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TYPO3 CMS 7 backend
|Original author(s)||Kasper Skårhøj|
|Available in||51 languages|
|Type||Content management framework, Content management system|
|License||GNU General Public License version 2|
TYPO3 is a free and open-source Web content management system written in PHP. It is released under the GNU General Public License. It can run on several web servers, such as Apache, Nginx or IIS, on top of many operating systems, among them Linux, Microsoft Windows, FreeBSD, macOS and OS/2.
TYPO3 is, along with Drupal, Joomla! and WordPress, among the most popular content management systems worldwide, however it is more widespread in Europe than in other regions. The biggest market share can be found in German-speaking countries.
TYPO3 is credited to be highly flexible, as code and content are operated separately. It can be extended by new functions without writing any program code. Also, the software is available in more than 50 languages and has a built-in localization system, therefore supports publishing content in multiple languages. Due to its features like editorial workplace and workflow, advanced frontend editing, scalability and maturity, TYPO3 is used to build and manage websites of different types and size ranges, from small sites for individuals or nonprofit organizations to multilingual enterprise solutions for large corporations. According to the ability to support a corporate environment, it classifies itself as an enterprise level content management system.
History and usage
TYPO3 was initially authored by the Dane Kasper Skårhøj in 1997. It is now developed by over 300 contributors under the lead of Benjamin Mack (Core team leader) and Mathias Schreiber (Product Owner).
Calculations from the TYPO3 Association show that it is currently used in more than 500,000 installations. The number of installations detected by the public website "CMS Crawler" was around 384,000 by February 2017.
Delivered with a base set of interfaces, functions and modules, TYPO3's functionality spectrum is implemented by extensions. More than 5000 extensions are currently available for TYPO3 for download under the GNU General Public License from a repository called the TYPO3 Extension Repository, or TER.
Since version 4.5, TYPO3 is published with a demo website called "Introduction Package". It enables first-time users to get a working example website quickly and to experiment with built-in features. The package can be enabled from the install tool.
To become familiar with TYPO3, a developer would usually need from a few weeks up to some months. For an author or editor who administers and operates a TYPO3 based website, this requirement can range from a few minutes to a few hours. A developer setting up a website with TYPO3 would need to work intensively with the meta-language TypoScript.
Conceptually, TYPO3 consists of two parts: the frontend, visible to visitors, and the administrative backend. The frontend displays the web content. The backend is responsible for administration and managing content. The core functions of TYPO3 include user privileges and user roles, timed display control of content (show/hide content elements), a search function for static and dynamic content, search-engine friendly URLs, an automatic sitemap, multi-language capability for frontend and backend, and more.
Like most modern CMSes, TYPO3 follows the policy of separation of content and layout: The website content is stored in a relational database, while the page templates are stored on the file system. Therefore, both can be managed and updated separately.
TYPO3 defines various basic types of content data. Standard content elements are described as text, text with media, images, (plain) HTML, video etc. Various additional types of content elements can be handled using extensions.
The fundamental content unit is a "page". Pages represent a URL in the frontend and are organized hierarchically in the backends' page tree. Standard pages serve as "containers" for one or multiple content elements. There are several additional special page types, including:
- shortcuts (they show content from another page)
- mount points (that insert a part of the page tree at the mount point)
- external URLs
- system folders (to handle complex data such as registered users)
Internally, TYPO3 is managed by various PHP arrays. They contain all the information necessary to generate HTML code from the content stored in the database. This is achieved by a unique configuration language called TypoScript.
Designing and developing with TYPO3 is commonly based on the following elements, among others:
- Page tree
- Representation of all pages of a site, their structure and properties
- System-wide configuration parameters
- Since TYPO3 6, the system runs on the templating engine Fluid. Fluid combines HTML markup with conditions and control structures. It can be extended by custom view helpers written in PHP.
- Until version 4.3, an HTML skeleton was used, with markers (e.g.,
###MARKER###) and range markers, called subparts (e.g.,
<!-- ###CONTENT### Start --> … <!-- ###CONTENT### End -->); that were replaced by various content elements or served as a subtemplate. This template system can still be found in older extensions or installations.
- TypoScript is a purely declarative configuration language. In Typoscript, configuration values are defined, which are parsed into a system-wide PHP array. TypoScript is object-based and organized in a tree-like structure.
- Additional plug-ins to enable additional functions. See Extensions
- As TYPO3 CMS is written in PHP, therefore most features can be modified or extended by experienced users. Mentionable here is the XCLASS mechanism, by which classes and methods can be overwritten and extended. If available, hooks are preferred.
Extensions are the cornerstone in the internal architecture of TYPO3. A feature that was introduced with version 3.5 in 2003 is the Extension Manager, a control center managing all TYPO3 extensions. The division between the TYPO3 core and the extensions is an important concept which determined the development of TYPO3 in the past years. Extensions are designed in a way so they can supplement the core seamlessly. This means that a TYPO3 system will appear as a unit while actually being composed of the core application and a set of extensions providing various features.
They can be downloaded from the online repository (TER) directly from the backend, and are installed and updated with a few clicks. Every extension is identified by a unique extension key (for example, tt_news). Also, developers can share new or modified extensions by uploading them to the repository.
