Serbian Canadians

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Serbian Canadians
Канадски Срби
Kanadski Srbi
Niagara-Falls ON Monument Nikola-Tesla 2015-08-13.jpg
Total population
80,320 (2011)[1]
Regions with significant populations
 Ontario,  Alberta,  British Columbia,  Saskatchewan,  Yukon[2]
Languages
Canadian English and Serbian
Religion
mainly Serbian Orthodox Church
Related ethnic groups
Serbian Americans, Montenegrin Canadians

The community of Serbian Canadians (Serbian: Канадски Срби/Kanadski Srbi) includes Canadian citizens of Serb ethnicity (by birth or descent), or people born in Serbia who permanently reside in Canada. Serbs (and Serbians) have migrated to Canada in various waves during the 20th century. The 2011 census recorded 80,320 people declaring as "Serbian", living in Canada.[3]

History[edit]

The first Serbs to arrive in Canada came to British Columbia between 1850 and 1870. Many were employed in mining or forestry near such towns as Phoenix, Golden, Prince Rupert and Kamloops. In Dawson City and Whitehorse names like Black Mike Winage and pioneer Milos "Big Mike" Tadich (1887-1960) became legendary. During the Great War, Tadich fought overseas with The Seaforth Highlanders of Canada along with other Serbian Canadians, most of whom were born in Montenegro and Serbia. Those who were born in Austria-Hungary were incarcerated in Ukrainian Canadian internment camps throughout the country.

By 1900, Serbs began to arrive in Alberta. Many of these early settlers had migrated north from the north-west region of the United States. Coal mining attracted them to Lethbridge, while road construction was a source of employment for those in Macleod and Cadomin. Many Serbs worked on the construction of railway lines that now extend from Edmonton to the Pacific coast. Others were interned in labor camps as "enemy aliens" simply because they were born under the scepter of Austria-Hungary, an empire at war with the United Kingdom and Serbia during World War I. Luigi von Kunits, who was living and working in Toronto at the time, was one of its victims having to identify himself regularly at the police station throughout the war years.

Čedomilj Mijatović became very active at the beginning of the First World War. He wrote many letters and articles to British dailies but his most remarkable action in this field was his visit to the United States and Canada. He was accompanied by the most famous British suffragette, Emmeline Pankhurst, who championed the causes of Britain's small allies (Belgium and Serbia) during World War I. A visit to the United States of America and Canada with such a well-known person caused such a sensation, brought crowds to Mijatović's lectures, and enabled him to have well attended lectures and to give interviews to the leading dailies.[4]

The period between the two World Wars witnessed a major increase in Serbian immigration to Canada, mostly after the breakup of the Habsburg Empire. More than 30,000 Yugoslavs came to Canada between 1919 and 1939, from the Balkans, Hungary and Romania, this included an estimated 10,000 Serbs. Many of these immigrants were single, working men who had left families in their home country to seek work in Canada. The vast majority of Serbs arriving between the wars settled in Ontario or British Columbia. During this time, ties to Europe were strong and pressure from Belgrade and Ottawa resulted in certain Serbian Canadian newspapers being banned.[5] The banned newspapers were promoting communist ideas and they were mostly written by pro-Russian Yugoslavs who were not necessarily of Serbian origin.

In the twenties and thirties, two Serbian Canadians of distinction made their mark, Luigi von Kunits, the founder and conductor of the Toronto Symphony Orchestra, and James Trifunov, an Olympian athlete who earned medals for Canada.

Major changes occurred in Yugoslavia during World War II. The newly established communist government was opposed by many Serbs and Yugoslavs. Many POWs and post war refugees refused to return to their homeland to live under a communist regime. These Serbs, part of what is now called the Chetnik immigration, emigrating to Canada at this time, came from a variety of occupational backgrounds, including military and academic professions and the skilled trades. Among them were intellectuals Adam Pribićević, Miloš Mladenović, Dimitrije Najdanović. Montreal surgeon Dr. Dragutin (Drago) Papich, Professor Sava Bosnitch of the University of New Brunswick and president of the Canadian Association of Slavists (in 1972 and 1973).

