Django (web framework)
|Original author(s)||Adrian Holovaty, Simon Willison|
|Developer(s)||Django Software Foundation|
|Initial release||21 July 2005|
|Stable release||2.2.0 (1 April 2019 ) [±]|
|Preview release||2.2 rc1 (18 March 2019 ) [±]|
Django (// JANG-goh; stylised as django) is a Python-based free and open-source web framework, which follows the model-view-template (MVT) architectural pattern. It is maintained by the Django Software Foundation (DSF), an independent organization established as a 501(c)(3) non-profit.
Django's primary goal is to ease the creation of complex, database-driven websites. The framework emphasizes reusability and "pluggability" of components, less code, low coupling, rapid development, and the principle of don't repeat yourself. Python is used throughout, even for settings files and data models. Django also provides an optional administrative create, read, update and delete interface that is generated dynamically through introspection and configured via admin models.
Some well-known sites that use Django include the Public Broadcasting Service, Instagram, Mozilla, The Washington Times, Disqus, Bitbucket, and Nextdoor. It was used on Pinterest, but later the site moved to a framework built over Flask.
Django was created in the fall of 2003, when the web programmers at the Lawrence Journal-World newspaper, Adrian Holovaty and Simon Willison, began using Python to build applications. It was released publicly under a BSD license in July 2005. The framework was named after guitarist Django Reinhardt.
Despite having its own nomenclature, such as naming the callable objects generating the HTTP responses "views", the core Django framework can be seen as an MVC architecture. It consists of an object-relational mapper (ORM) that mediates between data models (defined as Python classes) and a relational database ("Model"), a system for processing HTTP requests with a web templating system ("View"), and a regular-expression-based URL dispatcher ("Controller").
Also included in the core framework are:
- a lightweight and standalone web server for development and testing
- a form serialization and validation system that can translate between HTML forms and values suitable for storage in the database
- a template system that utilizes the concept of inheritance borrowed from object-oriented programming
- a caching framework that can use any of several cache methods
- support for middleware classes that can intervene at various stages of request processing and carry out custom functions
- an internal dispatcher system that allows components of an application to communicate events to each other via pre-defined signals
- an internationalization system, including translations of Django's own components into a variety of languages
- a serialization system that can produce and read XML and/or JSON representations of Django model instances
- a system for extending the capabilities of the template engine
- an interface to Python's built-in unit test framework
The main Django distribution also bundles a number of applications in its "contrib" package, including:
- an extensible authentication system
- the dynamic administrative interface
- tools for generating RSS and Atom syndication feeds
- a "Sites" framework that allows one Django installation to run multiple websites, each with their own content and applications
- tools for generating Google Sitemaps
- built-in mitigation for cross-site request forgery, cross-site scripting, SQL injection, password cracking and other typical web attacks, most of them turned on by default
- a framework for creating GIS applications
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Django's configuration system allows third party code to be plugged into a regular project, provided that it follows the reusable app conventions. More than 2500 packages are available to extend the framework's original behavior, providing solutions to issues the original tool didn't tackle: registration, search, API provision and consumption, CMS, etc.
This extensibility is, however, mitigated by internal components' dependencies. While the Django philosophy implies loose coupling, the template filters and tags assume one engine implementation, and both the auth and admin bundled applications require the use of the internal ORM. None of these filters or bundled apps are mandatory to run a Django project, but reusable apps tend to depend on them, encouraging developers to keep using the official stack in order to benefit fully from the apps ecosystem.
Django can be run in conjunction with Apache, Nginx using WSGI, Gunicorn, or Cherokee using flup (a Python module). Django also includes the ability to launch a FastCGI server, enabling use behind any web server which supports FastCGI, such as Lighttpd or Hiawatha. It is also possible to use other WSGI-compliant web servers. Django officially supports four database backends: PostgreSQL, MySQL, SQLite, and Oracle. Microsoft SQL Server can be used with django-mssql on Microsoft operating systems, while similarly external backends exist for IBM Db2, SQL Anywhere and Firebird. There is a fork named django-nonrel, which supports NoSQL databases, such as MongoDB and Google App Engine's Datastore.
Django may also be run in conjunction with Jython on any Java EE application server such as GlassFish or JBoss. In this case django-jython must be installed in order to provide JDBC drivers for database connectivity, which also can provide functionality to compile Django in to a .war suitable for deployment.
The Django team will occasionally designate certain releases to be “long-term support” (LTS) releases. LTS releases will get security and data loss fixes applied for a guaranteed period of time, typically 3+ years, regardless of the pace of releases afterwards.