Generally, extensions are written in PHP. The full command set of PHP 5.3 can be used (regarded the system requirements of the specific TYPO3 version), but TYPO3 also provides several library classes for better efficiency: Best known and most used is the piBase library class. With introduction of TYPO3 4.3 in 2009, piBase has been replaced (or extended) by the Extbase library, which is a modern, MVC-based development framework. To ensure backwards compatibility, both libraries can be used in the same TYPO3 installation. Extbase itself is a backport of some features of FLOW3, a general web application framework.
As it classifies as an enterprise CMS, many global companies and organisations base their web or intranet sites on TYPO3. The majority is based in German-speaking countries, such as the state of Saxony-Anhalt, the German Green Party, the University of Lucerne (Switzerland), the University of Vienna (Austria) and the Technical University of Berlin. International organisations running one or more TYPO3 sites are: Airbus, Konica-Minolta, Leica Microsystems, Air France, Greenpeace and Meda (Sweden).
|Legend:||Old version, not maintained||Older version, still maintained||Current stable version||Latest preview version||Future release|
|Branch||Version ||Release date||Major changes|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 3.0||2001||
|Old version, no longer maintained: 3.2||May 2002||
|Old version, no longer maintained: 3.3||3 June 2002|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 3.5||18 February 2003||
|Old version, no longer maintained: 3.6||30 April 2004|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 3.7||24 September 2004||
|Old version, no longer maintained: 3.8||23 May 2005|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 3.8.1||14 November 2005||
|4.x||Old version, no longer maintained: 4.0||7 April 2006|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 4.1||6 March 2007|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 4.2||24 May 2008||
|Old version, no longer maintained: 4.3||30 November 2009|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 4.4||22 June 2010|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 4.5 LTS||26 January 2011||
|Old version, no longer maintained: 4.6||25 October 2011|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 4.7||24 April 2012|
|6.x||Old version, no longer maintained: 6.0||27 November 2012|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 6.1||30 April 2013|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 6.2 LTS||25 March 2014||
|7.x||Old version, no longer maintained: 7.0||2 December 2014||
|Old version, no longer maintained: 7.4||4 August 2015||
|Old version, no longer maintained: 7.5||29 September 2015||
|Old version, no longer maintained: 7.6 LTS||10 November 2015||
|8.x||Old version, no longer maintained: 8.0||22 March 2016||
|Old version, no longer maintained: 8.1||3 May 2016||
|Old version, no longer maintained: 8.2||5 July 2016||
|Old version, no longer maintained: 8.3||30 August 2016||
|Old version, no longer maintained: 8.4||18 October 2016||
|Old version, no longer maintained: 8.5||20 December 2016||
|Old version, no longer maintained: 8.6||14 February 2017||
|Current stable version: 8.7 LTS||4 April 2017||
|9.x||Old version, no longer maintained: 9.0||12 December 2017||
|Old version, no longer maintained: 9.1||30 January 2018||
|Old version, no longer maintained: 9.2||10 April 2018||
|Old version, no longer maintained: 9.3||12 June 2018||
|Old version, no longer maintained: 9.4||4 September 2018||
|Current stable version: 9.5 LTS||2 October 2018||
|10.x||Old version, no longer maintained: 10.0||23 July 2019|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 10.1||1 October 2019|
|Current stable version: 10.2||3 December 2019|
|Future release: 10.3||25 February 2020|
|Future release: 10.4 LTS||21 April 2020||
A completely rewritten version (code-named "Phoenix") was originally planned as TYPO3 version 5.0. While working on this new release and analyzing the 10-year history and complexity of TYPO3 v4, the TYPO3 community decided to branch out version 5 as a completely separate product, one that wouldn't replace version 4 in the near future and as such needed to have its own name. Published as FLOW3, it along with various other packages then served as the basis for the start of development of project Phoenix.
In September 2012, the TYPO3 developers decided on the name for the new product, "TYPO3 Neos". With TYPO3 Neos 1.0 alpha1, a public test version was released in late 2012. In May 2015 the TYPO3 Association and the Neos team decided to go separate ways, with TYPO3 CMS remaining the only CMS product endorsed by the Association and the Neos team publishing Neos as a stand-alone CMS without any connection to the TYPO3 world.
In January 2017, Neos 3.0 has been published, along with a new version of Flow framework and a name change of its configuration language from TypoScript2 to Fusion
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- https://typo3.org/news/article/typo3-v81-tightening-the-screws/. Missing or empty
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- "Announcement of TYPO3 9.4 Release".
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- "TYPO3 Neos Alpha Releases". TYPO3 Association. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- "Change Log Neos 1.0.0 alpha2". TYPO3 Association. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- "Neos and TYPO3 split".
- "Neos 3.0 and Flow 4.0 Released". neos.io. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
- Michael Peacock – Building Websites with TYPO3 (Paperback) – ISBN 1-84719-111-8
- Michael Schams, Patrick Lobacher - TYPO3 Extbase: Modern Extension Development for TYPO3 CMS with Extbase & Fluid (Paberback) - ISBN 1-53053-417-8
- Rene Fritz, Daniel Hinderink, Werner Altmann – TYPO3: Enterprise Content Management (Paperback) – ISBN 1-904811-41-8
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to TYPO3.|
- Official Developer Resources
- Official website
- TYPO3 Forge - Git Repositories, SVN Repositories, Bugtracker, Documentation and Wiki for the TYPO3 Core and Extensions
- TYPO3 Wiki
- TYPO3 References Blog
- TYPO3 Videos for Editors (Series of 22 TYPO3 video tutorials to version 4.2) - supplemented by a TYPO3 test website