Stand in the Schoolhouse Door took place at Foster Auditorium at the University of Alabama on June 11, 1963. George Wallace, the Democratic Governor of Alabama, in a symbolic attempt to keep his inaugural promise of " segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever" and stop the desegregation of schools, stood at the door of the auditorium to try to block the entry of two black students, Vivian Malone and James Hood. [1 ]
The incident brought Wallace into the national spotlight.
Background [ edit ]
On May 17, 1954, the
Supreme Court of the United States handed down its decision regarding the case called Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, in which the plaintiffs charged that the education of black children in separate public schools from their white counterparts was unconstitutional. Brown v. Board of Education meant that the University of Alabama had to be desegregated. In the years following, hundreds of African-Americans applied for admission, but all were denied. The University worked with police to find any disqualifying qualities, or when this failed, intimidated the applicants. But in 1963, three African-Americans with perfect qualifications— Vivian Malone Jones, Dave McGlathery and James Hood—applied, refusing to be intimidated. In early June a federal district judge ordered that they be admitted, and forbade Governor Wallace from interfering. [3 ] [4 ]
The incident [ edit ]
Vivian Malone Jones
arrives to register for classes at the University of Alabama's Foster Auditorium.
On June 11, Malone and Hood arrived to register. Wallace, attempting to uphold his promise as well as for political show,
blocked the entrance to Foster Auditorium with the media watching. Then, flanked by federal marshals, [4 ] Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach told Wallace to step aside. [1 ] However, Wallace cut Katzenbach off and refused, giving a speech on [5 ] States' rights. Katzenbach called [4 ] President John F. Kennedy, who federalized the Alabama National Guard. General Henry Graham then commanded Wallace to step aside, saying, "Sir, it is my sad duty to ask you to step aside under the orders of the President of the United States." Wallace then spoke further, but eventually moved, and Malone and Hood registered as students. [6 ]
In film [ edit ]
The incident was detailed in
Robert Drew's 1963 documentary film . The event was depicted in the 1994 film Crisis: Behind a Presidential Commitment , in which the title character appeared at the event, Forrest Gump [7 ] [8 ] and in the 1997 television movie [9 ] . George Wallace
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ a b Elliot, Debbie. Wallace in the Schoolhouse Door. NPR. June 11, 2003. Accessed February 19, 2009.
^ Democratic Governor George C. Wallace's School House Door Speech. Accessed February 19, 2009.
^ "Address on Civil Rights". Miller Center of Public Affairs. June 11, 1963 . Retrieved . 2013-02-07 This afternoon, following a series of threats and defiant statements, the presence of Alabama National Guardsmen was required on the University of Alabama to carry out the final and unequivocal order of the United States District Court of the Northern District of Alabama.
^ a b c Standing In the Schoolhouse Door (June). Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement. Accessed February 19, 2009
^ Andrew Cohen (May 9, 2012). "Nicholas Katzenbach, Unsung Hero of America's Desegregation". Theatlantic.com.
^ Lesher, Stephan (1995). . Da Capo Press. p. 233. George Wallace: American Populist ISBN 9780201407983.
^ Byers, Thomas (1996). "History Re-Membered: Forrest Gump, Postfeminist Masculinity, and the Burial of the Counterculture". Modern Fiction Studies 42 (2): 419–44. doi: 10.1353/mfs.1995.0102 . Retrieved . 2009-02-28
^ Paul Grainge (2003). . Manchester University Press. p. 229. Memory and Popular Film ISBN 978-0-7190-6375-6 . Retrieved . February 28, 2009
^ Behind the Magic of Forrest Gump: "George Wallace." in Forrest Gump special collector's edition (DVD). 2001.
External links [ edit ]
Coordinates: 33°12′29.21″N 87°32′38.37″W / 33.2081139°N 87.5439917°W