Next Dutch general election

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Next Dutch general election
← 2017 On or before 17 March 2021

All 150 seats in the House of Representatives
76 seats needed for a majority
Party Leader Current seats
VVD TBD[1] 32
PVV Geert Wilders 20
CDA Hugo de Jonge[2] 19
D66 Sigrid Kaag[3] 19
GL Jesse Klaver[1] 14
SP Lilian Marijnissen[1] 14
PvdA Lodewijk Asscher[4] 9
CU Gert-Jan Segers[5] 5
PvdD Esther Ouwehand[6] 4
50+ Liane den Haan[7] 3
SGP Kees van der Staaij[8] 3
DENK Farid Azarkan[9] 3
FvD Thierry Baudet[1] 2
LHK Henk Krol[10] 1
Incumbent Prime Minister
Mark Rutte Mark Rutte

The next Dutch general election to elect the members of the House of Representatives is scheduled for 17 March 2021, but may be held at an earlier date if a snap election is called.

The Third Rutte cabinet was inaugurated after the longest coalition formation in Dutch history, with 225 days between the election and swearing in of the cabinet. The current cabinet is led by Prime Minister Mark Rutte, who presides over a coalition consisting of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD), Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), Democrats 66 (D66) and Christian Union (CU).

The coalition held a narrow majority in both legislative chambers at the time of the cabinet's inauguration, with 76 of 150 seats in the House of Representatives and 38 of 75 seats in the Senate. Following the 2019 Senate election, it has a minority of 32 seats in the upper chamber. After Wybren van Haga was expelled from the VVD faction in 2019, the coalition lost its majority in the House of Representatives.[11]


Previous election[edit]

The 2017 general election was held after a five-year coalition between the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) and Labour Party (PvdA). The PvdA suffered heavy losses in the election, being reduced from 38 to 9 seats, while the VVD lost 8 seats, falling from 41 to 33 but remaining the largest party. The Party for Freedom (PVV) came in second with 20 seats, 5 more than it won in the 2012 election, while the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) gained 6 seats to win 19 in total, Democrats 66 (D66) gained 7 to win 19, GroenLinks (GL) gained 10 to win 14, and the Socialist Party (SP) lost 1 to win 14. The election also saw two new parties, Denk and Forum for Democracy (FvD), enter the House of Representatives, winning 3 and 2 seats, respectively. Four other smaller parties maintained representation in the lower chamber: Christian Union (CU) and Party for the Animals (PvdD) with 5 seats each, 50PLUS with 4 seats, and the Reformed Political Party (SGP) with 3 seats. As the largest party, the VVD took the lead in forming a coalition, and appointed Edith Schippers as scout (verkenner) for the formation on 16 March.[12]

The most-suggested coalition configuration by party leaders was one between the VVD, CDA, D66, and GroenLinks, with a coalition between the VVD, CDA, D66, and Christian Union the second-most discussed option.[13] After first consultative talks between the VVD, CDA, D66, and GroenLinks on 23 March, the four parties agreed to begin negotiating a coalition between the four;[14] such a coalition would control a comfortable majority in the House of Representatives, with 85 of 150 seats, and a thin majority in the Senate, with 39 of 75 seats.[15] On 27 March, Schippers presented her report to the Speaker of the House of Representatives Khadija Arib, thereby concluding the scouting period, and advised that a coalition consisting of the VVD, D66, CDA, and GroenLinks be formed.[16] On 28 March, Schippers was appointed the sole informateur for the cabinet formation.[17] However, she announced on 15 May that coalition talks had failed over migration issues,[18] and submitted her final report to Arib on 16 May.[19] She was reappointed as informateur on 17 May,[20] scouting out the possibility of a coalition with the three larger parties and Christian Union, but concluded after extensive talks on 23 May that there was little reason to continue due to fundamental disagreements between D66 and CU on medical and ethical policies.[21]

In her final report on 29 May, Schippers recommended Herman Tjeenk Willink as the next informateur.[22] He was subsequently appointed the next day,[23] and attempted to continue negotiations including GroenLinks before collapsing on 12 June.[24] With it becoming clear that the only possible fourth coalition partner would be Christian Union, Tjeenk Willink submitted his final report on 27 June as negotiations with CU began, recommending Gerrit Zalm as the next informateur.[25] On 9 October, the parties announced that they had concluded a provisional coalition agreement for the new cabinet.[26] Zalm presented his final report on 10 October, which was approved by the four parliamentary parties,[27] and Mark Rutte was appointed as formateur on 12 October, promising a cabinet by 26 October.[28] The Rutte III cabinet was officially sworn in by King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands with a total of 24 ministers and state secretaries – 9 from the VVD, 6 each from the CDA and D66, and 3 from the CU – on 26 October,[29][30] 225 days after the election, making it the longest cabinet formation in Dutch history.[31] The four-party coalition holds 76 of 150 seats in the lower chamber and 38 of 75 seats in the upper chamber.[32]

Electoral system[edit]

The 150 members of the House of Representatives are elected by open list proportional representation. Although the country is divided into 20 regional constituencies for the purposes of regional electoral lists, it is functionally treated as a single constituency at the national level. Seats are distributed at the national level on the basis of the electoral lists. First the number of seats per list is determined using the D'Hondt method, effectively resulting in an electoral threshold of 1/150th (0.67%) of votes to secure a seat. Voters have the option of casting a preferential vote. The seats won by a list are first allocated to the candidates who in preferential votes have received at least 25 percent of the number of votes needed for one seat (effectively 0.17% of the total votes), regardless of existing placement on their electoral list. If multiple candidates from a list pass this threshold, their ordering is determined based on the number of votes received. Any remaining seats are allocated to candidates according to their placement on the electoral list.[33]

Pursuant to articles C.1, C.2, and C.3 of the electoral law, elections for the House of Representatives take place every four years in March. The next general election is scheduled for 17 March 2021, unless the chamber is dissolved early.[34]


The table below lists parties currently represented in the House of Representatives.

