
[Retained]
Christian Historical Union
Minister Interior 24 June 1937 –
31 May 1944
[Retained]
Jaap Burger Jaap Burger
(1904–1986)
31 May 1944 –
27 January 1945
[Res]
Social Democratic
Workers' Party
Hendrik van Boeijen Hendrik van Boeijen
(1889–1947)
27 January 1945 –
23 February 1945
[Ad interim]
Christian Historical Union
Eelco van Kleffens Eelco van Kleffens
(1894–1983)
Minister Foreign Affairs 10 August 1939 –
1 March 1946
[Retained]
Independent
Liberal

(Classical Liberal)
Max Steenberghe Max Steenberghe
(1899–1972)
Minister Finance 27 July 1941 –
17 November 1941
[Res]
Roman Catholic
State Party
Willem Albarda Willem Albarda
(1877–1957)
17 November 1941 –
9 December 1942
Social Democratic
Workers' Party
Johannes van den Broek Johannes van den Broek
(1882–1946)
9 December 1942 –
23 February 1945
Independent
Liberal

(Classical Liberal)
Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy Dr.
Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy
(1885–1961)
Minister Justice 10 August 1939 –
21 February 1942
[Retained]
Anti-Revolutionary Party
Jan van Angeren Dr.
Jan van Angeren
(1894–1959)
21 February 1942 –
12 July 1944
[Res]
Roman Catholic
State Party
Gerrit Jan van Heuven Goedhart Dr.
Gerrit Jan van
Heuven Goedhart

(1901–1956)
12 July 1944 –
23 February 1945
Independent
Social Democrat
Max Steenberghe Max Steenberghe
(1899–1972)
Minister Commerce, Industry
and Shipping
10 May 1940 –
17 November 1941
[Retained] [Res]
Roman Catholic
State Party
Jan van den Tempel Dr.
Jan van den Tempel
(1877–1955)
17 November 1941 –
8 January 1942
[Ad interim]
Social Democratic
Workers' Party
Piet Kerstens Piet Kerstens
(1896–1958)
8 January 1942 –
31 May 1944
[Dismissed]
Roman Catholic
State Party
Johannes van den Broek Johannes van den Broek
(1882–1946)
Commerce, Industry
and Agriculture
31 May 1944 –
23 February 1945
Independent
Liberal

(Classical Liberal)
Hendrik van Boeijen Hendrik van Boeijen
(1889–1947)
Minister War 12 June 1941 –
15 September 1942
[Retained]
Christian Historical Union
Otto van Lidth de Jeude Jonkheer
Otto van Lidth
de Jeude

(1881–1952)
15 September 1942 –
23 February 1945
Liberal State Party
Johan Furstner Lieutenant admiral
Johan Furstner
(1887–1970)
Navy 27 July 1941 –
23 February 1945
Independent
Conservative

(Liberal Conservative)
Jan van den Tempel Dr.
Jan van den Tempel
(1877–1955)
Minister Social Affairs 10 August 1939 –
23 February 1945
[Retained]
Social Democratic
Workers' Party
Gerrit Bolkestein Gerrit Bolkestein
(1871–1956)
Minister Education, Arts
and Sciences
10 August 1939 –
25 June 1945
[Retained]
Free-thinking
Democratic League
Willem Albarda Willem Albarda
(1877–1957)
Minister Water Management 10 August 1939 –
23 February 1945
[Retained]
Social Democratic
Workers' Party
Max Steenberghe Max Steenberghe
(1899–1972)
Minister Agriculture and
Fisheries
1 May 1941 –
17 November 1941
[Retained] [Res]
Roman Catholic
State Party
Jan van den Tempel Dr.
Jan van den Tempel
(1877–1955)
17 November 1941 –
8 January 1942
[Ad interim]
Social Democratic
Workers' Party
Piet Kerstens Piet Kerstens
(1896–1958)
8 January 1942 –
31 May 1944
[Dismissed]
Roman Catholic
State Party
Jim de Booy Jim de Booy
(1885–1969)
Shipping and
Fisheries
31 May 1944 –
3 July 1946
Independent
Liberal

(Classical Liberal)
Charles Welter Charles Welter
(1880–1972)
Minister Colonial Affairs 10 August 1939 –
17 November 1941
[Retained] [Res]
Roman Catholic
State Party
Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy Dr.
Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy
(1885–1961)
17 November 1941 –
21 May 1942
Anti-Revolutionary Party
Huib van Mook Dr.
Huib van Mook
(1894–1965)
21 May 1942 –
23 February 1945
Independent
Liberal

(Social Liberal)
Ministers without portfolio Title/Portfolio/Ministry Term of office Party
Jaap Burger Jaap Burger
(1904–1986)
Minister • Return Policy

(within Interior)
11 August 1943 –
31 May 1944
[Appt]
Social Democratic
Workers' Party
Edgar Michiels van Verduynen Jonkheer
Edgar Michiels
van Verduynen

(1885–1952)
Minister • Foreign Policy

(within Foreign Affairs)
1 January 1942 –
25 June 1945
Independent
Liberal

(Classical Liberal)
Adipati Soejono Pangeran
Adipati Soejono
(1886–1943)
Minister • Colonial Policy

(within Colonial Affairs)
9 June 1942 –
5 January 1943
[Died]
Independent
Conservative

(Social Conservative)
Source: ‹See Tfd›(in Dutch) Parlement & Politiek
Retained Retained this position from the previous cabinet.
Res Resigned.
Dismissed Dismissed.
Ad interim Served ad interim.
Appt Appointment: Jaap Burger appointed Minister of the Interior.
Died Died in office.
Not part of the cabinet, but important executive position:
Military Command Title/Position Term of office Military
Branch
Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld General
Prince
Bernhard of
Lippe-Biesterfeld

(1911–2004)
Commander-in-chief Armed Forces 3 September 1944 –
13 September 1945
Army

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Gerbrandy in Londen" (in Dutch). Andere Tijden. 18 March 2003. Retrieved 9 June 2018.

External links[edit]

Official