|Old version, no longer supported: 0.90||16 Nov 2005|
|Old version, no longer supported: 0.91||11 Jan 2006||"new-admin"|
|Old version, no longer supported: 0.95||29 Jul 2006||"magic removal"|
|Old version, no longer supported: 0.96||23 Mar 2007||"newforms", testing tools|
|Old version, no longer supported: 1.0||3 Sep 2008||API stability, decoupled admin, unicode|
|Old version, no longer supported: 1.1||29 Jul 2009||Aggregates, transaction based tests|
|Old version, no longer supported: 1.2||17 May 2010||Multiple db connections, CSRF, model validation|
|Old version, no longer supported: 1.3||23 Mar 2011||Class based views, staticfiles|
|Old version, no longer supported: 1.4 LTS||23 Mar 2012||Timezones, in browser testing, app templates.|
|Old version, no longer supported: 1.5||26 Feb 2013||Python 3 Support, configurable user model|
|Old version, no longer supported: 1.6||6 Nov 2013||Dedicated to Malcolm Tredinnick, db transaction management, connection pooling.|
|Old version, no longer supported: 1.7||2 Sep 2014||Migrations, application loading and configuration.|
|Old version, no longer supported: 1.8 LTS||1 Apr 2015||Native support for multiple template engines. Supported until at least April 2018|
|Old version, no longer supported: 1.9||1 Dec 2015||Automatic password validation. New styling for admin interface.|
|Old version, no longer supported: 1.10||1 Aug 2016||Full text search for PostgreSQL. New-style middleware.|
|Older version, yet still supported: 1.11 LTS||4 Apr 2017||Last version to support Python 2.7. Supported until at least April 2020|
|Old version, no longer supported: 2.0||2 Dec 2017||First Python 3-only release, Simplified URL routing syntax, Mobile friendly admin.|
|Old version, no longer supported: 2.1||1 Aug 2018||Model "view" permission.|
|Current stable version: 2.2 LTS||Apr 2019||Supported until at least April 2022|
|Future release: 3.0||Dec 2019|
|Future release: 3.1||Aug 2020|
|Future release: 3.2 LTS||Apr 2021||Supported until at least April 2024|
Development tools with Django support
For developing a Django project, no special tools are necessary, since the source code can be edited with any conventional text editor. Nevertheless, editors specialized on computer programming can help increase the productivity of development, e.g., with features such as syntax highlighting. Since Django is written in Python, text editors which are aware of Python syntax are beneficial in this regard.
Integrated development environments (IDE) add further functionality, such as debugging, refactoring, and unit testing. As with plain editors, IDEs with support for Python can be beneficial. Some IDEs that are specialized on Python additionally have integrated support for Django projects, so that using such an IDE when developing a Django project can help further increase productivity. For comparison of such Python IDEs, see the main article:
There is a semiannual conference for Django developers and users, named "DjangoCon", that has been held since September 2008. DjangoCon is held annually in Europe, in May or June; while another is held in the United States in August or September, in various cities. The 2012 DjangoCon took place in Washington, D.C., from 3 to 8 September. 2013 DjangoCon was held in Chicago at the Hyatt Regency Hotel and the post-conference Sprints were hosted at Digital Bootcamp, computer training center. The 2014 DjangoCon US returned to Portland, OR from 30 August to 6 September. The 2015 DjangoCon US was held in Austin, TX from 6 to 11 September at the AT&T Executive Center. The 2016 DjangoCon US was held in Philadelphia, PA at The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania from 17 to 22 July.The 2017 DjangoCon US was held in Spokane, WA; in 2018 DjangoCon US was held in San Diego, CA. DjangoCon US 2019, which takes place Sep 22-27, will be held again in San Diego, although this has not yet been officially announced on 2019.DjangoCon.US.
Ports to other languages
Programmers have ported Django's template design from Python to other languages, providing decent cross-platform support. Some of these options are more direct ports; others, though inspired by Django and retaining its concepts, take the liberty to deviate from Django's design:
- Liquid for Ruby
- Template::Swig for Perl
- Jinja for Python
- ErlyDTL for Erlang
- Roy Greenfeld, Daniel; Roy Greenfeld, Audrey (2015), Two Scoops of Django: Best Practices for Django 1.8 (3rd ed.), Two Scoops Press, p. 531, ISBN 0981467342
- Jaiswal, Sanjeev; Kumar, Ratan (22 June 2015), Learning Django Web Development (1st ed.), Packt, p. 405, ISBN 1783984406
- Ravindrun, Arun (31 March 2015), Django Design Patterns and Best Practices (1st ed.), Packt, p. 180, ISBN 1783986646
- Osborn, Tracy (May 2015), Hello Web App (1st ed.), Tracy Osborn, p. 142, ISBN 0986365912
- Bendoraitis, Aidas (October 2014), Web Development with Django Cookbook (1st ed.), Packt, p. 294, ISBN 178328689X
- Baumgartner, Peter; Malet, Yann (2015), High Performance Django (1st ed.), Lincoln Loop, p. 184, ISBN 1508748128
- Elman, Julia; Lavin, Mark (2014), Lightweight Django (1st ed.), O'Reilly Media, p. 246, ISBN 149194594X
- Percival, Harry (2014), Test-Driven Development with Python (1st ed.), O'Reilly Media, p. 480, ISBN 1449364829
This list is an extraction from Current Django Books
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- Gibson, Carlton (18 March 2019). "Django 2.2 release candidate 1 released". Django Weblog. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
- "Django Download". Retrieved 27 March 2019.
- "FAQ: General - Django documentation - Django". Retrieved 30 April 2016.
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- Adrian Holovaty, Jacob Kaplan-Moss; et al. The Django Book.
Django follows this MVC pattern closely enough that it can be called an MVC framework
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- DjangoCon EU series, Lanyrd.com
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- Shopify. "– Liquid template language". Liquid template language.
- "Template::Swig - Perl interface to Django-inspired Swig templating engine. - metacpan.org". metacpan.org.
- Symfony. "Home - Twig - The flexible, fast, and secure PHP template engine". twig.sensiolabs.org.
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- "Welcome - Jinja2 (The Python Template Engine)". jinja.pocoo.org.
- "erlydtl/erlydtl". GitHub.
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