In the late 1980s, Yugoslavia's communist government was on the verge of collapse. Shortly after the breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991, a large group of Serbs moved to Canada, mostly to Southern Ontario, to cities including: Toronto, Kitchener, St. Catharines, Hamilton, Niagara Falls, London and Windsor. This was a major brain drain; with educated Serbs fleeing serious economic problems and an undemocratic government.[6]

Serbian barbecue, Edmonton Heritage Festival 2012

At the turn of the century the world had witnessed a massive military action by the United States and its NATO allies in the Balkans. Now theories are being raised both in Canada and America and other countries about the likely motivations behind this intervention. Serbian Canadians and Serbian Americans alike are probing the question of whether the bombing of one sovereign country by another sets a precedent for future action by NATO, and whether future American presidents, as a result of Clinton's 1999 action (bombing Serbia) and Bush's 2008 action (Kosovo), may have stumbled into a sandbox too large for their staying power and set back foreign policy not only to the Cold War but to a new Frozen War. On October 26, 2004 a street in Toronto was renamed to Beograd Gardens to honour Serbia's capital of Belgrade.[7] The street is located north of Eglinton Avenue and west of Marlee Avenue.[7] Beograd Gardens was unveiled by Toronto City Councillors Joe Mihevc and Howard Moscoe.[7] Recently, a boulevard in Hamilton was named after Nikola Tesla.

Demographics[edit]

Officially there were 80,320 persons who identified themselves as wholly or partly "Serbian", living in Canada in 2011.[1] However, this number may be much higher as there are some 65,505 people who identify as Yugoslavs living in Canada, many of whom may be Serbs. The major center of Serbian settlement in Canada is Toronto, which is home to the 3rd largest Serb diaspora population after Vienna and Chicago; the 2006 census showed that the total of ethnic origin responses for Serbian was 25,160 while together with Yugoslav it amounted to a combined total of around 38,000.[8] Other Serbian strongholds include Windsor, Kitchener, Vancouver, Edmonton, Regina, and Calgary.[citation needed]

Toronto[edit]

The Serbs of Toronto (Serbian language: Срби у Торонту, Srbi u Torontu) are a Canadian minority. Toronto is said to be[who?] home to the third-largest Serb diaspora population, after Vienna and Chicago.

Demographics[edit]

The 2006 census showed that the total of single and multiple ethnic origin responses for Serbian was 25,160. Single ethnic origin responses were 17,265, while multiple ethnic origin responses were 7,890.[8] The total of single and multiple ethnic origin responses for Yugoslav was 12,685. Single ethnic origin responses were 4,950 while multiple ethnic origin responses were 7,725.

Toronto population by language in 2001 showed 13,635 Serbians.

History[edit]

One of the first Serbian immigrants in Toronto was Sremac Herceg, who arrived in August 1903.[9] A great number of Serbian settlers who came in 1912 were from the Niš region. Between the Balkan Wars and World War I, more than two hundred Serbs lived in Toronto.[9]

Culture[edit]

In 1954 the Serb Youth Club in Toronto was formed, and its folk-dance group Stražilovo became one of the first highly successful dance groups in Canada.

Toronto's folk-dance group Hajduk Veljko (founded in 1964) danced at the Montreal Olympics in 1976 and at Expo '86 in Vancouver, and Toronto's Oplenac (1973).[10]

From the early 1950s to 1984 the Serbian Cultural Club St Sava was active in Toronto, publishing eight volumes in Serbian dealing with Serb history.

In 1968 the Serbian Orthodox Church of St Michael the Archangel hosted the "Belgrade" pavilion of the Toronto Caravan cultural festival, organized by the late Colette Sekulovich (née Leroy) which displayed many Serbian cultural artifacts, showcased Kolo dancing and other performance arts, and gave the people of Toronto a chance to taste Serbian delicacies. The annual festival ran for over 30 years, winning, in 2001, the Zena Kossar "Best Pavilion Award".

The Serbian Heritage Academy (Srpska Nacionalna Akademija), initiated, founded and spearheaded by Sofija Skoric in Toronto in 1981, has organized academic conferences, exhibits, and lectures. In 1984 it installed a bronze plaque at the University of Toronto's Medical Sciences Building honouring Canadian doctors and nurses who had worked as volunteers in Serbia during World War I.

Serbian Cultural Association Oplenac was founded in 1987 in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. Serbian folk dancing has been a major activity in SCA Oplenac since its inception as a non-profit organization. All proceeds from its events go to the preservation and presentation of Serbian culture and tradition in North America. In 2012 the company consisted of 8 large ensembles, choir and orchestra as well as a large recreational ensemble. They established a drama school for children that performs theatre plays in Serbian language, as well as a Serbian language school. Since 2000 it has been clear that the association is undoubtedly the biggest Serbian folklore group in North America.[11]

Serbian Theatre Toronto (Srpsko pozorište Toronto) was established in 2004 and is the oldest Serbian theatre in Canada and North America. In more than ten years of activity, the theatre has produced more than twenty plays by Serbian writers. The group has more than 20 members, but has had three times as many in the past. Serbian Theatre Toronto has performed in many cities in Canada and the USA.[12]

The first Serb bookstore, Srbica Books, was opened in Toronto in 1990 by Živko Apić.