Name Main ideology Position Parliamentary leader Lijsttrekker 2017 result Current seats
Votes (%) Seats
VVD People's Party for Freedom and Democracy
Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie
Conservative liberalism Centre-right Klaas Dijkhoff TBD 21.3%
33 / 150
32 / 150
PVV Party for Freedom
Partij voor de Vrijheid
Right-wing populism Right-wing to far-right Geert Wilders 13.1%
20 / 150
20 / 150
CDA Christian Democratic Appeal
Christen-Democratisch Appèl
Christian democracy Centre-right Pieter Heerma Hugo de Jonge 12.4%
19 / 150
19 / 150
D66 Democrats 66
Democraten 66
Social liberalism Centre Rob Jetten Sigrid Kaag 12.2%
19 / 150
19 / 150
GL GreenLeft
Green politics Centre-left to left-wing Jesse Klaver 9.1%
14 / 150
14 / 150
SP Socialist Party
Socialistische Partij
Democratic socialism Left-wing Lilian Marijnissen 9.1%
14 / 150
14 / 150
PvdA Labour Party
Partij van de Arbeid
Social democracy Centre-left Lodewijk Asscher 5.7%
9 / 150
9 / 150
CU Christian Union
Christian democracy Centre to centre-right Gert-Jan Segers 3.4%
5 / 150
5 / 150
PvdD Party for the Animals
Partij voor de Dieren
Animal rights Left-wing[35] Esther Ouwehand 3.2%
5 / 150
4 / 150
50+ 50PLUS Pensioners' interests Centre Corrie van Brenk Liane den Haan 3.1%
4 / 150
3 / 150
SGP Reformed Political Party
Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij
Christian right Right-wing Kees van der Staaij 2.1%
3 / 150
3 / 150
DENK DENK Identity politics Left-wing Farid Azarkan 2.1%
3 / 150
3 / 150
FvD Forum for Democracy
Forum voor Democratie
National conservatism Right-wing to far-right Thierry Baudet TBD 1.8%
2 / 150
2 / 150
LHK Henk Krol List (provisional name)[10]
Lijst Henk Krol
Pensioners' interests N/A Henk Krol Did not exist
1 / 150

The table below provides an overview of parties that want to participate in the elections but do not hold any seats yet.

Name Main ideology Position Lijsttrekker 2017 result Ref.
Votes (%) Seats
PPNL Pirate Party
Pirate politics Syncretic TBD 0.34%
0 / 150
BIJ1 BIJ1 Anti-capitalism Left-wing Sylvana Simons 0.27%
0 / 150
LP Libertarian Party
Libertaire Partij
Right-libertarianism N/A TBD 0.01%
0 / 150
PDNM Party The New Human
Partij De Nieuwe Mens
Spiritual left Centre-left Niraï Melis &
Raishrie Gajadin
0 / 150
DB The Base
De Basis
Universal basic income N/A TBD
0 / 150
CO Code Orange
Code Oranje
Direct democracy Syncretic Richard de Mos Did not exist [41]
BBB Farmer–Citizen Movement
Agrarianism N/A Caroline van der Plas Did not exist [42]
VSN Free and Social Netherlands
Vrij en Sociaal Nederland
Direct democracy
N/A Bas Filippini Did not exist [43]
GR Green Right
Groen Rechts
Green conservatism Right-wing TBD Did not exist [44]
IDNL Identity Netherlands
Identiteit Nederland
Ethnic nationalism Far-right Géza Hegedüs Did not exist [45]
JONG JONG Youth politics N/A Jaron Tichelaar Did not exist [46]
MN Modern Netherlands
Modern Nederland
Electronic direct democracy N/A TBD Did not exist [47]
NIDA NIDA Islamic democracy Syncretic TBD Did not participate [48]
NLB NLBeter Single-issue politics N/A Esther van Fenema Did not exist [49]
PSP Pacifist Socialist Party '92
Pacifistisch-Socialistische Partij '92
Democratic socialism Left-wing TBD Did not participate [50]
PvdT Party for the Future
Partij voor de Toekomst
Liberalism Centre-right TBD Did not exist [51]
PvdB Party for the Trees
Partij voor de Bomen
Green politics N/A TBD Did not exist [52]
J&O Party for Young and Old
Partij voor Jong en Oud
Pensioners' interests N/A Karel Scheps Did not exist [53]
PvPB Platform for Local Interests
Platform voor Plaatselijke Belangen
Regionalism N/A TBD Did not exist [54]
UCF Ubuntu Connected Front Ubuntuism N/A TBD Did not exist [55]
VOLT Volt Netherlands
Volt Nederland
European federalism Centre to centre-left Laurens Dassen Did not exist [56]

Opinion polls[edit]

Opinion polls NL 2017-2021.svg


  1. ^ Party The New Human and The Base participated in the 2017 general election as part of the combined list MenS–BIP–V&R.


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External links[edit]