Established in 2008, Toronto's Pulse Theatre (Пулс Театар) is the biggest drama club and theatre for children in Serbian language in Canada.[13]

Serbian Toronto Television is a weekly 30-minute current affairs Serbian television show that is filmed throughout various locations across Canada and Serbia. Hosted by Miljana Ristic, Serbian Toronto Television delivers latest news in health, education, arts, economy and literature significant to Serbian communities across Canada and abroad. Serbian Toronto Television is the voice and vision of the Serbian community in Canada and aims to promote the Serbian heritage in Toronto and across Canada. Since its original broadcast on October 11, 2014 at 6:30pm EST on OMNI Television, the show allows its viewers to stay connected with their Serbian roots while abroad by providing timely, local information on the hottest and most essential shopping, dining, cultural attractions and entertainment. The power of Serbian Toronto Television is its local depth of Serbian culture and its high quality production values. Serbian Toronto Television is produced by Milan Cobanov and Miljana Ristic on a weekly basis and broadcast across Canada by OMNI Television network every Saturday at 6:30pm EST. Serbian Toronto Television is also proud to work in co-operation with the Serbian Heritage Academy of Canada, Consulate General of the Republic of Serbia, Serbian Church and other organizations that promote our Serbian heritage in Toronto and across Canada. Please visit the website: http://www.serbiantoronto.tv for more information.[14]

Media[edit]

  • Newspapers
  • TV
    • Serbian Television Toronto[17]
    • Serbian Toronto Television (SerbianTorontoTV) [14]

Churches[edit]

  • St. Archangel Michael Serbian Orthodox Church
  • St. Sava Serbian Orthodox Church[18]

Notable people[edit]

Toronto individuals[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables – Ethnic Origin (264), Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses (3), Generation Status (4), Age Groups (10) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2011 National Household Survey". 12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 20 August 2017. 
  2. ^ Tomovic, Vladislav A. Canadian Serbs: A History of Their Social and Cultural Traditions (1856-2002). Fonthill, Ont.: Batlik, 2002. 216-17. Print.
  3. ^ StatCan ref Archived September 24, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  4. ^ "Serbia's Aged Envoy talks of his Nation", The New York Times, January 23, 1916, p. SM 4.
  5. ^ Tomovic, Vladislav (Spring–Summer 1982). "Serbian press in Canada, 1916-82". Polyphony: The Bulletin of the Multicultural History Society of Ontario. 4 (1): 87. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  6. ^ Judah. The Serbs. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-15826-7. 
  7. ^ a b c Novine Toronto (28 October 2004). "Zvanično otvorena ulica Beograd Gardens, pg. 15" (in Serbian). 
  8. ^ a b [1] Archived 2008-09-25 at the Wayback Machine.
  9. ^ a b "Serbian Orthodox Diocese of Canada : Synaxis of All Serbian Saints Church : Parish West Toronto - Mississauga". sabornik.com. Retrieved 20 August 2017. 
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-07-13. Retrieved 2008-07-14. 
  11. ^ "Serbian Folklore and Serbian Dancing in Canada". Oplenac.ca. Retrieved 20 August 2017. 
  12. ^ [2] Archived 2016-01-29 at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ "Пулс Театар". Pulsteatar.com. Retrieved 20 August 2017. 
  14. ^ a b "Home - Serbian Toronto Television - Srpska Televizija Toronto". Serbian Toronto Television - Srpska Televizija Toronto. Retrieved 2016-01-27. 
  15. ^ "Novine Toronto". Novine.ca. Retrieved 20 August 2017. 
  16. ^ "Vesti online - Srpski informativni portal". Vesti-online.com. Retrieved 20 August 2017. 
  17. ^ [3] Archived 2008-10-25 at the Wayback Machine.
  18. ^ "St Sava Serbian Orthodox Church, Toronto". Svetisavatoronto.com. Retrieved 20 August 2017. 
  19. ^ "Lolita Davidovich". IMDb. Retrieved 20 August 2017. 
  20. ^ "Une idée sinon vraie : Quatuor Bozzini : string quartet". Quatuorbozzini.ca. Retrieved 20 August 2017. 
  21. ^ Gregory, Michael (14 December 2015). "Burlington commissions $50K abstract sculpture for Aldershot Village - InsideHalton.com". Insidehalton.com. Retrieved 20 August 2017. 

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]